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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2009) Ramstein airshow disaster The only medical emergency standby MEDEVAC helicopter was hit by one of the falling aircraft, fatally injuring its pilot, Capt. Kim Strader. Accident summary Date August 28, 1988 Type Mid-air collision Site Ramstein Air Base West Germany Total injuries 346 serious (ground) Total fatalities 70 (including 67 ground) First aircraft Type Aermacchi MB-339PAN Name Callsign "Pony 10" Operator Frecce Tricolori Aeronautica Militare Crew Lt. Col. Ivo Nutarelli (killed) Second aircraft Type Aermacchi MB-339PAN Name Callsign "Pony 1" Operator Frecce Tricolori Aeronautica Militare Crew Lt. Col. Mario Naldini (killed) Third aircraft Type Aermacchi MB-339PAN Name Callsign "Pony 2" Operator Frecce Tricolori Aeronautica Militare Crew Cap. Giorgio Alessio (killed) The Aermacchi hits the ground Wall of flames reaches crowd line Chaos right after the impact The Ramstein airshow disaster was one of the world's deadliest airshow disasters. It took place in front of an audience of about 300,000 people on August 28, 1988, in Ramstein, state of Rheinland-Pfalz, West Germany, near the city of Kaiserslautern at the U.S. Ramstein Air Base airshow Flugtag '88. Sixty-seven spectators and three pilots died, and 346 spectators sustained serious injuries in the resulting explosion and fire. Contents 1 Background 2 The crash 3 Timeline 4 Emergency response 5 Investigation 6 References in popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links // Background Ten Aermacchi MB-339 PAN jets from the Italian Air Force display team, Frecce Tricolori, were performing their 'pierced heart' (Italian: Cardioide, German: Durchstochenes Herz) formation. In this formation, two groups of aircraft create a heart shape in front of the audience along the runway. In the completion of the lower tip of the heart, the two groups of planes pass each other parallel to the runway. The heart is then pierced, in the direction towards the audience, by a lone aircraft. The crash This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2009) The mid-air collision took place as the two heart-forming groups passed each other and the heart-piercing aircraft hit them. The piercing aircraft crashed onto the runway and consequently both the fuselage and resulting fireball of aviation fuel tumbled into the spectator area, hitting the crowd and coming to rest against a refrigerated trailer being used to dispense ice cream to the various vendor booths in the area. At the same time, one of the damaged aircraft from the heart-forming group crashed into the emergency medical evacuation UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter, injuring the pilot, Captain Kim Strader. Captain Strader died weeks later, on September 17, 1988 at Brooke Army Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas, from burns he suffered in the accident. The pilot of the aircraft that hit the helicopter had ejected, but was killed as he hit the runway before his parachute opened. The third aircraft disintegrated in the collision and parts of it were spread along the runway. After the crash, the remaining aircraft regrouped and landed at Sembach Air Base. Timeline This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009) Time Details 15:40 Start of the Frecce Tricolori 15:44 Collision involving the planes with callsigns Pony 1, Pony 2 and Pony 10 15:46 Fire fighters arrive 15:48 First American ambulance arrives 15:51 First American ambulance helicopter arrives 15:52 Second American ambulance helicopter arrives 15:54 First American ambulance helicopter takes off 16:10 German ambulance helicopter Christoph 5 from Ludwigshafen arrives 16:11 German ambulance helicopter Christoph 16 from Saarbrücken arrives 16:13 10 American and German ambulances arrive 16:28 About 10 - 15 ambulances arrive. 8 medical helicopters (US Air Force, ADAC, SAR) at the scene 16:33 First medical helicopter of the Rettungsflugwache arrives 16:35 Doctor on emergency call over the radio: "We are searching for burnt patients that are pulled and transported unaided away from us by the Americans. They told us nobody from them are here no more. Not all the injured people are transported away by helicopter or ambulance. There is total chaos around us and some of the injured are even transported on pick up trucks that are not leaving on emergency exit, they are driving beside the drifting visitors. It was a terrible sight to see people with burnt clothes and sagging burnt skin, squirming with pain of transfixed and shocked with pain on these vehicles." 