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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2007) 1988 FIA Formula One World Championship season Previous: 1987 Next: 1989 Index: Races by country | Races by season The 1988 Formula One season was the 39th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1988 FIA Formula One World Championship which commenced on April 3, 1988 and ended on November 13 after sixteen races. Two titles were awarded: the Formula One World Championship for Drivers, won by Ayrton Senna, and the Formula One World Championship for Constructors, easily taken by McLaren Honda. Contents 1 Season summary 2 Drivers and constructors 3 Race schedule 4 1988 Calendar 5 1988 Drivers Championship final standings 6 1988 Constructors Championship final standings 7 Notes and references 8 External links Season summary Ayrton Senna won his first world championship in his first season driving for McLaren. In a year dominated by McLaren, Alain Prost was narrowly beaten by his team-mate. Gerhard Berger finished third in the Drivers' Championship, and Ferrari were runners-up in the Constructors' Championship, but both were a long way behind McLaren and its drivers. The pre-season was a very contentious time, with many theories of the championship flying around. Would the Honda engines prove successful with McLaren? Would Ferrari be able to continue the trend set by the last two rounds of 1987 where Gerhard Berger took successive victories? Would Williams be able to continue their success without Honda and Nelson Piquet? Could World Champion Piquet succeed in defending his title with the Honda powered Lotus? The Jim Clark and Colin Chapman cups, awarded the previous year for drivers and constructors, respectively, who were using naturally aspirated engines, had been withdrawn as the "atmospheric" naturally aspirated engines were making a return as the sole engine for 1989, with severe restrictions on turbos for this season. Many teams took the gamble of using Judd or Cosworth V8 engines, to get an extra year to get used to the new regulations, whilst other teams like Ferrari and McLaren decided to make the most of their turbo experience and made one last turbo car to hopefully bring the most of the cars despite the regulations. The number of participants had risen to 31 as new teams Dallara, Rial and EuroBrun joined Formula 1. Only 30 cars were allowed to qualifying sessions, so one car had to be relegated from each event before first qualifying session. This meant the re-introduction of Pre-qualification, which in 1988 was held during the first free practice session. Five drivers had to fight for four available spots to be allowed in qualifying proper. Participants for pre-qualifying were chosen based on the results from last 2 half-seasons and at season midpoint the pre-qualifiers would be re-evaluated. For the first race of the season in Brazil, with Ferrari being the only completely stable option, many agreed that Gerhard Berger would be in serious contention, and this was supported in his second place behind Alain Prost's McLaren as well as setting the fastest race lap for the Scuderia. Remarkable also, was Nigel Mansell's recovery from his accident in Japan to score a front row position for his non-turbo Judd-powered Williams on his first race back. Ayrton Senna suffered from a failure at the race's beginning, eventually being disqualified after switching to the spare car. At the time he had risen up to second place after starting from the pits. At Imola however, it was plain to see what all the teams had feared. Gordon Murray's MP4/4, combined with the championship winning Honda turbo, made a mockery of the rest of the grid. In qualifying both Senna and Prost were 3 seconds faster than the Lotus-Honda of Piquet in 3rd. At the end of the race Senna and Prost had lapped the entire field, with team-mate Prost only 2.3 seconds behind Senna at the finish. Indeed both McLarens set faster race laps than anyone else had qualified. Former World Champion Keke