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Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Grand Bouvier Suisse Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund Other names Great Swiss Mountain Dog Nicknames Swissy Country of origin Switzerland Traits Weight Male 100 to 130 lb (45 to 59 kg) Female 80 to 110 lb (36 to 50 kg) Height Male 25.5 to 28.5 in (65 to 72 cm) Female 23.5 to 27 in (60 to 69 cm) Coat double coat Color tri-color Litter size up to 18 Life span 8 to 11 years Classification and standards FCI Group 2 Section 3 #58 standard AKC Working standard CKC Working standard KC (UK) Working Dog [url=http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=3001&d=pg_dtl_art_news&h=238&f=0 standard] UKC Guardian Dogs standard Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog or Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund or Grand Bouvier Suisse is a dog breed which was developed in the Swiss Alps, Switzerland. The name Sennenhund refers to people called Senn or Senner, dairymen and herders in the Swiss Alps. The dogs are almost certainly the result of mating of indigenous dogs with large Mastiff-type dogs brought to Switzerland by foreign settlers. At one time these dogs were believed to have been among the most popular dogs in Switzerland. The breed was assumed to have almost died out by the late 19th century, as their work was being done by other breeds or machines, but they were rediscovered in the early 1900s. It is a large, heavy-boned dog with incredible physical strength. Despite being heavy-boned and well-muscled, the dog is agile enough to perform the all-purpose farm duties of the mountainous regions of its origin. The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Standard calls for a black, white and rust colored coat. These are big dogs. This breed is a sociable, active, calm and dignified dog, and loves being part of the family. This breed is relatively healthy for its size; Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs have far fewer problems than more popular breeds in the similar size range. The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is considered the oldest of the four Swiss breeds. It is the largest of the four Sennenhund breeds; all four have the same colors and markings but are different sizes. Contents 1 History 1.1 Breed history 1.2 Selective breeding 1.3 Renewal of breed 1.3.1 Prevailing theory 1.3.2 Another theory 1.3.3 Development in the 20th century 2 Appearance 2.1 Coat 2.2 Size 2.3 Conformation 2.3.1 Head 2.3.2 Neck, Topline and Body 2.3.3 Forequarters 2.3.4 Hindquarters 2.3.5 Gait 3 Temperament 4 Health 4.1 Urinary Incontinence 4.2 Eyelash issues 4.3 Lick fit 4.4 Epilepsy 4.5 Abdominal health issues 4.6 Dysplasias 5 Lifespan 6 Kennel club and pet registry recognition 7 Four breeds of Sennenhund 8 Similar breeds 9 See also 10 References 11 External links // History Breed history A painting of an Alpine Mastiff which was brought to Britain in 1815. The origin of the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is not definitely known.[1] The Swiss people themselves cannot be clearly defined as belonging exclusively to one of the European tribes; they are inhabitants of a typical transit country.[1] Likewise, the Swiss mountain dogs are probably the result of original farm dogs mating with passing dogs of warriors and travelers.[1] For three centuries beginning in 1515, the remote valleys of Switzerland were more or less isolated from world history, and specific breeds of dogs were created by inbreeding – puppies were given to neighbors and family members.[1] The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog was developed in the Swiss Alps, Switzerland;[2] there are several theories regarding the origins of the Swiss Sennenhund breeds.[3] The most popular theory states the dogs are descended from the Molosser, a large Mastiff-type dog, which accompanied the Roman Legions on their invasion of the Alps[3] more than 2000 years ago.[2] A second theory is that about 1100 B.C. the Phoenicians brought a large breed of dog with them to settlements in Spain, and that these dogs later migrated eastward to influence the development of the Spanish Mastiff, Great Pyrenees, Dogue de Bordeaux and large Swiss breeds.[3] A third possibility is that a large breed was indigenous to central Europe back in the Neolithic Period[3] – when humans used wild and domestic crops, as well as domesticated animals. Whether or not a domesticated large breed existed in the Alpine area when the Romans invaded,[3] Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs are almost certainly the result of the mating of indigenous dogs with large Mastiff-type dogs brought to Switzerland by foreign settlers. The early ancestors of the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog were used by farmers, herdsmen and merchants in central Europe.[3] The breed was bred as a draft dog to pull heavy carts, to guard and move dairy cattle, and as a watchdog and family companion.[3] Selective breeding This double team of Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs have collar harnesses, with the shaft between their legs; the driver is in the wagon. Selective breeding was based on a dog's ability to perform a particular function, such as pulling loads or guarding.[3] The Swiss farmer needed a strong, multi-purpose dog capable of contributing to daily life on the farm.