16:40 First low platform trailer for transport of the dead bodies arrives 16:45 Second low platform trailer for transport of the dead bodies arrives 16:47 At that time the German headquarter for emergencies had no clue of the dimensions, obvious by the radio communication: "Yes, and that is the problem. We don't know yet what has happened, how many injuries and what else. The leading emergency medical did not send any feedback yet. He wants to have a synoptic view first." 17:00 Helicopters begin arriving en masse at Landstuhl Army Hospital. 17:00 At that time several medics arrive with helicopters. Later they said: "At the time we arrived shortly after 5:00 there were no injured people no more. We could see that the last badly injured people were loaded into American helicopters. We could see some pick up trucks with injured people transporting them away. It was not possible to find an officer in charge, a director of operations or even a contact person [...] so we got to the Johannis hospital in Landstuhl by own initiative. Asking several action forces, paramedics, police officers nobody could name a director of operations. I was asking for a managing paramedic of the operation to coordinate the evacuation. But there was none." 18:05 A ambulance helicopter arrives at the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. The paramedic said later: "We found a large number of severely burnt, badly injured people absolutely unaided. [...] When I arrived in Landstuhl, severely burnt people partly lay on wooden planks and no paramedics were there. After I aided an injured person and left her with a hospital nurse that attended us at the flight, I was treating several injured people at the helicopter landing zone at the military hospital and did not see even one American medic there." 18:20 Dead bodies are transported away from the scene with the two platform trucks 18:30 A bus full of injured people arrives in Ludwigshafen (80 km away). A paramedic later said: "5 severely burnt people were inside the bus. There was no paramedic attending this transport. The bus had to be converted to medivac as soon as it returned from off base from its usual route. Converting a 40 passenger bus takes approximately 2 hours.It was then deployed to load and transport the injured. Emergency response Of the 31 people who died at the scene, 28 had been hit by shrapnel in the form of airplane parts, concertina wire, and debris from items on the ground.[1] Sixteen of the fatalities occurred in the days and weeks after the disaster due to severe burns, the last being the burned and injured pilot from the helicopter. In total about 500 people had to seek hospital treatment following the event. The disaster revealed serious shortcomings in the handling of large-scale medical emergencies by German civil and American military authorities and their cooperation. American military did not allow German ambulances to enter the military base and let them help immediately. The rescue work was criticized for lacking efficiency and coordination. The rescue coordination center in Kaiserslautern was unaware of the disaster's scale as much as an hour after its occurrence, although several German Medevac helicopters and ambulances had already arrived on site and left with patients. American helicopters and ambulances provided the quickest and largest capacities for evacuating burn victims, but could not provide sufficient capacities for treating them or had difficulties to even find them. More confusion was added by American military using different standards for intravenous catheters than German paramedics before a single standard was codified in 1995.[2] Investigation Large amounts of video were taken of the accident. Upon completing the cardioid figure, the piercing aircraft (Pony 10) came in too low and too fast at the crossing point with the other two groups (five aircraft on the left and four on the right) completing the heart shaped figure. Lt. Col. Ivo Nutarelli, lead pilot and flying Pony 10, was unable to correct his altitude or slow his speed and collided with the leading airplane (Pony 1, piloted by Lt. Col. Mario Naldini) of the left formation "inside" the figure, destroying the plane's tail section with the front of his aircraft.