Rosberg said in an interview at Imola, if you ignored the McLarens it was quite a competitive race between the turbo's and the 'atmos'. Considering that the Imola circuit had always been considered a power track that spelled good news for the FIA's turbo restriction rules. Despite what many expected, the championship would hardly be considered boring with the McLaren onslaught peaking with the drivers fighting in several feuds. At Monaco, after Alain Prost set the fastest lap, Ayrton refused to accept that his team-mate could be driving faster than he was, especially after Senna out qualified Prost by over a second. Senna pushed and after scoring the fastest lap, he had a lapse in concentration and hit the wall. Berger picked up second place behind Prost. In Mexico, it was nearly a repeat of San Marino: McLaren 1-2, with this time only one driver on the lead lap. Gerhard Berger had picked up his third podium in four races, giving him the edge on Piquet and Alboreto for the title of "Best of the Rest" - The race for third. Canada again proved a repeat of the McLaren onslaught, this time Boutsen's Benetton being the only other car on the lead lap, and 50 seconds behind. This was repeated in Detroit, however this time Boutsen failed to stay on the lead lap as Senna took his second victory in a row, making it six out of six for McLaren and Honda. The following race at Paul Ricard saw another 1-2 for McLaren, this time with Prost at the helm for his home Grand Prix, followed by the Ferraris of Alboreto and Berger, with only the former on the lead lap. Piquet raced a brilliant race, despite losing second gear, to come through for a fifth place. At the wet British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Nigel Mansell surprised all by scoring a second place for an atmos car for his first finish of the season after seven races of DNFs, a result which definitely pleased the hordes of British fans who were still gripped in Mansell-mania despite the driver's (or rather, the car's) lacklustre performance through the year. The podium was rounded off by Nannini, proving that Silverstone was an unusually good race for the atmos cars. Germany proved a return to the year's trend, with again long straights of Hockenheim showcasing the brute strength of the turbos, with the only atmos car on the lead lap behind both McLaren and Ferraris respectively being Capelli's March. Senna took the win to Prost, with Berger taking the bottom step of the rostrum. At the following grand prix at Hungary, Senna secured his 24th pole position, securing the third highest total after legendary champions Jim Clark and Fangio, backing his qualifying effort up with a victory, less than a second in front of team-mate Prost. This was Senna's sixth win of the season, and third on the trot, with Prost on just four wins. The 1988 Belgian Grand Prix showed Prost one thing: to not change his set-up at the last minute. All through the year, Prost's better feel at setting up a car was not only noticed by his team-mate, but mimicked. Senna had used Prost's set-ups for every race thus far, and the race at Spa was no different. This annoyed Prost, and he changed his aero-settings at the last minute, hoping to give himself an edge over the pole-sitting Senna. At the start, Prost took the lead after Senna suffered wheel spin but was caught and passed half way around the track. Senna went on to secure the victory to Prost, a distant second. Third and fourth was filled by the two Benettons, however they were both disqualified from the results[1] long after the race had ended, for using illegal fuel, giving Capelli his first podium of the year. The 1-2 for McLaren signified the end of any statistical hope of Ferrari catching them in constructors championship, securing McLaren one of the earliest recorded constructors victories. Before the Italian Grand Prix, Prost was quoted as saying that, as it was very possible that McLaren would take out a perfect sixteen out of sixteen victories, the winner would be determined between