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Carl Wark viewed from Higger Tor Carl Wark (sometimes Carl's Wark) is a rocky promontory on Hathersage Moor in the Peak District National Park, just inside the boundary of Sheffield, England. The promontory is faced by vertical cliffs on all but one side, which is protected by a prehistoric embankment. The cliffs and embankment form an enclosure that has been interpreted as an iron age hill fort. The site is a scheduled monument.[1] Contents 1 Geography 1.1 Location 1.2 Layout 2 History 3 See also 4 References 4.1 Notes 4.2 Sources // Geography Location Hathersage Moor from the south showing Carl Wark overlooked by Higger Tor Carl Wark is located at grid reference SK259814,[1] at an elevation of about 380 metres (1,247 ft) above sea level.[2] Hathersage is about 3 kilometres (1.86 mi) to the west; Sheffield City Centre about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) to the north-east.[2] It is situated in Hathersage Moor. From the north it is overlooked by the higher 434 metres (1,424 ft) peak of Higger Tor. To the east is the valley of the Burbage Brook, and the land gently slopes away to the south following the course of Burbage Brook into the valley of the River Derwent. To the south-west, the land rises towards Winyards Nick and Over Owler Tor.[2] Layout 1903 plan of Carl Wark The promontory is approximately 250 metres (820 ft) long and 60 metres (200 ft) wide, oriented south-east to north-west.[3] The eastern and north-eastern sides of the promontory are faced with vertical cliffs of up to 10 metres (33 ft) in height. The southern edge of the promontory consists of large earth-fast boulders reinforced with millstone grit blocks, forming a wall 2–2.5 metres (6.6–8.2 ft) high. The promontory gently slopes to the west; an area of 0.7 hectares (1.7 acres)—180 metres (590 ft) long, 60 metres (200 ft) wide—at the peak of the promontory is enclosed by a rampart that is constructed along this western edge.[4] The rampart is 40 metres (130 ft) long and 8 metres (26 ft) wide at its base, rising to a height of 3 metres (9.8 ft).[5] It is constructed of a turf bank that is lined on its outer face with gritstone blocks. At the south end of the rampart there are the remains of a shelter, possibly a shieling, built using stones from the rampart.[6] Around the base of the cliff at the eastern end of the promontory there is evidence of millstone production, probably dating from the 16th or 17th centuries.[7] History Outer stone face of the western rampart The date and purpose of the construction the ramparts at Carl Wark is uncertain, though it is widely postulated to be a hill fort of Iron Age origin, perhaps dating from the 8th to the 5th centuries BC.[8] A similar enclosure at Gardom's Edge has been dated to the late Bronze Age, between 1300 and 900 BC.[9] Sheffield historian and folklorist S. O. Addy posited that the name Carl Wark is Old Norse in origin, meaning 'The Old Man's Fort', where the 'Old Man' refers to the devil[10]—suggesting that the 9th to 10th century Danish settlers in the area regarded the enclosure as ancient and mysterious.[11][12] As a fort, the site would have offered some defence, however, there is no evidence of settlement within the enclosure so unlikely that the site was a continuously occupied fort. Instead, it may have been used as a place of refuge for a population living in the surrounding area or it may have had some ceremonial purpose.[9] See also Wincobank (hill fort) References Notes ^ a b "Carl Wark (Monument Number 312285)". PastScape. English Heritage. http://pastscape.english-heritage.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=312285. Retrieved 2010-01-03.  ^ a b c "Grid reference SK 259 814". Get A Map. Ordnance Survey. http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/getamap/. Retrieved 2010-01-03.  ^ Bevan, From Cairns to Craters, p. 30. ^ Addy, Hall of Waltheof, p. 11. ^ Bevan, From Cairns to Craters, p. 31. ^ Bevan, From Cairns to Craters, p. 36. ^ Bevan, From Cairns to Craters, pp. 41–42. ^ Bevan, From Cairns to Craters, p. 32. ^ a b Bevan, From Cairns to Craters, p. 35. ^ Addy, Hall of Waltheof, p. 16–17. ^ Armitage, A Key to English Antiquities, p. 41. ^ Chalkley, Carl's Wark, p. 175. Sources Addy, Sidney Oldall (1893). "Carl's Wark". The Hall of Waltheof. Sheffield: William Townsend and Son. pp. 11–17. OCLC 12239309.  (wikisource) Armitage, Ella S. (1897). A key to English Antiquities: with special reference to the Sheffield and Rotherham district. Sheffield: William Townsend. OCLC 11008308.  Bevan, Bill (2006). "From Cairns to Craters: Conservation Heritage Assessment of Burbage". The Moors for the Future Partnership. http://www.moorsforthefuture.org.uk/mftf/downloads/publications/FINALMftF_Burbage%20v6_27-07.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-03. [dead link] Gould, I. Chalkley (1903). "Carl's Wark". Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society (Derby: Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society) 25: 175–180.  This article relating to archaeology in Europe is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v • d • e This article about a South Yorkshire building or structure is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v • d • e Coordinates: 53°19′46″N 1°36′46″W / 53.32944°N 1.61278°W / 53.32944; -1.61278