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Ranuccio I Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro Reign 3 December 1592 - 5 March 1622 Predecessor Alessandro Successor Odoardo Consort Margherita Aldobrandini Issue Prince Ottavio Maria, Duchess of Modena and Reggio Odoardo, Duke of Parma Vittoria, Duchess of Modena Cardinal Francesco Maria House House of Farnese Father Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma Mother Infanta Maria of Guimarães Born 28 March 1569(1569-03-28) Parma, Parma Died 5 March 1622(1622-03-05) (aged 52) Parma, Parma Religion Roman Catholicism Ranuccio I Farnese (28 March 1569 – 5 March 1622) reigned as Duke of Parma, Piancenza and Castro from 1592. A firm believer in absolute monarchy, Ranuccio, in 1594, centralised the administration of Parma and Piacenza, thus rescinding the nobles' hitherto vast prerogative. He is best remembered for the "Great Justice" of 1612, which saw the executions of many Piacentine nobles suspected of plotting against him.[1] Because one of the conspirators, Gianfrancesco Sanvitale, falsely implicated several Italian monarchs, namely Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Cesare d'Este, Duke of Modena, in the plot, Vincenzo and Cesares' names appeared on the list of conspirators during formal court proceedings; as a result, Ranuccio's reputation among the monarchs of Italy was irreparably damaged because it was evident that he gave credence to Gianfrancesco's obviously false confession. When, consequently, in the early 1620s, Ranuccio was scouting for a bride for his younger legitimate son and heir, Odoardo, none of the Italian ruling families were forthcoming with princesses. He did, however, manage to engineer a match with Margherita de' Medici, daughter of Cosimo II of Tuscany. The husband of Margherita Aldobrandini, niece of Pope Clement VIII, Ranuccio, the son of a Portuguese infanta, was considered as a potential monarch of Portugal when his childless great-uncle King Henry I died. The throne, however, passed to Philip II of Spain, whose troops had promptly occupied the country after Henry I's death. Contents 1 Early life 2 Issue 3 Ancestry 4 References Early life His great-uncle Henry I of Portugal's death triggered the struggle for the throne of Portugal when Ranuccio was 11 years old. As the son of the late elder daughter of Infante Edward, 4th Duke of Guimarães, the only son of King Manuel I whose legitimate descendants survived at that time, Ranuccio was according to the feudal custom the first heir to the throne of Portugal. However his father was an ally and even a subject of the Spanish king, another contender, so Ranuccio's rights were not very forcibly claimed. Instead, Ranuccio's mother's younger sister Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, claimed the throne, very ambitiously, but failed. Under Ranuccio I's rule, the dukedom annexed the territories of Colorno, Sala Baganza, and Montechiarugolo. He guided a cultural renewal in the city of Parma, supporting the arts and constructing the 4,500 seat Farnese Theater. Numerous improvements and monuments in Parma were constructed under Ranuccio I at his behest, including a revitalization of the University of Parma and the final expansion of the city walls. Construction of the Palazzo della Pilotta, the court palace of the Farnese family, was completed in 1620. Ranuccio I is also remembered for his cruelty, one infamous example being the public execution of over 100 Parma residents suspected of conspiring against him. He was succeeded by his son Odoardo, initially under the regency of Ranuccio's brother, Odoardo Farnese. Issue He married Donna Margarita Aldobrandini daughter of Don Giovanni Francesco Aldobrandini, Prince of Carpineto and his wife the heiress Donna Olimpia Aldobrandini, Princess Campinelli on 7 May 1600 in Rome, St. Sixtus. The couple had nine children: Alessandro Francesco Maria Farnese (8 August 1602) died at birth Maria Farnese (5 September 1603-?) died in infancy Alessandro Farnese (5 September 1610-July 1630) died unmarried Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma (28 April 1612 – 11 September 1646) married Margherita de' Medici and had issue Onorato Farnese (7 July 1613-28 February 1614) died in infancy Maria Caterina Farnese (18 February 1615 – 25 July 1646) married Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena and had issue Maria Farnese (29 Apr 1618) died at birth; Vittoria Farnese (29 April 1618-10 Aug 1649) married Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena and had issue Francesco Maria Farnese (19 August 1620-13 July 1647) Cardinal Ancestry Ancestors of Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma                                     16. Pope Paul III               8. Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma                       17. Silvia Ruffini               4. Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma                             18. Luigi Orsini               9. Girolama Orsini                       19. Giulia Conti               2. Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma                                   20. Philip I of Castile               10. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor                       21. Joanna of Castile               5. Margaret of Austria                             22. Gilles Johann van der Gheynst               11. Johanna Maria van der Gheynst                       23. Johanna van der Caye van Cocambi               1. Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma                                         24. Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu               12. Manuel I of Portugal                       25. Infanta Beatrice of Portugal               6. Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães                             26. Ferdinand II of Aragon               13. Maria of Aragon and Castile                       27. Isabella I of Castile               3. Infanta Maria of Guimarães                                   28. Fernando II, Duke of Braganza               14. James, Duke of Braganza                       29. Infanta Isabella of Viseu               7. Isabel of Braganza                             30. Juan Alonso Pérez de Guzmán y Afán de Ribera, 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia               15. Eleonor of Mendoza                       31. Isabel de Velasco or Leonor de Zúñ             References ^ "Farnese family (Italian family)". Enyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 December 2009.  Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma House of Farnese Born: 28 March 1569 Died: 5 March 1622 Regnal titles Preceded by Alessandro Duke of Parma and Piacenza 1592–1622 Succeeded by Odoardo Duke of Castro 1592–1622 v · d · ePrinces of Parma 1st Generation Ottavio, Duke of Parma · Cardinal-Prince Alessandro · Cardinal-Prince Rannucio  · Orazio, Duke of Castro 2nd Generation Prince Carlo  · Alexander, Duke of Parma 3rd Generation Ranuccio I, Duke of Parma · Cardinal-Prince Odoardo 4th Generation Odoardo, Duke of Parma · Cardinal-Prince Francesco Maria 5th Generation Ranuccio II, Duke of Parma · Prince Alessandro · Prince Orazio · Prince Pietro 6th Generation Odoardo, Hereditary Prince of Parma · Francesco, Duke of Parma · Antonio, Duke of Parma 7th Generation none 8th Generation none 9th Generation Ferdinand, Duke of Parma 10th Generation Louis I of Etruria · Prince Philip 11th Generation Charles II, Duke of Parma 12th Generation Charles III, Duke of Parma 13th Generation Robert I, Duke of Parma · Henry, Count of Bardi 14th Generation Prince Ferdinando  · Henry, Duke of Parma  · Joseph, Duke of Parma  · Elias, Duke of Parma  · Prince Augusto  · Prince Sixtus  · Xavier, Duke of Parma  · Felix, Prince Consort of Luxembourg*  · Prince René  · Prince Louis  · Prince Thomas 15th Generation Prince Carlo · Robert II, Duke of Parma  · Prince Francesco  · Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma  · Prince Sixtus Henry  · Prince Jacques  · Prince Michel  · Prince André  · Prince Guy  · Prince Rémy  · Prince Jean Bernhard  · Grand Duke Jean*^  · Prince Charles*^ 16th Generation Carlos, Duke of Parma · Jaime, Count of Bardi  · Prince Philip  · Prince Alain  · Prince Eric  · Prince Charles  · Grand Duke Henri*^  · Prince Jean*^  · Prince Guillaume*^ 17th Generation Prince Michael  · Prince Henry  · Prince Amaury *also prince of Luxembourg ^also prince of Nassau v · d · eDukes of Parma Pier Luigi (1545-1547)  · Ottavio (1556-1586)  · Alexander (1586–1592)  · Ranuccio I (1592–1622)  · Odoardo (1622–1646)  · Ranuccio II (1646–1694)  · Francesco (1694–1727)  · Antonio (1727–1731)  · Charles I (1731-1734)  · Charles II (1735-1740)  · Maria Theresa (1740–1748)  · Philip (1748-1765)  · Ferdinand (1765–1802)  · Marie Louise (1814–1847)  · Charles Louis (1847–1849)  · Charles III (1849–1854)  · Robert I* (1854–1907)  · Henry* (1907-1939)  · Joseph* (1939-1950)  · Elias* (1950-1959)  · Robert II* (1959-1974)  · Xavier* (1974-1977)  · Carlos Hugo* (1977-2010)  · Carlos* (2010-) *denotes titular Duke Persondata Name Farnese, Ranuccio I Alternative names Short description Date of birth 28 March 1569 Place of birth Parma, Parma Date of death 5 March 1622 Place of death Parma, Parma