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Friday Mosque of Herat Basic information Location Herat, Afghanistan Affiliation Islam Leadership Shah Rukh[1] Architectural description Architect(s) Jalal al-Din Firuzshah[1] Architectural type Mosque Architectural style Islamic Groundbreaking 1404 (807 AH) Completed 1446 (850 AH) Specifications Minaret(s) 8 Materials Lapis lazuliBrick, Stone The Friday Mosque of Herat (مسجد جمعه هرات), also known as the Jumah Mosque, is a mosque in the city of Herat, in the Herat Province of north-western Afghanistan. It was built by the Timurids and extended by several rulers swapping hands down the centuries between the Timurids, Safavids, Mughals and the Uzbeks all supported the mosque before switching hands. Though many of the glazed tiles have been replaced during subsequent periods, the Friday Mosque in Herat was given its present form during the closing years of the fifteenth century. Apart from numerous small neighborhood mosques for daily prayer, most communities in the Islamic world have a larger mosque for Friday services with a sermon. This was not always the largest mosque in Herat; a much larger complex also built by the Timurids, the Mosque and Madressa of Gawharshad, was located to the north. Those architectural monuments were dynamited by officers of the British Indian Army under British supervision in 1885 so that it could not be used as a fortress if a Russian army tried to invade India. Contents 1 History 1.1 Timurids 1.2 19th Century 2 References History The Masjid-i Jami of Herat, the city's first congregational mosque, was built on the site of two smaller Zorastrian Fire temples that were destroyed by earthquake and fire. A mosque was begun by Ghurid ruler Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad b. Sam (1162-1202) in 1200 (597 AH), and continued after his death by his brother and successor Shihab al-Din. This is confirmed both by an inscription on the eastern Ghurid portal uncovered in 1964 during a restoration, and by the sixteenth century Timurid historian Khwandamir in his Khulasat al-Akhbar.[1] Timurids In the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan destroyed the province and the small building fell into ruin. Rebuilding and renovation programs were undertaken by the Mongol convert rulers. After a devastating earthquake in the mid 13th century the building left completely destroyed and left to collapse. After 1397, the Timurid rulers redirected Herat's growth towards the North. This suburbanization and the building of a new Friday mosque in Gawhar Shad's Musalla marked the end of the Masjid-i Jami's patronage by a monarchy. Construction of a entire new building and surrounding gardens completed by Jalal al-Din Firuzshah, one of the most prominent amirs of Shah Rukh (1405-1444). It is said that the decorations alone were completed over the course of five years, bringing in workers from all over the empire. The mosque was given a final renovation under the Mughals of India, when prince Khurram (shah Jahan) was fighting for control of the region against the Uzbek tribes.[1] 19th Century Little of the medieval Mosque remains, after the Anglo-Afghan wars much of the mosque was left destroyed. A program launched in 1945 rebuilt walls and rooms, expanded the northeastern section of the mosque from a length of approximately 101 meters to 121 meters and replaced expensive material from all over the medieval Timurid and Mughal Empires streching from Iraq to India with local cheap material. Overall, the mosque's multiple reconstructions and restoration programs leave little to authenticate as original. [1] References ^ a b c d e "Great Mosque of Herat". Archnet.org. 2005-08-19. http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=8210. Retrieved 2011-07-25.  Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Friday Mosque, Herat v · d · eMosques in Afghanistan Abdul Rahman Mosque • Friday Mosque of Herat • Green Mosque (Balkh) • Haji Piyada (Noh Gonbad) • Id Gah Mosque • Khost Mosque • Khwaja 'Abd Allah Ansari shrine • Lashkar Gah Mosque • Mosque of the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed • Mosque of the Hair of the Prophet • Pul-e Khishti Mosque • Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque • Shrine of Hazrat Ali Category – Islam in Afghanistan – Mosques by country v · d · e Herat Province Capital Herat Districts Adraskan · Chishti Sharif · Farsi · Ghoryan · Gulran · Guzara · Hirat · Injil · Karukh · Kohsan · Kushk · Kushki Kuhna · Obe · Pashtun Zarghun · Shindand · Zinda Jan Cities Adraskan · Azizabad · Baluchi · Bazargan · Chisht · Chishti Sharif · Farsi · Ghurian · Gulran · Guzara · Herat · Injil · Islam Qala · Karukh · Kohsan · Kushk · Kushki Kuhna · Obe · Pashtun Zarghun · Sabzawar · Shindand · Towraghondi · Zendeh Jan · Landmarks Herat citadel · Khwaja 'Abd Allah Ansari shrine · Friday Mosque of Herat · Tomb of Queen Goharshad · Herat City Old Fort This mosque or other Islamic place of worship article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e This article about a building or structure in Afghanistan is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e