[citation needed] Pony 1 then spiralled out of control, hitting the closer plane on its lower left (Pony 2, piloted by Captain Giorgio Alessio). Lt. Col. Naldini ejected but he was killed as he hit the runway before his parachute opened, and his plane crashed onto a taxiway near the runway, destroying a Med-Evac helicopter and fatally injuring the pilot (Captain Kim Strader). Pony 2, the third plane to be involved in the disaster, was severely damaged from the impact by Pony 1 and crashed onto and beside the runway, exploding in a fireball. Captain Alessio died instantly and little parts of the plane were spread along the runway. Pony 10, the plane that started the crash, now completely out of control, in flames, and with the forward section disintegrated following the impact with Pony 1, continued on a ballistic trajectory across the runway. The plane impacted the ground ahead of the spectator's stands, exploding in a fireball and destroying a police vehicle that had been parked on the "runway" side of the concertina wire that defined the active runway area. The plane continued, cartwheeling for a distance before picking up the three strand concertina wire fence, crossing an emergency access road, slamming into the crowd, and hitting a parked ice cream van. The crash site was considered the "best seats in the house", being centered on the flightline and as close to the airshow as civilian spectators could get. It was the first area in the airshow viewing area that filled up and was very crowded. The entire incident, from collision of the first two planes to the crash into the spectators, took less than 7 seconds, leaving no time for people in the crowd to run away. The low altitude of the maneuver (45 meters above the crowd) also contributed to the short time frame. After examination of photos and footage from the disaster, it showed that the Pony 10's landing gear came down at some point; it has been suggested that this could have been lowered intentionally as a last second effort by Lt. Col. Nutarelli to try and slow his plane down to avoid the impact, but there is no substantial evidence pointing to this and the undercarriage could have been lowered by a number of factors. In January 1991, Werner Reith, a german journalist from the newspaper "Tageszeitung", suggested in an article that the Ramstein disaster could have been caused by some sudden technical problem - or even a sabotage - occurring at the Lt. Col. Nutarelli's plane; while, again, no possible evidence could be collected, Reith pointed out that Lt. Col. Nutarelli and Lt. Col. Naldini were supposed to know details about another air disaster, the 1980's Ustica Massacre, citing Italian press sources. Judge Rosario Priore, who was investigating the case at the time, found that they were performing training flights in a nearby area minutes before the Ustica incident, but he definitely rejected their deaths as a sabotage attempt resulting in the Ramstein disaster. References in popular culture The airshow disaster memorial with the names of the victims The German band Rammstein is named after the disaster and their self-titled song is a reference to the event.[3] The disaster was featured on the February 22, 2008, episode of Shockwave on The History Channel. A similar disaster is portrayed in the German made strategy PC game Emergency: Fighters for Life See also List of airshow accidents References ^ Ramstein survivor support group ^ ISO 10555-1:1995 Sterile, single-use intravascular catheters - Part 1: General requirements ^ Quote from MTV interview External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Flugtagunglück von Ramstein Le crash de Ramstein (French) – Extensive photo gallery – Photo gallery of the incident Flugtag88 Memorial – Includes eyewitness accounts West Germany Hellfire from The Heavens – Time magazine article from 12 September 1988 – Marc Heesters' photograph of the incident Ramstein – The air show catastrophe and its aftermath - Information about 2008 documentary, a WDR and SWR co-production Complete aerobatic maneuver including crash Coordinates: 49°26′18″N 007°36′13″E / 49.43833°N 7.60361°E / 49.43833; 7.60361 v • d • e ← 1987 · Aviation accidents and incidents in 1988 · 1989 →     Mar 17  Avianca Flight 410 Apr 28  Aloha Airlines Flight 243 May 06  Widerøe Flight 710 May 24  TACA Flight 110 Jun 26  Air France Flight 296 Jul 03  Iran Air Flight 655 Jul 13  British Int'l Helicopters Sikorsky crash Aug 17  Zia-ul-Haq Aug 28  Ramstein airshow disaster Aug 31  Delta Air Lines Flight 1141 Sep 15  Ethiopian Airlines Flight 604 Oct 19  Indian Airlines Flight 113 Oct 25  Mexico Learjet 24 crash Nov 02  LOT Polish Airlines Flight 703 Dec 08  Remscheid A-10 crash Dec 21  Pan Am Flight 103   Incidents resulting in at least 50 deaths shown in italics.    Deadliest incident shown in bold smallcaps.