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ʿEin/ʿAin as-Sulṭān ʿEin/ʿAin as-Sulṭān Arabic مخيّم عين سلطان Governorate Jericho Government Also spelled Ayn al-Sulṭān (officially) Coordinates 31°52′40.24″N 35°26′46.24″E / 31.8778444°N 35.4461778°E / 31.8778444; 35.4461778Coordinates: 31°52′40.24″N 35°26′46.24″E / 31.8778444°N 35.4461778°E / 31.8778444; 35.4461778 Population 1,732 (plus some non-refugees) (2005) Founded in 1948 ʿEin as-Sulṭān alsoʿAin Sulṭān Camp (Arabic: مخيّم عين سلطان‎) is a village and Palestinian refugee camp in the Jericho Governorate in the eastern West Bank situated in the Jordan Valley, located 1 kilometers north-west of Jericho near the spring ʿEin as-Sulṭān. ʿEin as-Sulṭān had a population of over 1,469 inhabitants in mid-year 2006.[1] In 1997, refugees constituted 81% of the population.[2] Contents 1 History 2 Water 3 People associated with Ein as-Sultan 4 References 5 External links History The first permanent settlement built near ancient Jericho was by the Ein as-Sultan spring between 8000 and 7000 BC by an unknown people, and consisted of a number of walls, a religious shrine, and a 23-foot (7.0 m) tower with an internal staircase. After a few centuries, it was abandoned for a second settlement established in 6800 BC close by.[3] ʿEin as-Sulṭān camp was established in 1948, on 870 dunums of arid land below the Mount of Temptation. Just before the 1967 Arab-Israeli conflict, the camp had accommodated some 20,000 refugees. During the hostilities the majority of the refugees fled across the Jordan River to Jordan.[4] In 1987 the authorities tried to expel as many of the refugees as they could. The US reports state that the refugees were suffering from "deteriorating economic circumstances".[5] Today, ʿEin Sulṭān has a small population of only 1,732 registered refugees. Some non-refugees have moved onto the camp's lands and built illegal homes as there is over-crowding and Israel authorities controls the issuing of building permits.[6][7] The Crusaders improved the water mills at Ein as Sultan to crush sugar cane in tawahin es-sukkar (sugar mills) and exported the sugar to Jerusalem.[8][9] The Crusaders are credited with introducing sugarcane production to the city.[10] Water Water scarcity is a major problem in this arid area, especially during the summer. The springs Ein as-Sultan, Ayn al-Nuway'mia and Ayn al Duyuk were utilised during the Roman occupation for irrigation to cultivate the land.[11] After 1975 the water from the spring Ein as-Sultan, was collected in 4 small basins.[5] UNRWA supplies Ein Sultan with water by pumping it from a nearby spring. The out fall of spring is close to Tell el-Sultan, the site of ancient Jericho.[12] During the summer months, water shortages in the camp cause tremendous hardship for the refugees.[13] However, the Israeli water company Mekorot has become the main supplier of water to the camp after Israel took control of water sources.[6][7] Following the signing of the Cairo Agreement in 1994 and Israeli army redeployment, the camp came under the control of the Palestinian National Authority.[6] In 2002, two stories were added to Ein Sultan School, including a new library, multi-purpose room, additional three class rooms and computer lab. People associated with Ein as-Sultan Nasr Abdel Aziz Eleyan References ^ Projected Mid -Year Population for Jericho District by Locality 2004- 2006 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics ^ Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status (1997) Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. ^ Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; Berney, K. A.; Schellinger, Paul E. (1994). International dictionary of historic places. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1884964036, 9781884964039. p. 367–370. ^ Laurie A. Brand (1991) Palestinians in the Arab World: Institution Building and the Search for State Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231067232, p 152 ^ a b Near East/South Asia Report By United States Foreign Broadcast Information Service, United States Joint Publications Research Service Published by Foreign Broadcast Information Service, 1987 pp 16 and 28 ^ a b c Ein Sultan United Nations Relief and Works Agency 1 March 2005. ^ a b Badil ^ Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley, Janet L. Abu-Lughod (2007) Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1576079198 p 205 ^ Abraham L. Udovitch (1981) The Islamic Middle East, 700-1900: Studies in Economic and Social History Darwin Press, ISBN 0878500308 p 122 ^ Hull, Edward (1855). Mount Seir, Sinai and Western Palestine. Richard Bently and Sons.. ^ Nagendra Kr Singh, Nagendra Kumar Singh (2000) International Encyclopaedia of Islamic Dynasties Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., ISBN 8126104031 p 218 ^ Franciscan Cyberspot ^ UNRWA camp profile External links Ein el-Sultan, articles from UNWRA v · d · ePalestinian refugee camps1 locations and populations as of 2005  Gaza Strip 986,034 refugees  Jordan 2,127,877 refugees  Lebanon 404,170 refugees  Syria 432,048 refugees  West Bank 699,817 refugees Al-Shati (Beach) 76,109 Bureij 30,059 Deir al-Balah 20,188 Jabalya 175,646 Khan Yunis 60,662 Maghazi 22,536 Nuseirat 64,233 Rafah 90,638 Canada Camp disbanded Amman New 390,805 Baqa'a 120,100 Husn 19,573 Irbid camp 35,512 Jabal el-Hussein 100,674 Jerash 30,696 Marka 41,237 Souf 21,911 Talbieh 4,041 Zarqa 180,344 Beddawi 15,695 Burj el-Barajneh 19,526 Burj el-Shemali 18,134 Dbayeh 4,223 Dikwaneh destroyed Ein el-Hilweh 44,133 El-Buss 9,840 Jisr el-Basha destroyed Mar Elias 1,406 Mieh Mieh 5,078 Nabatieh destroyed Nahr el-Bared 28,358 Rashidieh 24,679 Sabra Shatila 11,998 Tel al-Zaatar destroyed Wavel 7,357 Dera'a 5,916 Dera'a (emergency) 5,536 Hama 7,597 Homs 13,825 Jaramana 5,007 Khan Dunoun 8,603 Khan Eshieh 15,731 Neirab 17,994 Qabr Essit 16,016 Sbeineh 19,624 Latakia 6,534 Yarmouk 350,550 Ein Al-Tal 4,329 Abu Dis Aida 3,260 Am'ari 8,083 Aqabat Jabr 5,197 al-'Arrub 9,180 Askar 31,894 'Azza 1,828 Balata 41,681 Deir Ammar 2,189 Dheisheh 10,923 Ein Beit al-Ma' 6,221 Ein as-Sultan 1,888 Far'a 12,836 Fawwar 7,072 Jalazone 9,284 Jenin 35,050 Kalandia 9,188 Nur Shams 8,179 Shuafat (Shu'fat) 9,567 Tulkarm 17,259 1 The UNRWA definition of a "Palestinian refugee" is a person "whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948, who lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict ... UNRWA's definition of a refugee also covers the descendants of persons who became refugees in 1948." [1] Palestinian exodus · United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) v · d · eJericho Governorate Cities Jericho Villages al-Auja · Ein ad-Duyuk al-Foqa · Ein ad-Duyuk at-Tahta · al-Fasayil · al-Jiftlik · an-Nuway'imah · az-Zubaidat Refugee camps Aqabat Jaber · Ein as-Sultan