[3] Large, sturdy and confident, the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is a draft and drover breed – robust and agile enough to perform farm work in very mountainous regions.[4] The breed was also used as a butcher's dog; the breed had been "popular with butchers, cattle dealers, manual workers and farmers, who used them as guard dogs, droving or draught dogs and bred them as such."[5] The breed is a very alert, strong and athletic dog who can out-power most breeds of dog.[3] Their popularity as a draft dog led to the nickname, "the poor man's horse."[2] By the 19th century, the ancestors of the modern Greater Swiss Mountain Dog were widely used in central Europe by farmers and tradesmen.[3] Renewal of breed Prevailing theory Bello v Schlossgut, SSB 3965 – first shown in 1908. Professor Doctor Albert Heim Most of the breed standard sources and other sources have the information in this section about the history of the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog's rescue from extinction. At one time these dogs were believed to have been among the most popular dogs in Switzerland.[3] The breed was assumed to have almost died out by the late 19th century, as their work was being done by other breeds or machines, but they were rediscovered in the early 1900s.[4] On the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Swiss Kennel Club (Schweizerische Kynologische Gesellschaft or SKG) in 1908, two short-haired Bernese Mountain Dogs were shown by Franz Schertenlieb (also spelled Schertenleib) to an advocate of the Swiss mountain dogs, geology Professor Albert Heim (April 12, 1849 – August 31, 1937).[6] Heim recognized them as representatives of the old, vanishing, large mountain dog, whose ancestors had been widely spread across Europe, and bred as guard-, draught- and droving-cattle dogs.[6] Heim was an expert of Sennenhund breeds, and began to encourage breeders to take an interest in them; his efforts resulted in the re-establishment of the breed.[2] The dogs were recognised as a separate breed by the SKG in 1909 and entered as "Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund" in Volume 12 of the Swiss stud book.[6] The first breed club was formed in 1912 to promote this breed and keep it purebred.[5] The Bernese Mountain Dog and the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog are two of four distinctive farm-type dogs of Swiss origin who were saved from extinction and revitalized by the Schertenlieb in the late 1800s.[7] Another theory Barri von Herzogbuchee, Swiss Studbook SSB 4520; one of the founding fathers of the breed, first shown in 1909. There is no written information about the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog before 1907; he did not exist as a breed.[1] Until 1913 written mention is only in reports by exhibition judges; written mainly by Professor Dr. Albert Heim, who is credited with introducing them into official dog breeding.[1] Heim was sure that the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog was the most widely kept dog in the mountain areas of Switzerland between 1860 and 1870.[1] By the end of the century the breed is supposed to have disappeared.[1] Hans Raber doubts the dog would have disappeared by 1900.[1] If this dog was common around 1870, it is difficult to believe that 30 years later it could be found only in remote Bern valleys.[1] A well-known and working dog cannot disappear in such a short time, especially if he had the good qualities he was known for.[1] Systematic breeding did not occur.[1] It is difficult to imagine that a farmer would take his in-season female to a specially selected male; breeding was left to chance.[1] From the litter – Swiss Mountain dogs can have litters of up to 18 puppies – those who were likeable and looked suitable were chosen.[1] Because of strict selection and puppies that were normally kept in the neighborhood, there was a stability in resemblance and character.[1] Practical use dictated appearance; the dog had to have an impressive size, he had to tolerate bad weather, be of steady temperament and not eat too much.[1] It isn't known how much attention was given to colors; it could be that the evenly marked, or the tri-colored dog was preferred over the irregularly marked dog.[1] Heim says that the big butcher dogs – Metzgerhund – disappeared when foreign dogs were imported.[1] Raber questions if farmers would get a foreign dog, especially if it cost money.[1] The Swiss mountain dog could not have disappeared by 1900.[1] Heim does not answer to what kind of dog farmers used in 1900; he mentions mongrels – the Sennenhunde in 1860 were mongrels.[1] In 1889 an International Dog Show was held in Winterthur, northern Switzerland; various Sennenhunds were exhibited.[8] Raber is sure the dogs were present in 1900 as draft dogs for peddlers and people going to market, watch dogs for farmers and drover’s dog for butchers; they were rarely tri-colored.[1] Everywhere the dogs had short, rough coats; nearly all were brown, yellow or black with white and brown markings.[1] Lons’ description of the northern and central German butcher dog also fits the Sennenhunde at the beginning of pure breeding; this applies to the Austrian butcher dog of Linz, and the French and Belgian Matin.[1] It is to their credit that Heim and Schertenleib selected one variation of the butcher dog – possible the most beautiful – and started it on the road to a pure breed.[1] In 1908 the Swiss mountain dog appeared for the first time in public.