which McLaren driver would take the most wins, and on the chance they both took eight, it would be determined on their second places, which at the time Prost had more of despite having fewer wins. This meant Prost could only let Senna win one more time. Monza, being another high speed circuit, would prove to be another McLaren dominated race, with both sitting on the front row, again with both Ferraris behind. The race fell into regular routine as Senna lead from the start and Prost close behind. However, on lap 35 of 51, Prost's championship hopes seemed to evaporate in a cloud of smoke, leaking from his engine. The tifosi cheered as their drivers were shifted to second and third, and Honda were left embarrassed with their engine expiring on a track that was being dominated by the turbo cars. Senna looked set to secure another victory, and albeit seal his championship hopes, when lapping Schlesser, filling in for the still ill Mansell, decided it was wise to do so on one of the track's corners, instead of waiting for the long straight that would follow. Senna accidentally hit Schlesser and was livid, whilst the tifosi erupted; Gerhard Berger and Michele Alboreto sat first and second, where they remained at the finish. The victory was made poignant by the fact that it was the first race since Enzo Ferrari's death. Both drivers and team dedicated the victory to him. This race would prove to be the only chink in McLaren's perfect year and their only double retirement. The following grand prix at Portugal proved to be an exciting affair, for all but Ayrton Senna who suffered race long with handling troubles. He ended sixth while Prost kept his championship hopes alive to secure his fifth race of the year. Then at Spain, he secured his sixth, again in an attempt to delay an almost inevitable eighth race for Senna - a race that would secure his first of three championships. Senna suffered from fuel gauge and was lucky to secure fourth whilst Mansell doubled his British Grand Prix efforts and scored another six points. The penultimate round in Japan was, once again, where the title was decided. This time it was the end of the weekend, and not the beginning. Prost made a superb start to the lead, whilst Senna stalled, lucky in the fact that Suzuka had a sloping grid, helping to start his car. Senna knew he had nothing to lose and everything to gain in this race, and knew he could seal the championship here. By the end of the lap he had already made up six positions, and by the fourth lap he was sitting in fourth position. The top six cars were all sitting very close and when the rain started to fall, so did Prost. Capelli took this chance to become the first naturally aspirated car to lead a Grand Prix in over 4 years, thrilling the March team. Unfortunately, this was not to last as his electronics would eventually fail. By then, Senna was hot on the tail of Prost. Prost hated the wet, as much as he hated to lose, and his failing gearbox only added to the Brazilian's chances. When the pair came round to lap some back-markers, as Prost was caught up with de Cesaris, Ayrton went past to take the lead, and set three consecutive fastest laps and setting a new lap record. As he was now out on a wet track with dry tires, as many other drivers were, he signaled to stop the race. However, the race ran its full distance and Honda were reveling in their 1-2 finish, whilst Prost was bitter. He would go on to win in Adelaide, and score eleven more points in total than Senna, but only the eleven highest scores counted, with Senna's eight wins and three seconds giving him a total of 90 points to Prost's 87. He went on to be a proponent of the 90's scoring system - all results counting to the final results with the winner scoring 10, not 9, points. Drivers and constructors The following drivers and constructors competed in the 1988 season Entrant Constructor Chassis Engine Tyre No Driver Rounds Test driver(s) Camel Team Lotus Honda Lotus 100T Honda RA168E 1.5 V6t G 1 Nelson Piquet All Martin