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Mitred Parakeet A feral Mitred Parakeet in Florida Conservation status Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1] Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittacidae Genus: Aratinga Species: A. mitrata Binomial name Aratinga mitrata (Tschudi, 1844) The Mitred Parakeet (Aratinga mitrata), also known as the Mitred Conure in aviculture, is a species of green and red parrot in the Psittacidae family. It is native to the forests and woodlands in the Andes from north-central Peru, south through Bolivia, to north-western Argentina,[2] with introduced populations in California, Florida and Hawaii.[3] It may constitute a cryptic species complex.[2] Contents 1 Description 2 Habitat and status 3 Behavior 4 Taxonomy 5 Aviculture 6 References 7 External links // Description A relatively long-tailed species with a total length of 34–38 cm (13–15 in).[4] Adults are mainly green with varying amounts of red to the face and thighs, a relatively conspicius bare white eye-ring, and a heavy, pale bone-coloured bill. Juveniles show little or no red to the plumage.[5] Unlike most of its relatives (Scarlet-fronted, Red-masked, White-eyed, Cuban, and Hispaniolan Parakeet), adults at most show one or two red feathers at the bend of the wing.[6] Habitat and status Its natural habitats are forest (both deciduous[6] and humid[4]), woodland, and nearby habitats at altitudes of 1000–3400 m (3300–11150 ft),[7] with a single possible record from 4000 m (13100 ft).[5] The introduced population in California primarily occurs in urban parks and residential areas.[8] There are some seasonal movements in response to the availability of food.[2] It is generally common to locally abundant,[7] and when occasionally foraging in cultivated areas, it may cause considerable damage to crops.[9] It is therefore considered to be of least concern by IUCN.[1] The introduced Californian population had increased to c. 1000 birds by 2002,[10] while the introduced population on Maui, despite attempts of eradication, had increased to c. 200 birds by 2003.[11] Behavior It is social and typically seen in small flocks,[4] but may gather in groups of up to 100 outside the breeding period.[6] Exceptionally, flocks of up to 2000 may gather at roosting places.[9] Breeds colonially on cliffs,[7] and, in Argentina at least, sometimes in hollows in dead trees.[9] It lays 2-3 eggs.[6] In captivity, 3-4 eggs reported, and an incubation time of 23 days.[9] It primarily feeds on seeds, nuts and fruits.[6] The flight-call is a high ringing kerEET.[4] Taxonomy The taxonomy has recently undergone significant changes with the description of two new subspecies, and the proposed elevation of the taxon alticola, traditionally considered a subspecies of the Mitred Parakeet, to species status as the Chapman's Parakeet (A. alticola). Additionally, a new cryptic species from this complex has been described, the Hocking's Parakeet (A. hockingi).[2] These proposals have yet to receive widespread recognition,[4][12][13] at least in part due to the problems involved in field identification of the new taxa and uncertainties regarding possible age-related variations.[14] Recent work has been unable to confirm the differences upon which A. m. tucumana was described in 2006, leading to recommendations of treating it as a junior synonym of A. m. mitrata.[15] Traditional taxonomy:[6][7][13] Aratinga mitrata: A. m. mitrata (nominate): Found in most of its range. Forecrown, lores and extensive mottling to face red. A. m. alticola: Found in the Cusco Region of Peru at higher altitudes than the nominate. Red virtually restricted to forecrown and lores, with little or no red mottling to face. Taxonomy as proposed in 2006:[2] Aratinga mitrata: A. m. mitrata (nominate): From the Peruvian region of Ayacucho, south through Bolivia, to the Salta Province in Argentina. Forecrown, lores and extensive mottling to face (mainly around eyes, though not forming complete eye-ring) red. Thighs red. A. m. chlorogenys: Found in the Peruvian regions of Amazonas, Cajamarca, Huánuco and Junín. Red of head virtually restricted to forecrown and lores, with little or no red mottling to face. Thighs red. A. m. tucumana: Found in the Argentinian provinces of Tucumán and Córdoba, and probably also in Catamarca and La Rioja. The introduced Californian population likely belongs to this subspecies.[16] Forecrown and extensive mottling throughout face red. Mottling forms a complete eye-ring, and often also with a few random red specks to neck and chest. Thighs red. Aratinga alticola (proposed as monotypic species; Chapman's Parakeet): Confirmed for the Peruvian regions of Huancavelica and Cusco, and the Bolivian department of Cochabamba. Red only to forecrown and lores, with few red feathers in the face. Thighs green. Aratinga hockingi (described as new monotypic species; Hocking's Parakeet): Endemic to Peru in the regions of Amazonas, Ayacucho and Cuzco, and in central Peru in the Carpish mountains and adjacent ridge south of the upper Huallaga River. Relatively large red forecrown patch, but no red to face or lores. Thighs green. Aviculture This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2008) The subspecies seen in American aviculture is Aratinga m. mitrata (though this is labelled with some uncertainty considering the recent developments in the taxonomy). Popular as pet, the Mitred Conures are considered outgoing and playful. They are even used as "watch birds", given their loud, piercing alarm call. As most parrots, they tend to be devoted to their human owners. References ^ a b BirdLife International 2004. Aratinga mitrata. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed on 14 January 2008. ^ a b c d e Arndt, T. 2006. A revision of the Aratinga mitrata complex, with the description of one new species, two new subspecies and species-level status of Aratinga alticola. Journal of Ornithology 147(1): 73-86 ^ Mitred Conure. World Parrot Trust. Accessed on 15 January 2008. ^ a b c d e Schulenberg, T., D. Stotz, D. Lane, J. O'Neill, & T. Parker III. 2007. Birds of Peru. Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-0-7136-8673-9 ^ a b Fjeldså, J., & N. Krabbe. 1990. Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, Copenhagen. ISBN 98-88757-16-1 ^ a b c d e f Juniper, T., & M. Parr. 1998. A Guide to the Parrots of the World.. Pica Press. ISBN 1-873103-40-2 ^ a b c d Collar, N. J. 1997. Aratinga mitrata (Mitred Parakeet). pp. 430 in: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal. eds. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-22-9 ^ Garrett, K. L. 1997. Population Status and Distribution of Naturalized Parrots in Southern California. Western Birds 28: 181-195 ^ a b c d Arndt, T. 1997. Lexicon of Parrots. Arndt Verlag. ISBN 3980529118 ^ Mabb, K. T. 2002. Naturalized (wild) parrots in California; a current assessment, 2002, in Sympos. Proceed. the Gabriel Foundation 2002. Feb 7-10, San Diego, CA ^ Threats to Birds - Introduced Parrots in Hawaii. American Bird Conservancy. Accessed on 15 January 2008. ^ Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. 2008. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed on 14 January 2008. ^ a b Dickinson, E. (editor). 2003 w. updates. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Edition 3. Christopher Helm. ISBN 0713665362 ^ Lane, D. 2010. Separate Aratinga hockingi and A. alticola from A. mitrata. SACC. Accessed on 23 November 2010 ^ Agnolin, F. L. 2009. Sobre el complejo Aratinga mitrata (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) en el noroeste Argentina. Comentarios sistemáticos. Nótulas Faunísticas (segunda serie) 31: 1-5. ^ Mitred Parakeet. The California Parrot Project. Accessed on 15 January 2008. External links "Mitred Parakeet - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 3 January 2009.  Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Aratinga mitrata