[1] At a show in Langenthal, Switzerland, Franz Schertenleib – a breeder of the Berner – showed an extraordinarily strong, short-haired Berner Sennenhund.[1] He had seen this dog and bought him as an oddity.[1] He was eager to hear what the Langenthal judge, Professor Heim, would say about this short-haired Berner.[1] Bello vom Schlossgut was beautifully marked, 26 in (66 cm) high, sturdy, and with attractive colors.[1] Heim's first look saw the possibility of a new breed of Sennenhunde.[1] He remembered having seen similar dogs in the 1860s in various parts of Switzerland.[1] He said to Schertenleib, "The dog belongs in a different category; he is too gorgeous and thoroughbred to push him aside as a poor example of a Berner. He is an example of the old-time, almost extinct, butcher dog."[1] Heim wrote in his judge’s notes: "Bello is a marvelous, old Sennen (Butcher) hund of the large, almost extinct breed. Had he been entered under "other breeds" I would have recognized him as grossen Sennenhund and awarded him first prize with pleasure. Since he was entered among the Durrbachs, I cannot give this interesting dog more than second prize. This dog is out of place here."[1] Heim gave Bello the name Grosse Schweizer Sennenhund and dismissed the first representative of a newly named breed from the ring.[1] Heim wrote the first standard based on Bello, and Schertenleib started to search for other members of the new breed.[1] He found two short-haired bitches and breeding began.[1] The first Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs were stockier and rougher than the modern dogs; the skulls were wider than desirable today and showed a marked stop.[1] Judging from old pictures, the coloring was bad; the black coat was mixed with yellow wool at the neck, flanks and rear.[1] Development in the 20th century Throughout the early 20th century, the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog population in Europe grew slowly, and it remains a rare breed both in its native Switzerland and the U.S.[3] During World War II the breed was used by the Swiss Army as a draft dog.[3] In 1945 over 100 puppies were registered, indicating the existence of about 350-400 dogs of the breed at that time.[5] The breed was first recognised internationally in 1939, when the Swiss Standard was first published by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale.[6] In 1968 J. Frederick and Patricia Hoffman imported the first Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs to the U.S.[3] The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Club of America was formed; the club promotes careful, selective breeding to gradually increase the strength and popularity of the breed.[3] In 1983 the club held the first Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Club of America (GSMDCA) National Specialty; the club registry contained 257 dogs.[3] In 1985 the breed was granted entrance to the American Kennel Club (AKC) Miscellaneous Group.[3] In 1992 the GSMDCA started to work toward full AKC recognition, and in July 1995 the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog was officially granted full recognition in the AKC Working Group.[3] Appearance The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is a draft and drover breed;[4] it is a large, heavy-boned dog with incredible physical strength.[3] Despite being heavy-boned and well-muscled, the dog is agile enough to perform the all-purpose farm duties of the mountainous regions of its origin.[4] Coat Desired coloration There is black on top of the dog's back, ears, tail and the majority of the legs.[6] There should be rust on the cheeks, a thumb print above the eyes, and also rust should appear on the legs between the white and black.[6] There should be white on the muzzle, the feet, the tip of the tail, on the chest, and up from the muzzle to pass between the eyes.[6] Symmetrical markings are preferred by breeders.[2] The double coat has a dense outer coat of about 1.25 to 2 in (3.2 to 5.1 cm) long.[2] Textures of the topcoat can range from short, straight and fine to longer, wavier and coarser.[3] The under coat is thick and ranges from the preferred dark gray to light gray to tawny, and must be on the neck, but can be all over the body[4] – with such an thick coat, Sennenhund shed throughout the year and they have a major shedding once or twice a year.[9]:5 While the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Standard calls for a black, white and rust dog; they do come in other colors which include blue, white and tan tri-color; and rust and white bi-color.[3] On the blue tri-color dogs, blue replaces where black would be and tan replaces where the rust would normally be.[3] On the rust bi-color dogs, the dog is solid rust and white markings with a total absence of black coloring.[3] Size Males range between 25.5 to 28.5 in (65 to 72 cm) at the shoulder and females range between 23.5 to 27 in (60 to 69 cm) at the shoulder.[3] There is no standard for weight in the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog; males tend to range between 100 to 140 lb (45 to 64 kg) and females range between 80 to 115 lb (36 to 52 kg).[3] Body length to height is approximately a 10 to 9 proportion; they are slightly longer than tall.[4] Conformation 1.Stop 2.Snout (teeth, tongue) 3.Dewlap (throat, neck skin) 4.Shoulder 5.Elbow 6.Forefeet 7.Highest Point of the Rump 8.Leg (thigh and hip) 9.Hock 10.Hind feet 11.Withers 12.Stifle 13.Paws 14.Tail Head Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs have an animated and gentle expression.