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Schematic representation of normal ECG In electrocardiography, the PR interval is measured from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. It is usually 120 to 200 ms long. On an ECG tracing, this corresponds to 3 to 5 small boxes. The PR interval reflects the time the electrical impulse takes to travel from the sinus node through the AV node and entering the ventricles. The PR interval is therefore a good estimate of AV node function. In case a Q wave was measured with an ECG, the PR interval is also commonly named "PQ interval" instead. Interpretation Variations in the PR interval can be associated with certain medical conditions: Duration A long PR interval (of over 200 ms) may indicate a first degree heart block.[1] Prolongation can be associated with hyperkalemia[2] or acute rheumatic fever.[3] or Lyme disease. [4] A short PR interval may indicate a pre-excitation syndrome via an accessory pathway that leads to early activation of the ventricles, such as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. A variable PR interval may indicate other types of heart block. PR segment depression may indicate atrial injury[citation needed] or pericarditis.[5] Variable morphologies of P waves in a single ECG lead is suggestive of an ectopic pacemaker rhythm such as wandering pacemaker or multifocal atrial tachycardia References ^ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/758322-overview ^ http://www.uhmc.sunysb.edu/internalmed/nephro/webpages/Part_D.htm ^ http://www.utmb.edu/Pedi_Ed/CoreConceptsOfPediatrics/Cardiology/page_40.htm ^ http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/123/5/e835 ^ http://www.amc.edu/amr/archives/200408/EKG2_ans.html v · d · eCardiovascular system, physiology: cardiovascular physiology Heart Volumes Stroke volume = End-diastolic volume – End-systolic volume Cardiac output = Heart rate × Stroke volume Afterload · Preload Frank–Starling law of the heart · Cardiac function curve · Venous return curve Aortic valve area calculation · Ejection fraction · Cardiac index Dimensions Fractional shortening = (End-diastolic dimension – End-systolic dimension) / End-diastolic dimension Interaction diagrams Cardiac cycle · Wiggers diagram · Pressure volume diagram Tropism Chronotropic (Heart rate) · Dromotropic (Conduction velocity) · Inotropic (Contractility) · Bathmotropic (Excitability) · Lusitropic (Relaxation) Conduction system / Cardiac electrophysiology Cardiac action potential (Atrial action potential, Ventricular action potential) · Effective refractory period · Pacemaker potential · EKG (P wave, PR interval, QRS complex, QT interval, ST segment, T wave, U wave) · Hexaxial reference system Chamber pressure Central venous pressure/right atrial pressure → Right ventricular pressure → Pulmonary artery pressure → Pulmonary wedge pressure/left atrial pressure → Left ventricular pressure → Aortic pressure Other Ventricular remodeling Vascular system/ Hemodynamics Blood flow Compliance · Vascular resistance (Total peripheral resistance) · Pulse · Perfusion Blood pressure Pulse pressure (Systolic - Diastolic) · Mean arterial pressure Jugular venous pressure Portal venous pressure Regulation of BP Baroreflex · Kinin-kallikrein system · Renin-angiotensin system · Vasoconstrictors/Vasodilators · Autoregulation (Myogenic mechanism, Tubuloglomerular feedback) · Paraganglia (Aortic body, Carotid body, Glomus cell) M: HRT anat/phys/devp noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug (C1A/1B/1C/1D), blte M: VAS anat(a:h/u/t/a/l,v:h/u/t/a/l)/phys/devp/cell/prot noco/syva/cong/lyvd/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug(C2s+n/3/4/5/7/8/9)