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A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic that inhibits the action at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds are mainly used for peripheral muscle paralysis in surgery, but some centrally acting compounds such as bupropion, mecamylamine, and 18-methoxycoronaridine block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain and can be used for treating drug addiction. Comparison Mechanism Antagonist Preferred receptor Clinical use Ganglionic blocking agents Hexamethonium Ganglion type none[1] Mecamylamine Ganglion type Trimethaphan Ganglion type Rarely used for blood pressure decrease during surgery[1] Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents Atracurium Muscle type muscle relaxant in anaesthesia[1] Doxacurium Muscle type Mivacurium Muscle type Pancuronium Muscle type muscle relaxant in anaesthesia[1] Tubocurarine Muscle type Rarely used [1] Vecuronium Muscle type muscle relaxant in anaesthesia[1] Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents Succinylcholine Muscle type Centrally acting nicotinic antagonists 18-Methoxycoronaridine α3β4 References ^ a b c d e f Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-07145-4.  Page 149 External links MeSH Nicotinic+antagonists v · d · eNeuromodulation Types Enzyme: Inducer • Inhibitor Ion channel: Opener • Blocker Receptor: Agonist • Antagonist • Positive allosteric modulator (PAM) • Negative allosteric modulator (NAM) • Inverse agonist Transporter [Reuptake]: Enhancer (RE) • Inhibitor (RI) • Releaser (RA) Miscellaneous: Precursor • Cofactor Classes Enzyme see Enzyme inhibition Ion channel Calcium channel blocker (CCB) • Potassium channel blocker (PCB) • Sodium channel blocker (SCB) • Potassium channel opener (PCO) Receptor & transporter BA/M Adrenergic Adrenergic receptor agonist (α, β (1, 2)) • Adrenergic receptor antagonist (α (1, 2), β) • Adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI) Dopaminergic Dopamine receptor agonist • Dopamine receptor antagonist • Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) Histaminergic Histamine receptor agonist • Histamine receptor antagonist (H1, H2, H3) Serotonergic Serotonin receptor agonist • Serotonin Receptor Antagonist (5-HT3) • Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) • Serotonin reuptake enhancer (SRE) AA GABAergic GABA receptor agonist • GABA receptor antagonist • GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) Glutamatergic Glutamate receptor agonist (AMPA) • Glutamate receptor antagonist (NMDA) Cholinergic Acetylcholine receptor agonist (Muscarinic, Nicotinic) • Acetylcholine receptor antagonist (Muscarinic, Nicotinic (Ganglionic, Muscular)) Endocannabinoid Cannabinoid receptor agonist • Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Opioid Opioid receptor agonist • Opioid receptor antagonist Other Adenosine reuptake inhibitor (AdoRI) • Angiotensin II receptor antagonist • Endothelin receptor antagonist • NK1 receptor antagonist • Vasopressin receptor antagonist Miscellaneous Cofactor (see Enzyme cofactors) • Precursor (see Amino acids) v · d · eAntiaddictives (N07B) Nicotine dependence/ (Nicotinic agonist) Nicotine • Dianicline • Varenicline • Lobeline • Mecamylamine • Scopolamine NDRI (Bupropion) • AA (Clonidine) • CB1 (Surinabant) Alcohol dependence AD inhibitor (Disulfiram, Calcium carbimide) • mGluR (Acamprosate) • Opioid receptor antagonists (Naltrexone, Nalmefene) • Topiramate • AA (Clonidine) • Baclofen Opioid dependence Buprenorphine • Methadone • Levacetylmethadol • Dihydrocodeine • Dihydroetorphine • AA (Clonidine) • Lofexidine • Extended Release Morphine • Extended Release Hydromorphone  • Baclofen • Ibogaine Stimulant dependence Dextroamphetamine • NDRI (Bupropion) • DRI (Vanoxerine) • Nocaine • GABA analogue (Vigabatrin) Benzodiazepine dependence AA (Clonidine) • benzodiazepine (Diazepam) • Phenytoin • barbiturate (Phenobarbital) Cocaine dependence NDRI (Bupropion) • DRI (Vanoxerine) • Nocaine • Baclofen • GABA analogue (Vigabatrin) Sedative-Hypnotic dependence barbiturate (Phenobarbital) • benzodiazepine (Diazepam, Lorazepam) • AA (Clonidine) • Chloral hydrate M: CNS anat(s, m, p, 4, e, b, d, c, a, f, l, g)/phys/devp/cell noco(m, d, e, h, v, s)/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug(N1A/2AB/C/3/4/7A/B/C/D) v · d · eSympatholytic (and closely related) antihypertensives (C02) Sympatholytics (antagonize α-adrenergic vasoconstriction) Central α2 agonist Clonidine • Guanfacine • Methyldopa # Adrenergic release inhibitors Bethanidine • Bretylium • Debrisoquine • Guanadrel • Guanazodine • Guanethidine • Guanoclor • Guanoxan • Guanazodine • Guanoxabenz • Guanoxan Imidazoline receptor agonist Moxonidine • Rilmenidine Ganglion-blocking/nicotinic antagonist Mecamylamine • Pentolinium • Trimethaphan Peripheral Indirect MAOI Pargyline Adrenergic uptake inhibitor Rescinnamine • Reserpine Tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor Metirosine Direct α1 blockers Prazosin • Indoramin • Trimazosin • Doxazosin • Urapidil Non-selective α blocker Phentolamine Other antagonists Serotonin antagonist Ketanserin Endothelin antagonist (for PH) dual (Bosentan) • selective (Ambrisentan, Sitaxentan) #WHO-EM. ‡Withdrawn from market. Clinical trials: †Phase III. §Never to phase III M: VAS anat(a:h/u/t/a/l,v:h/u/t/a/l)/phys/devp/cell/prot noco/syva/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug(C2s+n/3/4/5/7/8/9) v · d · eSkeletal muscle relaxants (M03) Peripherally acting (primarily antinicotinic, NMJ block) Non-depolarizing Curare alkaloids Alcuronium • Dimethyltubocurarine • Tubocurarine 4° ammonium agents ultra-short duration: Gantacurium short duration: Mivacurium  • Chandonium intermediate duration: Atracurium  • Cisatracurium  • Fazadinium  • Rocuronium  • Vecuronium long duration: Doxacurium • Dimethyltubocurarine • Pancuronium • Pipecuronium  • Laudexium  • Gallamine unsorted: Hexafluronium (Hexafluorenium) Depolarizing Choline derivatives: Suxamethonium (Succinylcholine) Polyalkylene derivatives: Hexamethonium ACh release inhibitors Botulinum toxin Centrally acting Carbamic acid esters Carisoprodol • Febarbamate • Meprobamate • Methocarbamol • Phenprobamate • Styramate • Tybamate Benzodiazepines Bentazepam • Diazepam • Lorazepam • Nitrazepam • Tetrazepam Anticholinergics (Antimuscarinics) Cyclobenzaprine • Orphenadrine Other Baclofen • Chlormezanone • Chlorphenesin • Chlorzoxazone • Donepezil • Eperisone • Flopropione • Mephenesin • Mephenoxalone • Metaxalone • Phenyramidol • Pridinol • Promoxolane • Quinine • Thiocolchicoside • Tizanidine • Tolperisone • Trazodone Directly acting Dantrolene M: MUS, DF+DRCT anat (h/n, u, t/d, a/p, l)/phys/hist noco(m, s, c)/cong(d)/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug (M1A/3) v · d · eCholinergics  Receptor ligands mAChR Agonists: 77-LH-28-1 • AC-42 • AC-260,584 • Aceclidine • Acetylcholine • AF30 • AF150(S) • AF267B • AFDX-384 • Alvameline • AQRA-741 • Arecoline • Bethanechol • Butyrylcholine • Carbachol • CDD-0034 • CDD-0078 • CDD-0097 • CDD-0098 • CDD-0102 • Cevimeline • cis-Dioxolane • Ethoxysebacylcholine • LY-593,039 • L-689,660 • LY-2,033,298 • McNA343 • Methacholine • Milameline • Muscarine • NGX-267 • Ocvimeline • Oxotremorine • PD-151,832 • Pilocarpine • RS86 • Sabcomeline • SDZ 210-086 • Sebacylcholine • Suberylcholine • Talsaclidine • Tazomeline • Thiopilocarpine • Vedaclidine • VU-0029767 • VU-0090157 • VU-0152099 • VU-0152100 • VU-0238429 • WAY-132,983 • Xanomeline • YM-796 Antagonists: 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate • 4-DAMP • Aclidinium Bromide • Anisodamine • Anisodine • Atropine • Atropine Methonitrate • Benactyzine • Benzatropine (Benztropine) • Benzydamine • BIBN 99 • Biperiden • Bornaprine • CAR-226,086 • CAR-301,060 • CAR-302,196 • CAR-302,282 • CAR-302,368 • CAR-302,537 • CAR-302,668 • CS-27349 • Cyclobenzaprine • Cyclopentolate • Darifenacin • DAU-5884 • Dimethindene • Dexetimide • DIBD • Dicyclomine (Dicycloverine) • Ditran • EA-3167 • EA-3443 • EA-3580 • EA-3834 • Elemicin • Etanautine • Etybenzatropine (Ethylbenztropine) • Flavoxate • Himbacine • HL-031,120 • Ipratropium bromide • J-104,129 • Hyoscyamine • Mamba Toxin 3 • Mamba Toxin 7 • Mazaticol • Mebeverine • Methoctramine • Metixene • Myristicin • N-Ethyl-3-Piperidyl Benzilate • N-Methyl-3-Piperidyl Benzilate • Orphenadrine • Otenzepad • Oxybutynin • PBID • PD-102,807 • Penehyclidine • Phenglutarimide • Phenyltoloxamine • Pirenzepine • Piroheptine • Procyclidine • Profenamine • RU-47,213 • SCH-57,790 • SCH-72,788 • SCH-217,443 • Scopolamine (Hyoscine) • Solifenacin • Telenzepine • Tiotropium bromide • Tolterodine • Trihexyphenidyl • Tripitamine • Tropatepine • Tropicamide • WIN-2299 • Xanomeline • Zamifenacin; Others: 1st Generation Antihistamines (Brompheniramine, chlorphenamine, cyproheptadine, dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, mepyramine/pyrilamine, phenindamine, pheniramine, tripelennamine, triprolidine, etc) • Tricyclic Antidepressants (Amitriptyline, doxepin, trimipramine, etc) • Tetracyclic Antidepressants (Amoxapine, maprotiline, etc) • Typical Antipsychotics (Chlorpromazine, thioridazine, etc) • Atypical Antipsychotics (Clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, etc) nAChR Agonists: 5-HIAA • A-84,543 • A-366,833 • A-582,941 • A-867,744 • ABT-202 • ABT-418 • ABT-560 • ABT-894 • Acetylcholine • Altinicline • Anabasine • AR-R17779 • Butyrylcholine • Carbachol • Cotinine • Cytisine • Decamethonium • Desformylflustrabromine • Dianicline • Dimethylphenylpiperazinium • Epibatidine • Epiboxidine • Ethanol • Ethoxysebacylcholine • EVP-4473 • EVP-6124 • Galantamine • GTS-21 • Ispronicline • Lobeline • MEM-63,908 (RG-3487) • Nicotine • NS-1738 • PHA-543,613 • PHA-709,829 • PNU-120,596 • PNU-282,987 • Pozanicline • Rivanicline • Sazetidine A • Sebacylcholine • SIB-1508Y • SIB-1553A • SSR-180,711 • Suberylcholine • TC-1698 • TC-1734 • TC-1827 • TC-2216 • TC-5214 • TC-5619 • TC-6683 • Tebanicline • Tropisetron • UB-165 • Varenicline • WAY-317,538 • XY-4083 Antagonists: 18-Methoxycoronaridine • α-Bungarotoxin • α-Conotoxin • Alcuronium • Amantadine • Anatruxonium • Atracurium • Bupropion (Amfebutamone) • Chandonium • Chlorisondamine • Cisatracurium • Coclaurine • Coronaridine • Dacuronium • Decamethonium • Dextromethorphan • Dextropropoxyphene • Dextrorphan • Diadonium • DHβE • Dimethyltubocurarine (Metocurine) • Dipyrandium • Dizocilpine (MK-801) • Doxacurium • Duador • Esketamine • Fazadinium • Gallamine • Hexafluronium • Hexamethonium (Benzohexonium) • Ibogaine • Isoflurane • Ketamine • Kynurenic acid • Laudexium (Laudolissin) • Levacetylmethadol • Malouetine • Mecamylamine • Memantine • Methadone • Methorphan (Racemethorphan) • Methyllycaconitine • Metocurine • Mivacurium • Morphanol (Racemorphanol) • Neramexane • Nitrous Oxide • Pancuronium • Pempidine • Pentamine • Pentolinium • Phencyclidine • Pipecuronium • Radafaxine • Rapacuronium • Rocuronium • Surugatoxin • Suxamethonium (Succinylcholine) • Thiocolchicoside • Toxiferine • Trimethaphan • Tropeinium • Tubocurarine • Vecuronium • Xenon  Reuptake inhibitors Plasmalemmal CHT Inhibitors Hemicholinium-3 (Hemicholine; HC3) • Triethylcholine Vesicular VAChT Inhibitors Vesamicol  Enzyme inhibitors Anabolism ChAT inhibitors 1-(-Benzoylethyl)pyridinium • 2-(α-Naphthoyl)ethyltrimethylammonium • 3-Chloro-4-stillbazole • 4-(1-Naphthylvinyl)pyridine • Acetylseco hemicholinium-3 • Acryloylcholine • AF64A • B115 • BETA • CM-54,903 • N,N-Dimethylaminoethylacrylate • N,N-Dimethylaminoethylchloroacetate Catabolism AChE inhibitors Reversible: Carbamates: Aldicarb • Bendiocarb • Bufencarb • Carbaryl • Carbendazim • Carbetamide • Carbofuran • Chlorbufam • Chloropropham • Ethienocarb • Ethiofencarb • Fenobucarb • Fenoxycarb • Formetanate • Furadan • Ladostigil • Methiocarb • Methomyl • Miotine • Oxamyl • Phenmedipham • Pinmicarb • Pirimicarb • Propamocarb • Propham • Propoxur; Stigmines: Ganstigmine • Neostigmine • Phenserine • Physostigmine • Pyridostigmine • Rivastigmine; Others: Acotiamide • Ambenonium • Donepezil • Edrophonium • Galantamine • Huperzine A • Minaprine • Tacrine • Zanapezil Irreversible: Organophosphates: Acephate • Azinphos-methyl • Bensulide • Cadusafos • Chlorethoxyfos • Chlorfenvinphos • Chlorpyrifos • Chlorpyrifos-Methyl • Coumaphos • Cyclosarin (GF) • Demeton • Demeton-S-Methyl • Diazinon • Dichlorvos • Dicrotophos • Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (Guthion) • Diisopropylphosphate • Dimethoate • Dioxathion • Disulfoton • EA-3148 • Echothiophate • Ethion • Ethoprop • Fenamiphos • Fenitrothion • Fenthion • Fosthiazate • GV • Isofluorophate • Isoxathion • Malaoxon • Malathion • Methamidophos • Methidathion • Metrifonate • Mevinphos • Monocrotophos • Naled • Novichok agent • Omethoate • Oxydemeton-Methyl • Paraoxon • Parathion • Parathion-Methyl • Phorate • Phosalone • Phosmet • Phostebupirim • Phoxim • Pirimiphos-Methyl • Sarin (GB) • Soman (GD) • Tabun (GA) • Temefos • Terbufos • Tetrachlorvinphos • Tribufos • Trichlorfon • VE • VG • VM • VR • VX; Others: Demecarium • Onchidal (Onchidella binneyi) BChE inhibitors Cymserine * Many of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors listed above act as butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.  Others Precursors Choline (Lecithin) • Citicoline • Cyprodenate • Dimethylethanolamine (DMAE, deanol) • Glycerophosphocholine • Meclofenoxate (Centrophenoxine) • Phosphatidylcholine • Phosphatidylethanolamine • Phosphorylcholine • Pirisudanol Cofactors Acetic acid • Acetylcarnitine • Acetyl-coA • Vitamin B5 (Pantethine, Pantetheine, Panthenol) Others Acetylcholine releasing agents: α-Latrotoxin • β-Bungarotoxin; Acetylcholine release inhibitors: Botulinum toxin (Botox); Acetylcholinesterase reactivators: Asoxime • Obidoxime • Pralidoxime This antihypertensive-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e This drug article relating to the musculoskeletal system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e This drug article relating to the nervous system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e