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For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). Jena Jena Market Square Jena Coordinates 50°55′38″N 11°35′10″E / 50.92722°N 11.58611°E / 50.92722; 11.58611 Administration Country Germany State Thuringia District Urban district Lord Mayor Albrecht Schröter (SPD) Basic statistics Area 114.30 km2 (44.13 sq mi) Elevation 155 m  (509 ft) Population 104,449 (31 December 2009)[1]  - Density 914 /km2 (2,367 /sq mi) Other information Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Licence plate J Postal codes 07701–07751 Area code 03641 Website www.jena.de Jena (German pronunciation: [ˈjeːna]) is a university city in central Germany on the river Saale. It has a population of 103,000 and is the second largest city in the federal state of Thuringia, after Erfurt. Contents 1 History 2 Economy 3 Main sights 4 Public transport 5 Colleges, universities and research institutes 6 Museums 7 Culture 8 Famous citizens and Alumni of the University 9 International relations 10 External links 11 References // History Jena was first mentioned in an 1182 document. In the 11th century it was a possession of the lords of Lobdeburg but, in the following century, it developed into an independent market town with laws and magistrates of its own. The local economy was based mainly on wine production. In 1286, the Dominicans were established in the city, followed by the Cistercians in 1301. The margraves of Meißen imposed their authority over Jena in 1331. From 1423, it belonged to Electoral Saxony of the House of Wettin, which had inherited Meißen and remained under them after the division of Wettin lands in 1485. The Protestant Reformation was brought into the city in 1523. In the following years, the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen. In 1558, the university (now called the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena) was founded by elector John Frederick the Magnanimous. For a short period (1670–1690), Jena was the capital of an independent dukedom (Saxe-Jena). In 1692, it was annexed to Saxe-Eisenach and, in 1741, to the Duchy (later Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar, to which it belonged until 1918. At the end of the 18th century, the university became the largest and most famous within the German states and made Jena the centre of idealistic philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling) and of the early romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the brothers Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck). In 1794, the poets Goethe and Schiller met at the university and established a long lasting friendship. On 14 October 1806, Napoleon fought and defeated the Prussian army here in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Resistance against the French occupation was strong, especially among the town students, many of whom fought in the Lützow Free Corps in 1813. Two years later, the Urburschenschaft fraternity was founded in the city. At the end of the 19th century, with the building of the railway-line Saalbahn (along the river Saale) from Halle/Leipzig to Nürnberg, Jena became a centre for precision machinery, optics and glass making, with the formation of the world famous companies Carl Zeiss Jena and Schott Jenaer Glaswerk, by Carl Zeiss, Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott. In 1945, towards the end of World War II, Jena was heavily bombed by the American and British Allies. 153 people were killed and most of the medieval town centre was destroyed (though restored after the end of the war). Part of the State of Thuringia from its foundation in 1920 on, it was incorporated into the German Democratic Republic in 1949 and its district of Gera in 1952. Since 1990, the city of Jena has been a part of the Free State of Thuringia in the united Federal Republic of Germany. Economy Today, Jena is a manufacturing city, specializing in precision machinery, pharmaceuticals, optics and photographic equipment and is home to the famous Zeiss optics plant. In 1926, the world's first modern planetarium was built by the Zeiss company in the Damenviertel district of the town. Today, the city's economy diversifies into bioinformatics, biotechnology, software and photonics. The metropolitan area of Jena is among Germany's 50 fastest growing regions, with many internationally renowned research institutes and companies, a comparatively low unemployment and a very young population structure. Jena was awarded the title "Stadt der Wissenschaft" (city of science) by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, a German science association, in 2008. The Jen-Tower. View over the city center of Jena View from the Jen-Tower at night: the domed building was part of the former Carl-Zeiss works, now used by the University of Jena Johannisstraße, looking towards Eichplatz. Jena Christmas Market in Jena Main sights The 13th century Town Hall ("Rathaus"). It has an astronomical clock featuring the "Snatching Hans" ("Schnapphans"). The Gothic St. Michael's Church ("Michaelskirche", 1506). It has a bronze slab of Martin Luther's tomb Monument to John Frederick the Magnanimous (1905–08), in the Market Square The Old Castle and numerous towers from the medieval