Donnelly 2 Satoru Nakajima All Tyrrell Racing Organisation Tyrrell 017 Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 3 Jonathan Palmer All n/a 4 Julian Bailey All Canon Williams Team Williams FW12 Judd CV 3.5 V8 G 5 Nigel Mansell 1-10, 13-16 Jean-Louis Schlesser Martin Brundle 11 Jean-Louis Schlesser 12 6 Riccardo Patrese All West Zakspeed Racing Zakspeed 881 Zakspeed 1500/4 1.5 L4t G 9 Piercarlo Ghinzani All Christian Danner 10 Bernd Schneider All Honda Marlboro McLaren McLaren MP4/4 Honda RA168E 1.5 V6t G 11 Alain Prost All Emanuele Pirro 12 Ayrton Senna All Automobiles Gonfaronaise Sportive AGS JH22 JH23 Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 14 Philippe Streiff All n/a Leyton House March Racing Team March 881 Judd CV 3.5 V8 G 15 Maurício Gugelmin All n/a 16 Ivan Capelli All USF&G Arrows Megatron Arrows A10B Megatron M12/13 1.5 L4t G 17 Derek Warwick All n/a 18 Eddie Cheever All Benetton Formula Ltd Benetton B188 Ford Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8 G 19 Alessandro Nannini All Johnny Dumfries Gary Brabham 20 Thierry Boutsen All Osella Squadra Corse Osella FA1I FA1L Osella 890T 1.5 V8t G 21 Nicola Larini All n/a Rial Racing Rial ARC1 Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 22 Andrea de Cesaris All n/a Lois Minardi Team SpA Minardi M188 Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 23 Adrián Campos 1-5 Pierluigi Martini Pierluigi Martini 6-16 24 Luis Perez-Sala All Ligier Loto Ligier JS31 Judd CV 3.5 V8 G 25 René Arnoux All n/a 26 Stefan Johansson All Scuderia Ferrari SpA SEFAC Ferrari F1/87/88C Ferrari 033E 1.5 V6t G 27 Michele Alboreto All Roberto Moreno Gianni Morbidelli Dario Benuzzi 28 Gerhard Berger All Larrousse Calmels Lola LC88 Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 29 Yannick Dalmas 1-14 n/a Aguri Suzuki 15 Pierre-Henri Raphanel 16 30 Philippe Alliot All Coloni SpA Coloni FC188 FC188B Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 31 Gabriele Tarquini All n/a EuroBrun Racing EuroBrun ER188 Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 32 Oscar Larrauri All n/a 33 Stefano Modena All BMS Scuderia Italia Dallara 188 Ford Cosworth DFZ 3.5 V8 G 36 Alex Caffi All n/a Race schedule Round Race Date Location 1 Brazilian Grand Prix April 3 Jacarepaguá 2 San Marino Grand Prix May 1 Imola 3 Monaco Grand Prix May 15 Monaco 4 Mexican Grand Prix May 29 Hermanos Rodriguez 5 Canadian Grand Prix June 12 Circuit Gilles Villeneuve 6 Detroit Grand Prix June 19 Detroit 7 French Grand Prix July 3 Paul Ricard 8 British Grand Prix July 10 Silverstone 9 German Grand Prix July 24 Hockenheimring 10 Hungarian Grand Prix August 7 Hungaroring 11 Belgian Grand Prix August 28 Spa-Francorchamps 12 Italian Grand Prix September 11 Monza 13 Portuguese Grand Prix September 25 Estoril 14 Spanish Grand Prix October 2 Jerez 15 Japanese Grand Prix October 30 Suzuka 16 Australian Grand Prix November 13 Adelaide 1988 Calendar Rd. Grand Prix Pole Position Fastest Lap Winning Driver Constructor Report 1 Brazilian Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Gerhard Berger Alain Prost McLaren-Honda Report 2 San Marino Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Alain Prost Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 3 Monaco Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Ayrton Senna Alain Prost McLaren-Honda Report 4 Mexican Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Alain Prost Alain Prost McLaren-Honda Report 5 Canadian Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Ayrton Senna Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 6 Detroit Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Alain Prost Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 7 French Grand Prix Alain Prost Alain Prost Alain Prost McLaren-Honda Report 8 British Grand Prix Gerhard Berger Nigel Mansell Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 9 German Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Alessandro Nannini Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 10 