[4] Their eyes are almond shaped, vary in color from hazel to chestnut[2] – dark brown is preferred – medium-sized, and neither deep set nor protruding.[4] Eyelids are close fitting and eyerims are black.[4] The medium-sized ears are set high, triangular in shape, gently rounded at the tip and hang close to the head when relaxed.[4] When alert, the ears are brought forward and raised at the base.[4] The top of the ear is level with the top of the skull.[4] The skull is flat and broad with a slight stop.[4] The backskull and muzzle are approximately equal in length; the backskull is approximately twice the width of the muzzle.[4] The muzzle is large, blunt and straight, and most often has a slight rise before the end.[4] In adult dogs the nose leather is always black.[4] The lips are clean and as a dry-mouthed breed, flews are only slightly developed.[4] They should not drool.[3] The teeth meet in a scissors bite.[4] Neck, Topline and Body This Greater Swiss Mountain Dog has a fine, straight coat, a properly hanging tail and the desired level back. The neck is of moderate length, strong, muscular and clean.[4] The topline is level from the withers to the croup[4] – the croup is the fused sacral vertebrae that form the roof of the pelvis and the first few vertebrae of the tail.[10] The croup is long, broad and smoothly rounded to the tail insertion.[4] The tail is thicker at the base, tapering to a point as it reaches the hocks;[2] it is carried down in repose.[4] When alert and in movement, the tail may be carried higher and curved slightly upward; it should not curl over the back.[4] The bones of the tail should be straight.[4] The chest is deep and broad with a slightly protruding breastbone, with well-sprung ribs.[4] The depth of the chest is approximately one-half the height of the dog at the withers,[4] and the deepest point of the chest should lie between the elbows, not above them.[3] Forequarters This Greater Swiss Mountain Dog has strong, well-muscled shoulders; straight, strong forelegs; slightly sloping pasterns and well-rounded feet. The shoulders of a Greater Swiss Mountain Dog are long, sloping, strong, moderately laid back, flat and well-muscled.[4] Their forelegs are straight and strong.[4] A dog walks on its toes like a horse does; a dog's pastern and paws are analogous to the back of a human's hand and fingers, respectfully.[11] The pasterns slope very slightly, but are not weak.[4] Feet are round and compact with well-arched toes; the feet turn neither in nor out.[4] Hindquarters The thighs are broad, strong and muscular;[4] broad, strong and muscular hindquarters, and proper angles between the stifles and hocks are essential for a draft dog to provide powerful rear-drive during movement.[3] The breed standard 'bend of stifle' refers to where the upper and the lower thighs meet.[12] The stifles are moderately bent and taper smoothly into the hocks.[4] The hocks are well let down and straight when viewed from the rear.[4] The hock joint corresponds to the human ankle and first short bones in the foot; the dog does not walk on the heel as people do.[13] Feet are round and compact with well-arched toes; they turn neither in nor out.[4] Dewclaws should be removed.[4] Gait The gait of the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog should have movement with a level back.[14] Their gait should have good reach in front with a powerful drive in the rear.[14] Soundness, balance and efficiency which accompany correct structure and good condition are crucial factors in their movement, not speed.[3] Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs were bred to work all day on a farm and need stamina.[3] They are a large breed; because of their history as farm dogs in mountainous terrain, they are extremely agile and this is apparent in their gait.[14] Temperament One dog sport is carting. (Not a Greater Swiss Mountain Dog) The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is happy with an enthusiastic nature and strong affinity to people and children.[3] This breed is sociable, active, calm and dignified.[15] They do need plenty of room to exercise.[15] They will not be happy confined to kennel life; they want to enjoy their family.[2] They crave attention and physical contact.[3] Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs are bold, faithful and willing workers[4] and are eager to please.[2] The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is confident in nature; the breed is gentle with children.[3] He can be stubborn and determined.[15] The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is an intelligent breed and is a quick learner.[15] He can be difficult to housebreak, and tends to try and eat just about anything, edible or not.[15] The activity level in the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is variable.[3] They are capable of being athletic, but usually that activity is in bursts; they are active for short periods of time followed by napping.[3] They want to be with their owners and to participate; their activity level most often matches the activity level of the family.[3] As a working dog, they like having a job to do and enjoy participating in hiking, carting, obedience trials, herding, weight pulling and backpacking with their owners.[4] Being alert and vigilant,[4] the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is a good watchdog.