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This article is about a town in northern Israel. For the community in southern Israel, see Ar'arat an-Naqab. Ar'ara Mosque in Ar'ara Ar'ara District Haifa Government Local council (from 1970) Hebrew עַרְעָרָה (ISO 259) ʕarˁara Arabic عرعرة Population 16,700 (2009) Coordinates 32°29′40.41″N 35°05′38.81″E / 32.4945583°N 35.0941139°E / 32.4945583; 35.0941139Coordinates: 32°29′40.41″N 35°05′38.81″E / 32.4945583°N 35.0941139°E / 32.4945583; 35.0941139 'Ar'ara (Arabic: عرعرة‎; Hebrew: עַרְעָרָה‎‎) ("The juniper tree"[1]), is an Israeli Arab town in the Wadi Ara region in the Galilee. It is located south of Umm al-Fahm just northwest of the Green Line and is part of the Triangle. In 2009, the population was 16,700.[2] Contents 1 History 2 Maqam Shaykh Khalaf 3 See also 4 References 4.1 Bibliography 5 External links History Burial complexes from the Roman period by Ar'ara have been excavated, revealing clay lamps and glass vessels and beads, commonly used in the 1st to 4th century C.E.. A few clay fragments from the Mamluk period have also been found at the same location.[3] In the Crusader period, the place was known as "Castellum Arearum". In the land-allocation made by sultan Baybars in 663 H. (1265-1266 C.E.), Ar'ara was shared between his amirs Ala' al-Din and Sayf al-Din Bayhaq al-Baghdadi.[4] Ar'ara, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, and in 1596, Ar'ara appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Shara of the Liwa of Lajjun. It had a population of 8 Muslim households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, summercrops, olives, and goats or beehives.[5] By the eighteenth century, the village remained in the administrative district of Lajjun, but the revenue of the place was farmed for the Mutasarrıf of Jaffa.[6] In the late nineteenth century, the site was described as: A village of moderate size on high ground, with a spring to the east, a second to the west and a well to the south. There are rock cut tombs near. The population is stated by Consul Rogers (1859) as 400, the cultivation then being 30 feddans.[7] At the time of the 1931 census, Ar'ara had 150 occupied houses and a population of 971 Muslims.[8] Ar'ara was transferred from Jordanian to Israeli jurisdiction in 1949 under the Rhodes armistice agreements.[2] The neighboring village of ʿAra was merged with Ar'ara in 1985. In 1945, Ar'ara and Arah had a population of 2,290 and a land area of 29,537 dunums.[9] By 1962 the area had been reduced to 7,269 dunums, partly due to expropriations of 8,236 dunums by the Israeli government in 1953–54.[9] One case of expropriation from a private landowner named Younis became a test case before the High Court of Israel in 1953.[10] The land had been confiscated by the government without notifying the owner.[10] In 1954 the court ruled that the law did not require the owner to be notified and did not provide a right for the owner to contest the confiscation in advance.[10] This ruling and one other effectively ended the possibility of land owners using the courts to contest the confiscation of their land.[10] Maqam Shaykh Khalaf Maqam Shaykh Khalaf is the only building which was noted by the antiquities authorities in the Mandate area, and it is located on a slope by the highest point in the village, set in the middle of extensive graveyards. The Maqam is a single rectangular chamber, covered by a dome. The two top courses are chamfered towards the dome. On the north side is a doorway, and double window set inside shallow arches. There is also a set of windows on the west side. Inside there are three cenotaphs, located east-west, close to the west wall. A mihrab is located on the south wall. The date of the building is not known, but according to A. Petersen (who inspected the place in 1994), the architecture indicate an eighteenth or early nineteenth century date.[11] See also List of Arab localities in Israel References ^ Palmer, 1881, p.144 ^ a b Family Affair: The Masarwah-Marzuks, Haaretz ^ Massarwa, 2007, Ar‘ara Final Report ^ Ibn al-Furat, edition Lyons and Lyons, I, p.102; II, p.81. Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.94 ^ Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 159.  ^ Cohen, 1973, p.175, Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.94 ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, p.41. Also cited in Petersen, 2002, p.94. ^ E. Mills, ed (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine. p. 87.  ^ a b Sabri Jiryis (1976). "The Land Question in Israel". MERIP Reports 47: 5–20+24–26..  ^ a b c d Hanna Dib Nakkara (1985). "Israeli Land Seizure under Various Defense and Emergency Regulations". Journal of Palestine Studies 14: 13–34. doi:10.1525/jps.1985.14.2.00p0125a.  ^ Petersen, 2002, p.94 Bibliography Abel, F.-M., (1967), Geographie de la Palestine, 2 vols. 3ed. Paris, (II, p. 88) Baedeker, K., 1867, Palestine and Syria. A Handbook for Travellers, Dulan & Co., London ( p. 299) Cohen, A. (1973), Palestine in the Eighteenth Century: Patterns of Government and Administration, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Cited in Petersen, (2002) Conder, Claude Reignier and H.H. Kitchener (1881): The Survey of Western Palestine: memoirs of the topography, orography, hydrography, and archaeology. London:Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. vol 2 Gorzalczany, Amir, Shireen Mahajna and Abdallah Massarwa (12/3/2009); ‘Ar‘ara (Southwest) Final Report, Hadashot Arkheologiyot, no.121 Hartmann, R., (1910), 'Die Strasse von Damascus nach Kairo', ZDMG (=Zeitschrift des Deutschen Morgenlandische Gesellschaft), 64, ( pp. 665–702) (p. 700) Massarwa, Abdallah (24/12/2007): Ar‘ara Final Report, Hadashot Arkheologiyot, no.119 Palmer, E. H. (1881); The survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English name lists collected during the survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and explained by E.H. Palmer. Petersen, Andrew (2002), A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine: Volume I (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology) (p. 94 ) Robinson, Edward, Eli Smith (1841): Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the Year 1838, Published by Crocker & Brewster, Item notes:v.2 ( p.618 ) External links Welcome To 'Ar'ara v · d · eHaifa District Cities Baqa-Jatt · Hadera · Haifa · Kiryat Ata · Kiryat Bialik · Kiryat Motzkin · Kiryat Yam · Nesher · Or Akiva · Tirat Carmel · Umm al-Fahm Local councils Ar'ara · Basma · Binyamina-Giv'at Ada · Daliyat al-Karmel · Fureidis · Isfiya · Jisr az-Zarqa · Kafr Qara · Katzir-Harish · Kiryat Tiv'on · Ma'ale Iron · Pardes Hanna-Karkur · Rekhasim · Zikhron Ya'akov Regional councils Alona · Hof HaCarmel · Menashe · Zevulun See also Haifa metropolitan area · Krayot Other sub-divisions: Center District · Jerusalem District · Judea and Samaria Area · North District · South District · Tel Aviv District