Hungarian Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Alain Prost Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 11 Belgian Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Gerhard Berger Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 12 Italian Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Michele Alboreto Gerhard Berger Ferrari Report 13 Portuguese Grand Prix Alain Prost Gerhard Berger Alain Prost McLaren-Honda Report 14 Spanish Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Alain Prost Alain Prost McLaren-Honda Report 15 Japanese Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Ayrton Senna Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda Report 16 Australian Grand Prix Ayrton Senna Alain Prost Alain Prost McLaren-Honda Report 1988 Drivers Championship final standings Pos Driver BRA SMR MON MEX CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS Points[2] 1 Ayrton Senna DSQ 1 Ret 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10† 6 4 1 2 90 (94)* 2 Alain Prost 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 Ret 2 2 2 Ret 1 1 2 1 87 (105)* 3 Gerhard Berger 2 5 2 3 Ret Ret 4 9 3 4 Ret 1 Ret 6 4 Ret 41 4 Thierry Boutsen 7 4 8 8 3 3 Ret Ret 6 3 DSQ 6 3 9 3 5 27 5 Michele Alboreto 5 18† 3 4 Ret Ret 3 17† 4 Ret Ret 2 5 Ret 11 Ret 24 6 Nelson Piquet 3 3 Ret Ret 4 Ret 5 5 Ret 8 4 Ret Ret 8 Ret 3 22 7 Ivan Capelli Ret Ret 10 16 5 DNS 9 Ret 5 Ret 3 5 2 Ret Ret 6 17 8 Derek Warwick 4 9 4 5 7 Ret Ret 6 7 Ret 5 4 4 Ret Ret Ret 17 9 Nigel Mansell Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 2 Ret Ret Ret 2 Ret Ret 12 10 Alessandro Nannini Ret 6 Ret 7 Ret Ret 6 3 18 Ret DSQ 9 Ret 3 5 Ret 12 11 Riccardo Patrese Ret 13 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 6 Ret 7 Ret 5 6 4 8 12 Eddie Cheever 8 7 Ret 6 Ret Ret 11 7 10 Ret 6 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 13 Maurício Gugelmin Ret 15 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 4 8 5 Ret 8 Ret 7 10 Ret 5 14 Jonathan Palmer Ret 14 5 DNQ 6 5 Ret Ret 11 Ret 12† DNQ Ret Ret 12 Ret 5 15 Andrea de Cesaris Ret Ret Ret Ret 9† 4 10 Ret 13 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8† 3 16 Satoru Nakajima 6 8 DNQ Ret 11 DNQ 7 10 9 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret 7 Ret 1 17 Pierluigi Martini 6 15 15 DNQ Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret 13 7 1 — Yannick Dalmas Ret 12 7 9 DNQ 7 13 13 19† 9 Ret Ret Ret 11 0 — Alex Caffi DNPQ Ret Ret Ret DNPQ 8 12 11 15 Ret 8 Ret 7 10 Ret Ret 0 — Martin Brundle 7 0 — Philippe Streiff Ret 10 Ret 12 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret 9 Ret 8 11† 0 — Luis Perez-Sala Ret 11 Ret 11 13 Ret NC Ret DNQ 10 DNQ Ret 8 12 15 Ret 0 — Gabriele Tarquini Ret Ret Ret 14 8 DNQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ 13 Ret DNQ 11 DNPQ DNPQ DNQ 0 — Philippe Alliot Ret 17 Ret Ret 10† Ret Ret 14 Ret 12 9 Ret Ret 14 9 10† 0 — Stefan Johansson 9 DNQ Ret 10 Ret Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret 11† DNQ Ret Ret DNQ 9† 0 — Julian Bailey DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ Ret 9† DNQ 16 DNQ DNQ DNQ 12 DNQ DNQ 14 DNQ 0 — Nicola Larini DNQ EX 9 DNQ DNQ Ret Ret 19† Ret DNPQ Ret Ret 12 Ret Ret DNPQ 0 — René Arnoux Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret DNQ 18 17 Ret Ret 13 10 Ret 17 Ret 0 — Stefano Modena Ret NC DSQ DSQ 12 Ret 14 12 Ret 11 DNQ DNQ DNQ 13 DNQ Ret 0 — Jean-Louis Schlesser 11 0 — Bernd Schneider DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ 12 DNQ 13† Ret DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ 0 — Oscar Larrauri Ret DNQ Ret 13 Ret Ret Ret DNQ 16 DNQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNQ DNQ Ret 0 — Piercarlo Ghinzani DNQ Ret Ret 15 14† DNQ EX DNQ 14 DNQ Ret Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret 0 — Adrián Campos Ret 16 DNQ DNQ DNQ 0 — Aguri Suzuki 16 0 — Pierre-Henri Raphanel DNQ 0 Pos Driver BRA SMR MON MEX CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS Points Key Colour Result Gold Winner Silver 2nd place Bronze 