[3] They tend to notice everything in their surroundings and are quick to sound alarm.[3] Faced with a threat they will stand their ground and put on a show that will intimidate those unfamiliar with the dog.[3] Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs are accepting of a non-threatening stranger.[3] They are confident and comfortable in unfamiliar locations, and are stable around strange noises and unfamiliar people.[3] They are accepting of other dogs and species, and are reluctant to bite.[3] This giant breed matures slowly in both mind and body, taking anywhere from 2 to 3 years.[2] The objective in training this dog is for the owner to achieve pack leader status.[2] As youngsters, they can be quite boisterous and they do require steady and reliable training to develop manners and physical self-control.[3] As with all large, active working dogs this breed should be well socialized early in life with other dogs and people, and be provided with regular activity and training.[3] Health For the most part, this breed is relatively healthy for their size; Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs have far fewer problems than more populous breeds in the similar size range.[3] Urinary Incontinence Urinary Incontinence (UI) is defined as involuntary urination, and most often occurs in Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs as leaking of urine while sleeping; it is a non-life threatening condition.[3] It seems that more than 20% of the females are affected, usually after being spayed.[3] Incontinence is occasionally found in males as well.[3] Incontinence can occur for many reasons, such as a weak bladder sphincter – generally the most common cause in Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs – urinary tract infection, excessive water consumption, congenital structural defects and spinal cord disease.[3] Eyelash issues The two most common eye issues that Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs face are distichiasis and entropian, with distichiasis being the most common issue.[3] Distichiasis is the presence of extra eyelashes along the eyelid.[3] Distichiasis has been reported in 19%, of the breed and in the vast majority of cases it is non-symptomatic and does not cause an issue for the dog.[3] Extra eyelashes can be seen along the eyelid; sometimes extra eyelashes grow so that they irritate the eye.[3] Treatment varies from vet to vet, some choosing to freeze the affected hair follicles and others choosing to use electrocautery.[3] Entropian – found in about 3% of the breed – is the rolling in of the eyelids, which causes the eyelashes to irritate the eye.[3] Entropian is a condition that often requires surgery to fix, but once corrected causes no future issues for the dog.[3] Lick fit Lick fit is a term use to describe the frantic licking that Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs can be prone to.[3] This has been reported in 17% of the breed.[3] When in the middle of a lick fit, the dog will lick anything they can – carpet, floors, walls – and will eat anything they can find – grass, leaves, dirt, carpet – and will gulp air and swallow constantly.[3] Their actions make it obvious they are in severe gastrointestinal discomfort.[3] Many owners are able to prevent lick fits by ensuring the dog never has an empty stomach by frequent, smaller meals and large dog biscuits as between meal snacks.[3] Epilepsy Ideopathic Epilepsy (IE) is the condition of frequent seizures with no identifiable cause.[3] Seizures occur when nerve cells in the brain become hyperexited and send rapid-fire messages to the body.[3] Treatment of IE depends on the severity of the case and may involve daily administration of anticonvulsant drugs.[3] IE is present in all Greater Swiss Mountain Dog lines; it typically surfaces between the ages of 1 to 3 years, but it can become evident as early as 12 months and as late as 5 years.[3] The median age of death from epilepsy in the breed is 3.75 years.[16] Canine genetics researcher, Dr. George Padgett, recently concluded that at least 39% of Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs carry the genes to produce epilepsy.[16] Abdominal health issues Bloat – gastric dilitation-volvulous (GDV) – is the greatest killer of the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog.[3] GDV occurs in deep-chested breeds and requires immediate veterinary care.[3] It can be caused by wolfing down too much water, too much food too fast, exercise after eating, stress or unknown conditions.[3] Symptoms are distended abdomen, excessive salivating, depression and lethargy.[3] When bloat occurs it cuts off the esophagus, and blood supply to the heart is lessened causing low blood pressure as well as other cardiac problems; the dog can go into shock.[3] Organ damage can occur as well and the stomach may rupture causing peritonitis to set in.[3] If not treated, the dog may die.[3] The spleen is located in the left cranial abdomen and is held loosely in place by ligaments.[17]:1 Primary diseases of the spleen are splenic torsion and splenic tumors.[17]:2 Splenic torsion occurs when the spleen twists along the axis of the blood supply.[17]:2 Symptoms of splenic torsion include lethargy, abdominal distension and pale mucous membranes.[17]:2 One theory for the development of splenic torsion is that for dogs with chronic intermittent gastric dilatation, the dilation causes the spleen's ligaments to stretch and increases the spleen’s mobility within the abdomen.