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The United States Sentencing Commission is an independent agency of the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States. It is responsible for articulating the sentencing guidelines for the United States federal courts. The Commission promulgates the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which replaced the prior system of indeterminate sentencing that allowed trial judges to give sentences ranging from probation to the maximum statutory punishment for the offense. It is headquartered in Washington, D.C. The commission was created by the Sentencing Reform Act provisions of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984. The constitutionality of the commission was challenged as a congressional encroachment on the power of the executive but upheld by the Supreme Court in Mistretta v. United States, 488 U.S. 361 (1989). Unlike many special-purpose "study" commissions within the executive branch, the U.S. Sentencing Commission was established by Congress as a permanent, independent agency within the judicial branch. The seven voting members on the Commission are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, and serve six-year terms. Commission members may be reappointed to one additional term, also with the advice and consent of the Senate. No more than three of the commissioners may be federal judges, and no more than four may belong to the same political party. The United States Attorney General or his designee and the chair of the United States Parole Commission[citation needed] sit as nonvoting ex officio members of the Commission. Current membership The following table lists commissioners as of April 2010. Member Occupation Date appointed Term expiration Patti B. Saris (Chair) Judge, U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts December 22, 2010 October 31, 2015† William B. Carr, Jr. (Vice chair) Former United States Attorney, Eastern District of Pennsylvania December 5, 2008 October 31, 2011 Ketanji Brown Jackson (Vice chair) Attorney, Morrison & Foerster February 11, 2010 October 31, 2013 Ricardo H. Hinojosa (Commissioner) Judge, U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas June 26, 2003 October 31, 2013† Beryl A. Howell (Commissioner) Judge, United States District Court for the District of Columbia November 21, 2004 October 31, 2011† Dabney Friedrich (Commissioner) Former White House Assistant Counsel March 1, 2007 October 31, 2015 Isaac Fulwood (Ex-officio) Chair, United States Parole Commission —— —— Jonathan J. Wroblewski (Ex-officio) Director of the Office of Policy and Legislation, Criminal Division, U.S. Department of Justice —— —— † Date second term expires, after which the commissioner may not be reappointed. References External links United States Sentencing Commission Interviews with first four Commission Chairs Significant Dates and Decisions in the History of the Sentencing Guidelines This United States government-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e