fortifications, including the Powder Tower (13th-14th centuries) House of Friedrich Schiller and his Wedding Church. The Botanischer Garten Jena, founded in 1580, the second oldest botanical garden in Germany Jen-Tower, a research edifice built in GDR times. There is a restaurant and viewing platform at the 27th floor. In the neighbourhood are the Dornburg Castles and the Kapellendorf Moated Castle. Public transport The city is served by an extensive network of buses and trams run by the "Jenah" organization (a pun on Jena and Nahverkehr, German for public transport). Buses of the JES Verkehrsgesellschaft connect Jena with cities and villages in the region. The high-speed railway line from Berlin to Munich calls at the Jena-Paradies station just to the east of the city centre (like all other trains on the north-south-relation); trains from Erfurt and further west arrive at the Westbahnhof just west of the city centre (like all other trains on the east-west-relation). The nearest airports to Jena are Leipzig-Altenburg Airport and Erfurt Airport. However, international visitors normally arrive at Frankfurt, Berlin or Munich airports, from all of which there are convenient train connections to Jena. Colleges, universities and research institutes The Friedrich Schiller University of Jena was founded in 1558 as the "Collegium Jenense". The University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule Jena) was founded in 1991. The Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology is an important research center and offers a Ph.D. program. The Max Planck Institute of Economics The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry The Institute of Photonic Technology The Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF) INNOVENT - one of the biggest private research centers in Germany The Leibniz Institute for Age Research The Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis The Jena Center for Bioinformatics Museums Optical Museum Jena - history of optical instruments Schott GlassMuseum - production and usage of glass Citymuseum Göhre - urban history of Jena Botanical Garden Phyletic Museum - phylogeny and evolutionary theory Romanticism House - literature Memorial to Goethe - literature Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena - Oriental history, numismatics Schott Villa - history of the Jena glassworks and of Otto Schott and his family Culture The Botanical Garden of Jena The Jenaer Philharmonie is the largest independent symphony orchestra in Thuringia. Kulturarena: annual music festival held in front of the theatre Famous citizens and Alumni of the University Ernst Abbe, physicist, social reformer, partner of Carl Zeiss and Otto Schott Anton Wilhelm Amo, African Philosopher Johannes R. Becher, poet and politician Hans Berger, discoverer of human EEG and two-time Nobel Prize nominee Bernhard, Prince of the Netherlands Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, influential German naturalist, doctor, comparative anatomist and physiologist Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, orientalist and Protestant theologian of the Enlightenment Robert Enke, German footballer Walter Eucken, founder of neoliberal economic theory Rudolf Eucken, philosopher and the winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize for Literature Johann Gottlieb Fichte, philosopher and early German nationalist Gottlob Frege, mathematician, logician, and philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel, inventor of the kindergarten Johann Wolfgang Goethe, poet/writer Ernst Haeckel, German evolutionary biologist/zoologist G. W. F. Hegel, philosopher Friedrich Hölderlin, poet Martin Luther, reformer Philipp Melanchthon, theologian Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, philosopher Novalis, poet Max Reger, composer, pianist, professor and conductor Friedrich Schelling Friedrich Schiller, poet/writer Caroline Böhmer Schlegel Schelling Wilhelm Schlegel, philosopher Bernd Schneider, German footballer Otto Schott, inventor of fireproof glass, founder of the Schott glass works Reinhard Johannes Sorge, German poet, dramatist, and Roman Catholic convert Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist Kurt Tucholsky, writer Carl Zeiss, founder of the Zeiss company International relations See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Jena is twinned with: Porto, Portugal[2] Lugoj, Romania, since 1983 Erlangen, Germany, since 1987 San Marcos, Nicaragua, since 1996 Aubervilliers, France, since 1999 Berkeley, USA External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jena Jena travel guide from Wikitravel Official Homepage of Jena (German) (English) Jena: pictures Images from Jena, Germany Jena Trams (English) (Russian) References Notes ^ "Bevölkerung nach Gemeinden, erfüllenden Gemeinden und Verwaltungsgemeinschaften" (in German). Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik. 31 December 2009. http://www.statistik.thueringen.de/seite.asp?aktiv=dat01&startbei=datenbank/default2.asp.  ^ "International Relations of the City of Porto". © 2006-2009 Municipal Directorateofthe PresidencyServices InternationalRelationsOffice. http://www.cm-porto.pt/document/449218/481584.pdf. 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