[17]:8 The spleen becomes torsed because it is no longer anchored in its correct location.[17]:8 In a normal Greater Swiss Mountain Dog the spleen is smooth and uncreased; it is about 6 to 8 in (15 to 20 cm) by 2 in (5.1 cm), and less than 1 in (2.5 cm) thick.[3] Most of the spleens removed from Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs are 18 to 24 in (46 to 61 cm) by 8 to 10 in (20 to 25 cm) and very thick.[3] This size spleen is not an abnormal finding in this breed.[3] It seems apparent that many dogs of the breed suffer enlarged spleens for no obvious reason other than the spleen may have been constantly twisting, folding and unfolding.[3] Dysplasias Thigh muscular atrophy of dog with hip dispasia Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is the irregular formation of the joint that joins the femur – the longest bone in the body – to the hip socket.[3] The hip is a ball-and-socket joint and the femoral head must fit well into the socket for the joint to function properly.[3] Early signs of CHD include a reluctance to go up and down stairs or to jump; difficulty rising or laying down; and bunny hopping when running – both hind limbs move together.[3] CHD is among the principal orthopedic diseases in the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog; it is rarely severe and crippling.[3] Unless x-rays are taken many owners are not aware that they have a dysplastic dog.[3] A goal for raising a Greater Swiss Mountain Dog from puppyhood is to feed them so they mature more slowly than smaller breeds to help avoid hip and other orthopedic problems in adulthood.[18] The form of Canine Elbow Dysplasia most often diagnosed in Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs appears to be a degerative joint disease – a slowly progressive form of cartilage degeneration usually caused by trauma or abnormal wear on the joint.[3] Evidence suggests that most dogs of this breed diagnosed with degenerative joint disease by x-rays of the elbows have the mildest form Grade I.[3] They don't display clinical signs such as pain, stiffness, decreased range of motion or lameness.[3] Osteochondrosis is a disturbance in the normal development of cartilage; cartilage becomes abnormally thickened, and small fissures and cracks may develop.[3] Dissecans is when cartilage becomes dissected resulting in cartilage flaps, which may remain attached or become loose and fall into the joint space.[3] In Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs most of these cases occur in the shoulder joints and occasionally in elbows and hocks.[3] Except for very mild cases without flap development, the clinical signs are persistent or intermittent lameness.[3] The dog may be stiff after resting and the lameness is usually aggravated by exercise.[3] It is diagnosed by x-rays, and treatment depends on the severity of the case.[3] Mild cases without cartilage flaps may be treated and heal with several weeks of rest and treatment with medication and supplements.[3] Many cases require surgery to remove the flaps and loose fragments, and scraping and smoothing of the defective surface.[3] Surgical repair of the shoulder usually has excellent results, surgical results involving other sites are not as predictable.[3] Lifespan Heavier dogs, such as the Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs, tend to have shorter lifespans than medium- and small-sized dogs;[19] longevity is inversely related to breed size.[20] Two web sites list the life expectancy for Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs at 10 to 11 years;[2][21] another lists it as 8–10 years.[15] Dog lifespans may vary in different countries, even in the same breed.[22] Kennel club and pet registry recognition The Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund, or Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, is recognised internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI).[6] They are in Group 2, Section 3 Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs; standards are dated March 25, 2003.[6] The first standard was published not before February 5, 1939.[6] The American Kennel Club (AKC) fully recognized the breed in 1995,[4] and classifies them in the Working Group.[23] The Canadian Kennel Club recognized the breed in 2006, and also places the breed in the Working Group.[24] The United Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1992; they place the breed in the Guardian Dog Group.[25] The Kennel Club, based in the United Kingdom, classifies the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog in the Working Group.[26] The Continental Kennel Club (CKC) lists the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog and provides minimal information about the breed.[27] The America's Pet Registry Inc. (APRI) does have a classified ad section for Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs.[28] The American Canine Registry (ACR) lists the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog as an acceptable breed under their American Canine Registry section.[29] As of May 2010 the breed is not recognised by the New Zealand Kennel Club or the Australian National Kennel Council. Four breeds of Sennenhund Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Bernese Mountain Dog Appenzeller Mountain Dog Entlebucher Mountain Dog The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is considered the oldest of the Swiss breeds.