3rd place Green Points finish Blue Non-points finish Non-classified finish (NC) Purple Did not finish (Ret) Red Did not qualify (DNQ) Did not pre-qualify (DNPQ) Black Disqualified (DSQ) White Did not start (DNS) Race cancelled (C) Light blue Practiced only (PO) Friday test driver (TD) (from 2003 onwards) Blank Did not practice (DNP) Excluded (EX) Did not arrive (DNA) Withdrew entry before the event (WD) † Drivers did not finish the Grand Prix, but were classified as they completed over 90% of the race distance. Drivers Championship points were awarded on a 9-6-4-3-2-1 basis to the first six finishers in each race.[3] Only best 11 results counted toward the championship.[4] Prost scored 105 points during the year, but only 87 points were counted toward the championship. Senna scored 94 points, with 90 points counted toward the championship by virtue of winning more races. Thus, Senna became the World Champion, although he did not score most points over the course of the year. 1988 Constructors Championship final standings Pos Constructor Car no. BRA SMR MON MEX CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS Pts 1 McLaren-Honda 11 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 Ret 2 2 2 Ret 1 1 2 1 199 12 DSQ 1 Ret 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10 6 4 1 2 2 Ferrari 27 5 18 3 4 Ret Ret 3 17 4 Ret Ret 2 5 Ret 11 Ret 65 28 2 5 2 3 Ret Ret 4 9 3 4 Ret 1 Ret 6 4 Ret 3 Benetton-Ford 19 Ret 6 Ret 7 Ret Ret 6 3 18 Ret DSQ 9 Ret 3 5 Ret 39 20 7 4 8 8 3 3 Ret Ret 6 3 DSQ 6 3 9 3 5 4 Lotus-Honda 1 3 3 Ret Ret 4 Ret 5 5 Ret 8 4 Ret Ret 8 Ret 3 23 2 6 8 DNQ Ret 11 DNQ 7 10 9 7 Ret Ret Ret Ret 7 Ret 5 Arrows-Megatron 17 4 9 4 5 7 Ret Ret 6 7 Ret 5 4 4 Ret Ret Ret 23 18 8 7 Ret 6 Ret Ret 11 7 10 Ret 6 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 March-Judd 15 Ret 15 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 4 8 5 Ret 8 Ret 7 10 Ret 22 16 Ret Ret 10 16 5 DNS 9 Ret 5 Ret 3 5 2 Ret Ret 6 7 Williams-Judd 5 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 2 Ret Ret 7 11 Ret 2 Ret Ret 20 6 Ret 13 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 6 Ret 7 Ret 5 6 4 8 Tyrrell-Ford 3 Ret 14 5 DNQ 6 5 Ret Ret 11 Ret 12 DNQ Ret Ret 12 Ret 5 4 DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ Ret 9 DNQ 16 DNQ DNQ DNQ 12 DNQ DNQ 14 DNQ 9 Rial-Ford 22 Ret Ret Ret Ret 9 4 10 Ret 13 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 3 10 Minardi-Ford 23 Ret 16 DNQ DNQ DNQ 6 15 15 DNQ Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret 13 7 1 24 Ret 11 Ret 11 13 Ret NC Ret DNQ 10 DNQ Ret 8 12 15 Ret — Lola-Ford 29 Ret 12 7 9 DNQ 7 13 13 19 9 Ret Ret Ret 11 16 DNQ 0 30 Ret 17 Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret 14 Ret 12 9 Ret Ret 14 9 10 — Dallara-Ford 36 DNPQ Ret Ret Ret DNPQ 8 12 11 15 Ret 8 Ret 7 10 Ret Ret 0 — AGS-Ford 14 Ret 10 Ret 12 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret 9 Ret 8 11 0 — Coloni-Ford 31 Ret Ret Ret 14 8 DNQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ 13 Ret DNQ 11 DNPQ DNPQ DNQ 0 — Ligier-Judd 25 Ret DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret DNQ 18 17 Ret Ret 13 10 Ret 17 Ret 0 26 9 DNQ Ret 10 Ret Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret 11 DNQ Ret Ret DNQ 9 — Osella-Alfa Romeo 21 DNQ EX 9 DNQ DNQ Ret Ret 19 Ret DNPQ Ret Ret 12 Ret Ret DNPQ 0 — Euro Brun-Ford 32 Ret DNQ Ret 13 Ret Ret Ret DNQ 16 DNQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNQ DNQ Ret 0 33 Ret NC DSQ DSQ 12 Ret 14 12 Ret 11 DNQ DNQ DNQ 13 DNQ Ret — Zakspeed 9 DNQ Ret Ret 15 14 DNQ EX DNQ 14 DNQ Ret Ret DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret 0 10 DNQ DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ 12 DNQ 13 Ret DNQ DNQ Ret DNQ Pos Constructor Car no. BRA SMR MON MEX CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS Pts Points towards the 1988 FIA Formula One World Championship for Constructors were awarded on a 9-6-4-3-2-1 basis for the first six places at each round. Notes and references ^ Grand Prix Results: Belgian GP, 1988