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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008) Alexander Rutskoy Александр Руцкой Alexander Rutskoy, c. 1993 Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev. Vice-president of Russia In office 10 July 1991 – 4 October 1993 President Boris Yeltsin Preceded by None Succeeded by Office abolished Born 16 September 1947 (1947-09-16) (age 63) Proskuriv, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (Russian: Александр Владимирович Руцкой) (born 16 September 1947) is a Russian politician and a former Soviet military officer.[1] Rutskoy served as the only Vice President of Russia from 10 July 1991 to 4 October 1993, and as the governor of Kursk Oblast from 1996 to 2000. In the course of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, he was proclaimed acting president of Russia,[2][3] in opposition to Boris Yeltsin. Contents 1 Early life and career 2 Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 3 References 4 External links Early life and career Alexander Rutskoy was born in Proskuriv, Ukrainian SSR, USSR. Rutskoy graduated from High Air Force School in Barnaul (1971) and Gagarin Air Force Academy in Moscow (1980). He had reached rank of Colonel when he was sent to the Soviet war in Afghanistan. He was in command of an air assault regiment and was shot down twice, in 1986 and the second time in 1988 by an F-16 flown by Sqn. Ldr. Athar Bukhari of the Pakistan Air Force. Rutskoy was then flying a Su-25 aircraft and strayed into Pakistani airspace by mistake. He managed to eject but was captured by mujahideen, interrogated by the Inter-Services Intelligence, given an offer to defect by the Central Intelligence Agency, and subsequently released. For his bravery in 1988 he was awarded Hero of the Soviet Union. As a soldier and a populist, he was chosen by Boris Yeltsin to be his vice presidential running mate in the 1991 Russian presidential election. Rutskoy was vice president of Russia from 10 July 1991 to 4 October 1993. As vice president, he openly called for the independence of Transnistria and Crimea from Moldova and Ukraine, respectively[4] and telephoned Georgia’s leader Eduard Shevardnadze, threatening to bomb Tbilisi during the war in South Ossetia.[5] Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 Main article: Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 Following the initial period of peaceful collaboration with Yeltsin, from the end of 1992, Rutskoy began openly declaring his opposition to the President's economic and foreign policies and accusing some Russian government officials of corruption. His opposition to Yeltsin became especially clear during the crisis in March, 1993 when the Congress of People's Deputies tried, unsuccessfully, to remove Yeltsin from the presidency. In subsequent months, Rutskoy himself was accused of corruption by the officials of Yeltsin's government. On September 1, 1993, President Boris Yeltsin "suspended" Rutskoy's execution of his vice-presidential duties, due to alleged corruption charges. The Russian Constitutional Court subsequently declared Yeltsin's decree as unconstitutional. On 21 September 1993, President Boris Yeltsin dissolved the Supreme Soviet of Russia, which was in direct contradiction with the articles of Soviet Constitution of 1978, e.g.: Article 121-6. The powers of the President of RSFSR cannot be used to change national and state organization of RSFSR, to dissolve or to interfere with the functioning of any elected organs of state power. In this case, his powers cease immediately. Constitutional crisis of 1993 Negotiations between Rutskoy and the Central Internal Affairs Directorate (GUVD) Problems listening to this file? See media help. On the night from 21 September to 22 September, Rutskoy arrived at the residence of the Russian parliament and, at 00:22, assumed the powers of acting president of Russia, in accordance with the above article. He took the presidential oath, and said: "I am taking the authority of President. The anti-constitutional decree of President Yeltsin is annulled." Rutskoy's interim presidency, although constitutional, was never acknowledged outside Russia. After the two-week standoff, and the violence erupting on the streets of Moscow, on 4 October, the Parliament building was taken by Yeltsin's military forces. Rutskoy and his supporters were arrested and charged with organization of mass disturbances. On the same day, Yeltsin officially dismissed Rutskoy as vice president and fired him from the military forces. Rutskoy was imprisoned in the Moscow Lefortovo prison until 26 February 1994, when he and other participants of both August 1991 and October 1993 crises, were granted amnesty by the new State Duma. Rutskoy and Putin in May 2000 Soon after his release, Rutskoy founded a populist, nationalist party Derzhava (Russian: Держава), which, failed in the State Duma election of 1995, gathering only about 2.5% of the votes, thus not passing the 5% threshold. He decided not to run for the presidency in the summer of 1996, but did run for the position of the governor of his native[clarification needed] Kursk Oblast in the fall of the same year. Being a joint candidate from the communist and "patriotic forces", he was initially banned from the election, but allowed to run by the Russian Supreme Court only a few days before the election, which he won in a landslide, with about 76% of the vote. To this day, he is still active in Russian politics. References ^ Encarta Encyclopedia, "Encyclopedia Article: Aleksandr Rutskoy", 2008. Archived 2009-10-31. ^ Rosenberg, Steven (2003-10-03). "Remembering Russia's civil siege". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3161002.stm. Retrieved 208-04-10.  ^ Bendersky, Yevgeny (2005-02-23). "CIVIL SOCIETY. WHEN THE IMPOSITION OF WESTERN DEMOCRACY CAUSES A BACKLASH". EurasiaNet and PINR. http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/civilsociety/articles/eav022305.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-10.  ^ Michael Kraus, Ronald D. Liebowitz (1996), Russia and Eastern Europe After Communism, p. 305. Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-8948-8 ^ Alexei Zverev Ethnic Conflicts in the Caucasus 1988-1994, in: Bruno Coppieters (ed., 1996), Contested Borders in the Caucasus. VUB University Press External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy About Rutskoy's Derzhava movement v · d · ePresidents of the Russian Federation Presidents Boris Yeltsin (1991–1999) · Vladimir Putin (2000–2008) · Dmitry Medvedev (2008–present) Vice Presidents (abolished 1993) Alexander Rutskoy (1991–1993) Acting Presidents Alexander Rutskoy (self-proclaimed, 1993) · Viktor Chernomyrdin (1996) · Vladimir Putin (1999–2000) Presidents of Russian Soviet Republic · Presidents of the USSR Persondata Name Rutskoy, Alexander Alternative names Руцкой, Александр Владимирович (Russian); Rutskoy, Aleksandr Short description Russian politician, Vice President of Russia. Date of birth 16 September 1947 Place of birth Kursk, Soviet Union Date of death Place of death