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Mucorales A sporangium of a Mucoralean fungus Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Division: Zygomycota Class: Zygomycetes Order: Mucorales Families Chaetocladiaceae Choanephoraceae Cunninghamellaceae Gilbertellaceae Mucoraceae Mycotyphaceae Phycomycetaceae Pilobolaceae Radiomycetaceae Saksenaeaceae Syncephalastraceae Thamnidiaceae Umbelopsidaceae The Mucorales is the largest and best studied order of Zygomycete fungi. Members of this order are sometimes called "Pin molds." Contents 1 Systematics 2 Characteristics 3 Life cycle 4 Ecology 5 References // Systematics The order includes 12-13 families (see the taxbox->), 56 genera and approximately 300 species. Mucoralean classification has traditionally been based on morphological, developmental, and ecological characters. Recently, molecular data have revealed that some aspects of traditional classification are quite artificial. For example, the Mucoraceae is believed to be polyphyletic, as are the Thamnidiaceae, Chaetocladiaceae and Radiomycetaceae. Some of the genera, (including Mucor, Absidia and Backusella) appear to be polyphyletic. Today, the traditional system is still largely in use, as further studies are needed to reconcile morphological and molecular concepts of families and genera. Characteristics Micrograph showing mucorales and demonstrating the characteristic variation thickness. Mucoralean fungi are typically fast-growing, and their wide hyphae lack septa (multiperforate septa are present only in sporangiophores and gametangia). The hyphae grow mostly within the substrate. Sporangiophores are upright (simple or ramified) hyphae that support sac-like sporangia filled with asexual sporangiospores. Many are known by the damage they do to stored food. Others can can cause a mycosis (infection), generally in patients already infected with other diseases. Life cycle The sporangiospores are asexual mitospores (formed via mitosis) that are produced inside sporangia (thousands of spores) or sporangioles (single or few spores). They are released when mature by the disintegration of the sporangium wall, or as a whole sporangiole that separates from the sporangiophore. The sporangiospores germinate to form the haploid hyphae of a new mycelium. Asexual reproduction often occurs continuously. Sexual reproduction occurs when opposite mating types (designated + and -) come into close proximity, inducing the formation of specialized hyphae called gametangia. The gametangia grow toward each other, then fuse, forming a diploid zygote at the point of fusion. The zygote develops a resistant cell wall, forming a single-celled zygospore, the characteristic that gives its name to this group of fungi. Meiosis occurs within the zygospore, and one of the resulting recombinant nuclei survives. Upon germination, a new haploid mycelium or sporangium is formed. Some species are homothallic. Ecology Most Mucoralean species are saprotrophic, and grow on organic substrates (such as fruit, soil, and dung). Some species are parasites or pathogens of animals, plants and fungi. A few species cause human and animal disease zygomycosis, as well as allergic reactions. References Voigt & Wöstemeyer, 2001[1] Mucorales in Bryce Kendrick's textbook, The Fifth Kingdom. Mucorales at v • d • e Opisthokont: Fungi classification, fungal orders Dikarya Ascomycota saccharomyceta Pezizomycotina leotiomyceta Geoglossomycetes  · dothideomyceta (Arthoniomycetes/ Dothideomycetes) · Eurotiomycetes · Lecanoromycetes  · sordariomyceta ((Leotiomycetes (Sordariomycetes/ Laboulbeniomycetes)) · Lichinomycetes Other Orbiliomycetes · Pezizomycetes Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes · Pneumocystidomycetes · Schizosaccharomycetes · Taphrinomycetes Basidiomycota Pucciniomycotina · Ustilaginomycotina · Agaricomycotina · Urediniomycetes Glomeromycota Glomerales · Diversisporales · Paraglomerales · Archaeosporales Zygomycota Mucoromycotina Endogonales · Mucorales (Chaetocladiaceae, Choanephoraceae, Cunninghamellaceae, Gilbertellaceae, Mortierellaceae, Mucoraceae, Mycotyphaceae, Phycomycetaceae, Pilobolaceae, Radiomycetaceae, Saksenaeaceae, Syncephalastraceae, Thamnidiaceae, Umbelopsidaceae) · Mortierellales Entomophthoromycotina Entomophthorales (Basidiobolaceae, Ancylistaceae) Kickxellomycotina Asellariales · Kickxellales · Dimargaritales · Harpellales Zoopagomycotina Zoopagales Other Blastocladiomycota · Chytridiomycota/Neocallimastigomycota · Microsporidia M: MYC fung, clas fung drug (fung) v • d • e Infectious diseases · Mycoses and Mesomycetozoea (B35–B49, 110–118) Superficial and cutaneous (dermatomycosis): Tinea=skin; Piedra (exothrix/ endothrix)=hair Ascomycota Dermatophyte (Dermatophytosis) By location Tinea barbae/Tinea capitis (Kerion) · Tinea corporis (Ringworm, Dermatophytid) · Tinea cruris · Tinea manuum · Tinea pedis (Athlete's foot) · Tinea unguium/Onychomycosis (White superficial onychomycosis · Distal subungual onychomycosis · Proximal subungual onychomycosis) Tinea corporis gladiatorum · Tinea faciei · Tinea imbricata · Tinea incognito · Favus By organism Epidermophyton floccosum · Microsporum canis · Microsporum audouinii · Trichophyton interdigitale/mentagrophytes · Trichophyton tonsurans · Trichophyton schoenleini · Trichophyton rubrum Other Hortaea werneckii (Tinea nigra) · Piedraia hortae (Black piedra) Basidiomycota Malassezia furfur (Tinea versicolor, Pityrosporum folliculitis) · Trichosporon spp (White piedra) Subcutaneous, systemic, and opportunistic Ascomycota Dimorphic (yeast+mold) Onygenales Coccidioides immitis/Coccidioides posadasii (Coccidioidomycosis, Disseminated coccidioidomycosis, Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis. Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis) · Histoplasma capsulatum (Histoplasmosis, Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis, Primary pulmonary histoplasmosis, Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis) · Histoplasma duboisii (African histoplasmosis) · Lacazia loboi (Lobomycosis) · Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Paracoccidioidomycosis) Other Blastomyces dermatitidis (Blastomycosis, North American blastomycosis, South American blastomycosis) · Sporothrix schenckii (Sporotrichosis) · Penicillium marneffei (Penicilliosis) Yeast-like Candida albicans (Candidiasis, Oral, Esophageal, Vulvovaginal, Chronic mucocutaneous, Antibiotic candidiasis, Candidal intertrigo, Candidal onychomycosis, Candidal paronychia, Candidid, Diaper candidiasis, Congenital cutaneous candidiasis, Perianal candidiasis, Systemic candidiasis, Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica) · C. glabrata · C. tropicalis · C. lusitaniae · Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pneumocystosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia) Mold-like Aspergillus (Aspergillosis, Aspergilloma, Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Primary cutaneous aspergillosis) · Exophiala jeanselmei (Eumycetoma) · Fonsecaea pedrosoi/Fonsecaea compacta/Phialophora verrucosa (Chromoblastomycosis) · Geotrichum candidum (Geotrichosis) · Pseudallescheria boydii (Allescheriasis) Basidiomycota Cryptococcus neoformans (Cryptococcosis), Trichosporon spp (Trichosporonosis) Zygomycota (Zygomycosis) Mucorales (Mucormycosis) Rhizopus oryzae · Mucor indicus · Absidia corymbifera · Syncephalastrum racemosum Entomophthorales (Entomophthoramycosis) Basidiobolus ranarum (Basidiobolomycosis) · Conidiobolus coronatus/Conidiobolus incongruus (Conidiobolomycosis) Microsporidia (Microsporidiosis) Enterocytozoon bieneusi/Encephalitozoon intestinalis Mesomycetozoea Rhinosporidium seeberi (Rhinosporidiosis) Ungrouped Alternariosis · Fungal folliculitis · Fusarium (Fusariosis) · Granuloma gluteale infantum · Hyalohyphomycosis · Otomycosis · Phaeohyphomycosis M: MYC fung, clas fung drug (fung)