[3] It is the largest of the four Sennenhund breeds; all four have the same colors and markings but are different sizes.[2] Evolutionary hierarchy suggests breeds should genetically cluster into groups sharing recent common ancestry.[30] A genetic clustering algorithm could not easily distinguish between the obviously related pairs of Greater Swiss Mountain Dog and the Bernese Mountain Dog.[30] The four breeds of Sennenhund, with the original breed name followed by the most popular English version of the breed name, and their size: Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. Males range between 25.5 to 28.5 inches (65 to 72 cm) at the shoulder and females range between 23.5 to 27 in (60 to 69 cm) at the shoulder.[3] There is no standard for weight in the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog; males tend to weigh between 100 to 140 lb (45 to 64 kg) and females weigh between 80 to 115 lb (36 to 52 kg).[3] Berner Sennenhund, Bernese Mountain Dog. This is the only one of the four with a long coat; it is the second-largest with males at 25 to 27.5 in (63 to 70 cm) high and 90 to 130 lb (41 to 59 kg).[9]:6 Females are 23 to 26 in (58 to 66 cm) tall and weigh 75 to 100 lb (34 to 45 kg).[9]:6 Appenzeller Sennenhund, Appenzeller Mountain Dog. Males are 22 to 23 in (56 to 58 cm) tall and weighs 49 to 70 lb (22 to 32 kg).[31] Females are 18 to 20 in (46 to 51 cm) tall.[31] Entlebucher Sennenhund, Entlebucher Mountain Dog. Males are 17 to 21 in (43 to 53 cm) tall, and females are 16 to 20 in (41 to 51 cm).[32] They weigh 55 to 66 lb (25 to 30 kg).[33] Similar breeds In addition to the three breeds mentioned in the previous section, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs are related to other mountain dogs: Boxers, Bullmastiffs, Doberman Pinschers, Great Danes, Great Pyrenees, Komondors, Kuvaszes and Mastiffs.[34] The breed probably contributed to the development of the St. Bernard and the Rottweiler.[35] See also Breed group (dog) Carting References ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Raber, Hans (1971). Die Schweizer Hunderassen. p. Chapter 6 (revised) History of the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. http://www.shadetreegreaterswiss.com/history.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Greater Swiss Mountain Dog". Dog Breed Info Center. http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/greaterswissmountain.htm. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs Wallace, Anna. The Beginner's Guide to the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Club of America. http://gsmdca.homestead.com?BareedInformation/BeginnersGuide.html. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am "AKC Meet the Breeds: Greater Swiss Mountain Dog". America Kennel Club. http://www.akc.org/breeds/greater_swiss_mountain_dog/. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ a b c Great Swiss Mountain Dog, Vertebrate Animals Department, Naturhistoriches Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern (in English) ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fédération Cynologique Internationale for Dogs Worldwide. http://www.fci.be/nomenclature.aspx. Retrieved May 4, 2010.  ^ Ostrander, Elaine A. (2007). The Dog and its Genome. p. 141. ISBN 0879697814, 9780879697815. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=94k1mKRcYd0C&oi=fnd&pg=PA141&dq=%22greater+swiss+mountain+dog%22%22&ots=VHPtBPkYSK&sig=fnJB36mo7brRia=ZqzDcuv)f2Q0#1v=onepage&q=%22greater%20swiss%20mountain%20dog%22%22&f=false. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ Origin and Historical Background of Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs. Greater Swiss Mountain.Com. (Report). Retrieved May 5, 2010. ^ a b c Riggsbee, Nikki (2007). Bernese Mountain Dogs: Everything About Purchase, Care, Nutrition, Behavior, and Training. Barron's Complete Pet Owner's Manual. ISBN 0764135929, 9780764135927. http://book.google.com/books?id=4SfJF-599b0C&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ Shaw MBA, Linda (2003) The Hindquarters. (Report). Retrieved April 30, 2010. ^ "Canine feet". Dog Owner's Guide. http://www.canismajor.com/dog/feet.html. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ Lanting, Fred Canine Consulting (2001) The Stifles. (Report). Retrieved April 30, 2010. ^ Lanting, Fred Canine Consulting (1995) Orthopedic Problems in Hocks. (Report). Retrieved April 30, 2010. ^ a b c "Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs". http://www.terrificpets.com/dog_breeds/greater_swiss_mountain_dog.asp. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f "Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Information". JustDogBreeds.com. http://www.justdogbreeds.com/greater-swiss-mountain-dog.html. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ a b Conant, Karen Epilepsy and the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. First published in the Jan 2004 issue of the AKC Gazette. (Report). Retrieved May 5, 2010. ^ a b c d e f Perkins, Ranetta (2009) Splenic Torsion in a 3 year old male intact Greater Swiss Mountain dog. (Report). Retrieved May 1, 2010. ^ Dodman, Nicholas H.; Lindner, Lawrence (2007). Puppy's First Steps: The Whole-Dog Approach to Raising a Happy, Healthy, Well-Behaved Puppy. ISBN 0618663045, 9780618663040. http://books.google.com/books?id=u9zkb8Q-iGUC&dq=%22greater+swiss+mountain+dog%22&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ Dog Longevity Kelly M. Cassidy, 2007 ^ Chase, Kevin; Jones, Paul; Martin, Alan; Ostrander, Elaine A.author5=Lark, Karl G. (March 25, 2009). "Genetic Mapping of Fixed Phenotypes: Disease Frequency as a Breed Characteristic". Journal of Heredity. doi:10.1093/jhered/esp011. http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/suppl_1/S37. