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This is a list of the bird species recorded in Jamaica. The avifauna of Jamaica includes a total of 324 species, of which 28 are endemic, 15 have been introduced by humans, and 160 are rare or accidental. 1 species listed is extirpated in Jamaica and is not included in the species count. 12 species are globally threatened. This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Jamaica. The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. The commonly occurring, native, species do not fall into any of these categories. (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Jamaica. (E) Endemic A species endemic to Jamaica. (I) Introduced A species introduced to Jamaica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions. (Ex) Extirpated A species that no longer occurs in Jamaica although populations exist elsewhere. Conservation status is highlighted as follows: (N) Near-threatened (V) Vulnerable (En) Endangered (CE) Critically endangered Table of contents Non-passerines: Grebes . Shearwaters and Petrels . Storm-Petrels . Tropicbirds . Pelicans . Boobies and Gannets . Cormorants . Darters . Frigatebirds . Bitterns, Herons and Egrets . Storks . Ibises and Spoonbills . Flamingos . Ducks, Geese and Swans . New World vultures . Osprey . Hawks, Kites and Eagles . Caracaras and Falcons . New World quails . Guineafowl . Limpkins . Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots . Jacanas . Oystercatchers . Avocets and Stilts . Plovers and Lapwings . Sandpipers and allies . Skuas and Jaegers . Gulls . Terns . Skimmers . Pigeons and Doves . Parrots, Macaws and allies . Cuckoos and Anis . Barn owls . Typical owls . Potoos . Nightjars . Swifts . Hummingbirds . Kingfishers . Todies . Woodpeckers and allies Passerines: Tyrant flycatchers . Larks . Swallows and Martins . Wagtails and Pipits . Kinglets . Waxwings . Mockingbirds and Thrashers . Thrushes and allies . Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies . Starlings . Weavers and allies . Waxbills and allies . Vireos . New World warblers . Bananaquit . Tanagers . Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies . Saltators, Cardinals and allies . Troupials and allies . Siskins, Crossbills and allies . Sparrows See also       References Grebes As seen here with the Least Grebe, grebes can resemble ducks when swimming. Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae Grebes are a species of bird that are well adapted for the sea and for diving. They are found in many parts of the world, mostly on calm and safe waters. They resemble ducks and loons is their physical appearance, but they swim lower in water than ducks do. They have an ability to submerge themselves under water, a technique they use to escape an approaching danger or predator. Despite their prowess when swimming and on water, they are much less agile and waddle quite awkwardly on land, and they are fairly poor with their flying as well.[1] There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps Shearwaters and petrels Order: Procellariiformes Family: Procellariidae The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary.[2] There are 75 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica. Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata (A)(N) Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus (A) Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis (A) Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri (A) Storm-Petrels Order: Procellariiformes Family: Hydrobatidae The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Wilson's Storm-Petrel Oceanites oceanicus Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa (A) Tropicbirds Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus (A) White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Pelicans Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Pelecanidae Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (A) Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis Boobies and gannets Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica. Masked Booby Sula dactylatra (A) Red-footed Booby Sula sula (A) Brown Booby Sula leucogaster Cormorants Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phalacrocoracidae The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus (A) Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A) Darters Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Anhingidae Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Anhinga Anhinga anhinga (A) Frigatebirds Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Fregatidae Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens Bitterns, herons and egrets Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Jamaica. Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Great Egret Ardea alba Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens (A) Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea Snowy Egret Egretta thula Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Green Heron Butorides virescens Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus (A) Storks Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ciconiidae Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Wood Stork Mycteria americana (A) Ibises and spoonbills Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Threskiornithidae The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica. White Ibis Eudocimus albus Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber (A) Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus (A) Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja (A) Flamingos Order: Phoenicopteriformes Family: Phoenicopteridae Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (1.5 m) high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Caribbean Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber (A) Ducks, geese and swans Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Jamaica. Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor (A) West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arborea (V) Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis (A) Snow Goose Chen caerulescens (A) Canada Goose Branta canadensis (A) Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata (A) (N) Wood Duck Aix sponsa (A) American Wigeon Anas americana (A) Gadwall Anas strepera (A) Green-winged Teal Anas carolinensis (A) Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (A) Northern Pintail Anas acuta (A) White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (A) Blue-winged Teal Anas discors Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera (A) Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata (A) Canvasback Aythya valisineria (A) Redhead Aythya americana (A) Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris (A) Greater Scaup Aythya marila (A) Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis (A) Bufflehead Bucephala albeola (A) Masked Duck Nomonyx dominica Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis New World vultures Order: Falconiformes Family: Cathartidae The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion. There are 7 species worldwide, all of which are found only in the Americas, and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (A) Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura Osprey Order: Falconiformes Family: Pandionidae The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. Osprey Pandion haliaetus Hawks, kites and eagles Order: Falconiformes Family: Accipitridae Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Jamaica. Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus (A) Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (A) Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis (A) Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus (A) Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus (A) Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus (A) Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis Caracaras and falcons Order: Falconiformes Family: Falconidae Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica. Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway (A) Southern Caracara Caracara plancus (A) American Kestrel Falco sparverius Merlin Falco columbarius (A) Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus New World quails Order: Galliformes Family: Odontophoridae The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There are 32 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas, and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus (N) Guineafowl Order: Galliformes Family: Numididae Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Helmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagris (I) Limpkins Order: Gruiformes Family: Aramidae The Limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab brown plumage and a greyer head and neck. Limpkin Aramus guarauna Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots Order: Gruiformes Family: Rallidae Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Jamaica. Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis (A) Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris King Rail Rallus elegans (A) Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor (Ex) Sora Porzana carolina (A) Yellow-breasted Crake Porzana flaviventer Spotted Rail Pardirallus maculatus (A) Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus American Coot Fulica americana Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea (N) Jacanas Order: Charadriiformes Family: Jacanidae The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa Oystercatchers Order: Charadriiformes Family: Haematopodidae The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and1 species which occurs in Jamaica. American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus (A) Avocets and stilts Order: Charadriiformes Family: Recurvirostridae Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus American Avocet Recurvirostra americana (A) Plovers and lapwings Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Jamaica. American Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica (A) Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia Killdeer Charadrius vociferus Piping Plover Charadrius melodus (A) (N) Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus (A) Sandpipers and allies Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 26 species which occur in Jamaica. Wilson's Snipe Gallinago delicata (A) Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus (A) Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa (A) Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus (A) (N) Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda (A) Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria (A) Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres Red Knot Calidris canutus (A) Sanderling Calidris alba Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis (A) Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos (A) Dunlin Calidris alpina (A) Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus (A) Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis (A) (N) Ruff Philomachus pugnax (A) Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor (A) Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus (A) Skuas and jaegers Order: Charadriiformes Family: Stercorariidae The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica. Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus (A) Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus (A) Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus (A) Gulls Order: Charadriiformes Family: Laridae Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica. Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis (A) American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus (A) Bonaparte's Gull Larus philadelphia Laughing Gull Larus atricilla Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (A) Terns Order: Charadriiformes Family: Sternidae Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Jamaica. Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica (A) Caspian Tern Sterna caspia (A) Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis Royal Tern Sterna maxima Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii Common Tern Sterna hirundo (A) Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri (A) Least Tern Sterna antillarum Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata Black Tern Chlidonias niger Brown Noddy Anous stolidus Skimmers Order: Charadriiformes Family: Rynchopidae Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Black Skimmer Rynchops niger (A) Pigeons and doves Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Jamaica. Rock Pigeon Columba livia (I) White-crowned Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala (N) Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas squamosa (A) Ring-tailed Pigeon Patagioenas caribaea (E) (V) Plain Pigeon Patagioenas inornata (N) Eurasian Turtle-Dove Streptopelia turtur (I) African Collared-Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea (I) Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura Zenaida Dove Zenaida aurita White-winged Dove Zenaida asiatica Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina Caribbean Dove Leptotila jamaicensis Crested Quail-dove Geotrygon versicolor (E) (N) Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon montana Blue-headed Quail-Dove Starnoenas cyanocephala (I) (En) Parrots, macaws and allies Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittacidae Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica. Olive-throated Parakeet Aratinga nana Green-rumped Parrotlet Forpus passerinus (I) Yellow-billed Amazon Amazona collaria (E) (V) Black-billed Amazon Amazona agilis (E) (V) Cuckoos and anis Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Jamaica. Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A) Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus (A) Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor Jamaican Lizard-cuckoo Saurothera vetula (E) Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo Hyetornis pluvialis (E) Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani Barn owls Order: Strigiformes Family: Tytonidae Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Barn Owl Tyto alba Typical owls Order: Strigiformes Family: Strigidae Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Jamaican Owl Pseudoscops grammicus (E) Potoos Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Nyctibiidae The potoos (sometimes called Poor-Me-Ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars. There are 5 species, all of which are from the South American tropical region, and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Northern Potoo Nyctibius jamaicensis Nightjars Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Caprimulgidae Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica. Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor (A) Antillean Nighthawk Chordeiles gundlachii Chuck-will's-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis (A) Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus (A) Swifts Order: Apodiformes Family: Apodidae Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica. Black Swift Cypseloides niger White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica (A) Antillean Palm-Swift Tachornis phoenicobia Hummingbirds Order: Trochiliformes Family: Trochilidae Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica. Jamaican Mango Anthracothorax mango (E) Red-billed Streamertail Trochilus polytmus (E) Black-billed Streamertail Trochilus scitulus (E) Vervain Hummingbird Mellisuga minima Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris (A) Kingfishers Order: Coraciiformes Family: Alcedinidae Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon Todies Order: Coraciiformes Family: Todidae Todies are a group of small near passerine forest species of endemic to the Caribbean. These birds have colourful plumage and resemble small kingfishers, but with flattened bills with serrated edges. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Jamaican Tody Todus todus (E) Woodpeckers and allies Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica. Jamaican Woodpecker Melanerpes radiolatus (E) Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius (A) Fernandina's Flicker Colaptes fernandinae (A) (V) Tyrant flycatchers Order: Passeriformes Family: Tyrannidae Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas and 15 species which occur in Jamaica. Jamaican Elaenia Myiopagis cotta (E) Greater Antillean Elaenia Elaenia fallax Western Wood-Pewee Contopus sordidulus (A) Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens (A) Jamaican Pewee Contopus pallidus (E) Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii (A) Sad Flycatcher Myiarchus barbirostris (E) Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer (A) Rufous-tailed Flycatcher Myiarchus validus (E) Stolid Flycatcher Myiarchus stolidus Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus (A) Gray Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus caudifasciatus Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana (A) Jamaican Becard Pachyramphus niger (E) Larks Order: Passeriformes Family: Alaudidae Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis Swallows and martins Order: Passeriformes Family: Hirundinidae The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Jamaica. Purple Martin Progne subis (A) Caribbean Martin Progne dominicensis Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor (A) Golden Swallow Tachycineta euchrysea (A) (V) Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis (A) Bank Swallow Riparia riparia (A) Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A) Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Wagtails and pipits Order: Passeriformes Family: Motacillidae The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. American Pipit Anthus rubescens (A) Kinglets Order: Passeriformes Family: Regulidae The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula (A) Waxwings Order: Passeriformes Family: Bombycillidae The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterized by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum (A) Mockingbirds and Thrashers Order: Passeriformes Family: Mimidae The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull greys and browns . There are 35 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica. Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis (A) Bahama Mockingbird Mimus gundlachii Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus (A) Thrushes and allies Order: Passeriformes Family: Turdidae The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Jamaica. Rufous-throated Solitaire Myadestes genibarbis Veery Catharus fuscescens (A) Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus Bicknell's Thrush Catharus bicknelli (A) (V) Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus (A) Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina (A) Red-legged Thrush Turdus plumbeus White-eyed Thrush Turdus jamaicensis (E) American Robin Turdus migratorius (A) White-chinned Thrush Turdus aurantius (E) Crows, jays, ravens and magpies Order: Passeriformes Family: Corvidae The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Black-billed Magpie Pica hudsonia Jamaican Crow Corvus jamaicensis (E) Starlings Order: Passeriformes Family: Sturnidae Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Common Myna Acridotheres tristis (I) European Starling Sturnus vulgaris (I) Weavers and allies Order: Passeriformes Family: Ploceidae The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica. Yellow-crowned Bishop Euplectes afer (I) Orange Bishop Euplectes franciscanus (A) Red Bishop Euplectes orix (I) Waxbills and allies Order: Passeriformes Family: Estrildidae The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica. Nutmeg Mannikin Lonchura punctulata (I) Black-headed Munia Lonchura malacca (I) Vireos Order: Passeriformes Family: Vireonidae The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Jamaica. White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus (A) Jamaican Vireo Vireo modestus (E) Blue Mountain Vireo Vireo osburni (E) (N) Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons (A) Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius (A) Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus (A) Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus (A) Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo altiloquus New World warblers Order: Passeriformes Family: Parulidae The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species worldwide and 38 species which occur in Jamaica. Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus (A) Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera (A) (N) Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina (A) Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata (A) Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla (A) Northern Parula Parula americana Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica (A) Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia (A) Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens (A) Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca (A) Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica (A) Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus (A) Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea (A) Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata (A) Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea (A) (V) Arrow-headed Warbler Dendroica pharetra (E) Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea (A) Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorus (A) Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii (A) Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus (A) Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis (A) Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia (A) Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina (A) Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla (A) Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis (A) Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens (A) Bananaquit Order: Passeriformes Family: Coerebidae The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct. Bananaquit Coereba flaveola Tanagers Order: Passeriformes Family: Thraupidae The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings. There are 256 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica. Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea (A) Summer Tanager Piranga rubra (A) Jamaican Spindalis Spindalis nigricephala (E) Jamaican Euphonia Euphonia jamaica (E) Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus (A) Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies Order: Passeriformes Family: Emberizidae The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 11 species which occur in Jamaica. Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivacea Black-faced Grassquit Tiaris bicolor Yellow-shouldered Grassquit Loxipasser anoxanthus (E) Orangequit Euneornis campestris (E) Greater Antillean Bullfinch Loxigilla violacea Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola (I) Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus (A) Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii (A) White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys (A) Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis (A) Saltators, Cardinals and allies Order: Passeriformes Family: Cardinalidae The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica. Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus (A) Blue Grosbeak Passerina caerulea (A) Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea (A) Painted Bunting Passerina ciris (A) (N) Dickcissel Spiza americana (A) Troupials and allies Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteridae The icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Jamaica. Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus Jamaican Blackbird Nesopsar nigerrimus (E) (En) Greater Antillean Grackle Quiscalus niger Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis (I) Jamaican Oriole Icterus leucopteryx Venezuelan Troupial Icterus icterus Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula (A) Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius (A) Siskins, crossbills and allies Order: Passeriformes Family: Fringillidae Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. White-winged Crossbill Loxia leucoptera Sparrows Order: Passeriformes Family: Passeridae Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica. House Sparrow Passer domesticus (I) See also List of birds Lists of birds by region Notes ^ "Grebes". Retrieved 23 April 2007.  ^ "Shearwaters (Petrel information included)". Retrieved 23 April 2007.  References Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Jamaica". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 26 April 2007.  Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. pp. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1.