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This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2008) In the Mongol Empire, jarliq (зарлиг) or jarligh (iarlyk in Russian, also transliterated yarlyk and the Tartar yarligh) was one of three types of non-fundamental law pronouncements that had the effect of a regulation or ordinance, the other two being debter (a record of precedence cases for administration and judicial decisions) and bilig (maxims or sayings attributed to Chinghis Khan). The jarliq provide important information about the running of the Mongol Empire. Ogedei Khagan prohibited the nobility from issuing gergees (tablet that gave the bearer authority to demand goods and services from civilian populations) and jarliqs in the 1230's. From the mid-thirteenth to mid-fifteenth centuries, all Rus princes received jarliq authorizing their rule. Initially, those jarliq came from the qaghan in Karakorum, but after Batu established his khanate, they came from Sarai. None of these jarliq, however, is extant. In the mid-fifteenth century, Basil II began forbidding other Rus princes from receiving the jarliq from Mongol khans, thus establishing the right of the Moscow grand prince to authorize local princely rule. Kublai Khan began the practice of having the four great aristocrats in his kheshig sign all jarliqs (decree), a practice that spread to all other Mongol khanates in 1280. Ghazan reformed the issuance of jarliqs (edicts), creating set forms and graded seals, ordering that all jarliqs be kept on file at court in Persia. Jarliqs older than 30 years were to be cancelled, along with old paizas (Mongol seals of authority). In the Rus metropolitan archive are preserved six jarliq (constituting the so-called Short Collection) considered to be translations into Russian of authentic patents issued from the Qipchaq Khanate: (1) from Khan Tiuliak (Tulunbek) of Mamai's Horde to Metropolitan Mikhail (Mitia) (1379);(2) from Khatun Taydula to the Rus' princes (1347); (3) from Khan Mengu-Temir to Metropolitan Peter (1308); (4) from Khatun Taydula to Metropolitan Feognost (1343); (5) from Khan Berdibek to Metropolitan Alexei (1357); and (6) from Khatun Taydula to Metropolitan Alexei (1354). A seventh jarliq, which purports to be from Khan Özbeg to Metropolitan Peter (found in the so-called full collection) has been determined to be a sixteenth-century forgery. The jarliq to the metropolitans affirm the freedom of the Church from taxes and tributes, and declare that the Church's property should be protected from expropriation or damage as long as Rus churchmen pray for the well-being of the khan and his family. v · d · eMongol Empire (1206–1368) Politics, organization and daily life Borjigin · Organization under Genghis Khan · Political divisions · Mongol military tactics and organization · Society and economy · Christianity among the Mongols · Armeno-Mongol alliance · Byzantine–Mongol alliance · Franco-Mongol alliance · Timeline of the Mongol Empire · Timeline of Mongol conquests · List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Russian states · Mongol and Tatar states in Europe · Banner of the Mongols · Destruction under the Mongol Empire Khanates Yuan Dynasty · Ilkhanate · Golden Horde · Chagatai Khanate (see also House of Ogedei) Notable cities Almalik · Avarga · Azaq · Bukhara · Bolghar · Karakorum · Dadu · Majar · Maragheh · Qarshi · Samarkand · Sarai Batu · Sarai Berke · Saray-Jük · Shangdu · Soltaniyeh · Tabriz · Ukek · Xacitarxan Some campaigns and battles Asia Central 1207 Siberia · 1205–1209 Western China · 1211–1234 Northern China · 1211–1234 Manchuria · 1218–1221 Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran · 1236 and 1252 Tibet · 1221–1327 India East 1235–1276 Southern China · 1231–1260 Korea · 1277–1287 Burma · 1274–1281 Japan · 1257, 1284–1288 Vietnam  · 1293 Java Middle East 1241–1243 Anatolia · 1258 Iraq · 1243–1303 Syria · 1260, 1301 Palestine Europe 1237–1240 Georgia and Armenia · 1237-1240 (but fighting continues afterward) Chechnya 1229–1236 Volga Bulgaria · 1223, 1236–1240 Eastern Europe · 1240–41 Poland · 1241 Hungary Prominent people Rulers Genghis Khan · Börte · Tolui Khan · Ögedei Khan · Töregene Khatun · Güyük Khan · Oghul Qaimish · Möngke Khan · Kublai Khan · The Yuan Khagans Viceroys (khans) Jochi · Batu Khan · Orda Khan · Berke · Toqta · Uzbeg Khan · Chagatai Khan · Duwa · Kebek · Hulegu · Abagha · Arghun · Ghazan Military Subutai · Jebe · Muqali · Negudar · Bo'orchu · Guo Kan · Borokhul · Jelme · Chilaun · Khubilai · Aju · Bayan of the Baarin · Kadan · Burundai · Nogai Khan Terms Titles Khagan · Khan and Khatun · Khanum · Jinong · Khong Tayiji · Noyan · Darqan Political and military Jarliq · Yam · Ordo · Pax Mongolica · Yassa · Kurultai · Paiza · Mangudai · Tumen · Kheshig