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ "Greater Swiss Mountain Dog". http://puppydogweb.com/caninebreeds/greaterswissmountaindog.htm. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ Dog Longevity Survey Comparisons by Dr. Kelly M. Cassidy, 2007 ^ Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Hollis, Karen L. (May 2008). Cognition in Domestic Dogs: Object Permanence & Social Cueing Cognition in domestic dogs. 70. The American Biology Teacher. http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:xp6SVCA9r-sJ:scholar.google.com/+%22greater+swiss+mountain+dog%22%22&hl=en&as_sdt=800000000. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ Canadian Kennel Club. http://www.ckc.ca/en/Portals/0/pdf/breeds/GSM.pdf. Retrieved May 3, 2010.  ^ United Kennel Club. http://www.ukcdogs.com/WebSite.nsf/Breeds/GreaterSwissMountainDogRevisedMay12008. Retrieved May 3, 2010.  ^ The Kennel Club. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=3001&d=pg_dtl_art_news&h=238&f=0. Retrieved May 3, 2010.  ^ Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. Continental Kennel Club. http://www.continentalkennelclub.com?Ads.aspx?BreedNum=757. Retrieved May 5, 2010.  ^ Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. America's Pet Registry, Inc.. (Report). Retrieved May 5, 2010. ^ Welcome to the American Canine Registry, Home on the Web. (Report). Retrieved May 5, 2010. ^ a b (2005) The canine genome. Genome Research. (Report). Retrieved May 1, 2010. ^ a b Appenzell Mountain Dog (Appenzeller Sennenhund) (Appenzell Cattle Dog). Dog Breed Info Center. http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/appenzell.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2010.  ^ AKC Parent Breed Club for the Entlebucher Mountain Dog. p. Breed Standard. http://www.nemda.org/BreedInformation/BreedStandard/tabid/79/Default.aspx. Retrieved May 5, 2010.  ^ Entlebucher Sennenhund (Entlebucher Sennehund) (Entelbuch Mountain Dog) (Entlebuch Cattle Dog) Entlebucher). Dog Breed Info Center. http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/entlebucher.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2010.  ^ Adopt a Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. Petfinder. http://www.petfinder.com/dog-breeds/Greater-Swiss-Mountain-Dog. Retrieved May 5, 2010.  ^ Marien-de Luca, Catherine. Swiss Mountain Dogs (Sennenhund Breeds) Appenzell Mountain Dog, Bernese Mountain Dog, Entlebuch Mountain Dog, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. Bulldoginformation.com. http://dogbreeds.bulldoginformation.com/swiss-mountain-dogs.html. Retrieved May 5, 2010.  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund Historical photos of the Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund from the Bern Naturaidogsarebad History Museum More information about geologist and indigenous Swiss dog breeds advocate Albert Heim (1849-1937), including a photo with Swiss Mountain Dogs in 1929 (in German) Genetics of tricolour coats, KG DMOZ links to more information about the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog v • d • e Major dog sports Agility · Carting · Conformation shows · Disc dog · Dock jumping · Dogsled racing · Earthdog trials · Field trials · Flyball · Greyhound racing · Junior Showmanship · Lure coursing · Musical canine freestyle · Mushing · Obedience · Rally obedience · Schutzhund · Service Dogs Of America · Sheepdog trials · Skijoring  · Tracking  · Weight pulling v • d • e Breeds of pastoral dog Herding and droving dogs Australian Cattle Dog · Australian Kelpie · Australian Shepherd · Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog · Basque Shepherd Dog · Bearded Collie · Beauceron · Belgian Shepherd Dog (Groenendael) · Belgian Shepherd Dog (Laekenois) · Belgian Shepherd Dog (Malinois) · Belgian Shepherd Dog (Tervuren) · Bergamasco · Berger Picard · Blue Lacy · Border Collie · Bouvier des Flandres · Briard · Canaan Dog · Cão da Serra de Aires · Catahoula Bulldog · Catahoula Leopard Dog · Catalan Sheepdog · Collie (Rough) · Collie (Smooth) · Croatian Sheepdog · Dutch Shepherd Dog · English Shepherd · Farm Collie · Galician Palleiro Dog · German Shepherd Dog · Greater Swiss Mountain Dog · Icelandic Sheepdog · Koolie · Lancashire Heeler · Lapponian Herder · McNab · Miniature Australian Shepherd · Mudi · New Zealand Huntaway · Old English Sheepdog · Polish Lowland Sheepdog · Puli · Pumi · Pyrenean Shepherd · Shetland Sheepdog · Spanish Water Dog · Welsh Corgi (Cardigan) · Welsh Corgi (Pembroke) · Welsh Sheepdog · White Shepherd Dog Livestock guardian dogs Akbash Dog · Anatolian Shepherd Dog · Bucovina Shepherd Dog · Bernese Mountain Dog · Cão de Castro Laboreiro · Cão Fila de São Miguel · Carpathian Shepherd Dog · Caucasian Shepherd Dog · Central Asian Shepherd Dog · Estrela Mountain Dog · Great Pyrenees · Kangal Dog · Karakachan Dog · Karst Shepherd · Komondor · Kuvasz · Leonberger · Majorca Shepherd · Maremma Sheepdog · Mioritic · Polish Tatra Sheepdog · Pyrenean Mastiff · Rafeiro do Alentejo · Šarplaninac · Slovak Cuvac · South Russian Ovcharka · Spanish Mastiff · Tibetan Mastiff · Tornjak