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Robert L. Cardenas Born March 10, 1920 (1920-03-10) (age 90) Nickname Bob Place of birth Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico Allegiance  United States of America Service/branch United States Air Force Years of service 1939 - 1973 Rank Brigadier General Commands held Vice commander, Sixteenth Air Force, 1969 USAF Special Operations Force, 1968 835th Air Division, 1966 18th Tactical Fighter Wing, 1964-66 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing, 1955-57 51st Fighter Interceptor Group, 1955-57 51st Maintenance & Supply Group, 1955-57 Battles/wars World War II Vietnam War Awards Distinguished Service Medal Legion of Merit, 1 OLC Distinguished Flying Cross Purple Heart Meritorious Service Medal Air Medal, 4 OLCs Joint Service Commendation Medal Air Force Commendation Medal, 1 OLC & Presidential Citation Spanish Grand Legion of Aeronautical Merit with Sash & Dagger Other work Executive Robert L. "Bob" Cardenas (born March 10, 1920) is a retired Brigadier General of the United States Air Force. Contents 1 Childhood and adolescence 2 Pre World War II years 3 World War II 4 Post-World War II to retirement 5 Post-military career 6 Military awards and decorations 7 Civilian honors 8 References // Childhood and adolescence He was born in Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. When he was five, his family moved to San Diego, California. He excelled in Mathematics and Physics in high school. When General Cardenas was a teenager, building models and learning about gliders first sparked his interest in airplanes.[1] Due to his excellent grades, San Diego State University invited him to study there.[2] Pre World War II years In 1939, while attending San Diego State, he decided to enlist as a private in the California National Guard, thus began his distinguished military career. In 1940, Cardenas became an aviation cadet. He graduated, received his pilot wings and was commission a second lieutenant in the Army Air Corps in July 1941.[3] In 1942, Lt. Cardenas was sent to Twentynine Palms, California to help establish the Army Air Corps Glider School. He was assigned to Wright Field, Ohio and became a flight test officer. Cardenas rose quickly in position, was promoted to operations officer and finally director of the Flight Test Unit, Experimental Engineering Laboratory at Wright Field.[4] World War II In 1944, he was assigned to the 506th Bombardment Squadron, 44th Bomb Group, also known the Flying Eightballs based at Shipdham in Norfolk, England. He flew his first mission on the B-24 Liberator “Southern Comfort” on January 24. On March 18, Captain Cardenas was flying as Command Pilot for the 44th Bomb Group on his 20th mission. His airplane, the B-24 “Sack Artists” (serial number 42-100073), was shot down by enemy anti-aircraft fire. His attack run was supposed to target the Manzell Air Armaments factory in Friedrichshafen, Germany. However, the right wing was severely damaged by a shell and two engines were set on fire. According to his report relayed to the War Department, his number 2 engine was "hit by flak [and] on fire," causing the loss of 3,000 ft. altitude. Despite this damage he "Rejoined formation for [a] second [bomb] run." After this pass his "[numbers] 2 and 4 [engines were] on fire," and "[number] 3 [was] vibrating badly" in addition to "gas leaks," damage to bomb bays, wings, and electrical systems, and "hydraulics inoperative." Several members of the crew were also wounded, including Cardenas, who received a head injury when a piece of flak pierced his helmet. Since the plane was severely damaged and losing stability, 1st Lieutenant Raymond J. Lacombe decided to pilot the plane to Switzerland. Capt. Cardenas' crew all parachuted safely.[5] The bomber then exploded at a low altitude and sheared off the top of several trees.[6] Capt. Cardenas landed on the German side of Lake Constance. He swam across the lake to the Swiss side in order to evade the Nazis. He was first interned at a camp for American officers at Adelboden, and was later assigned to teach Swiss officers how to fly interned American bombers at Dübendorf Airfield near Zurich.[7] On 27 September 1944, Cardenas escaped into France with the help of Swiss civilians and the French resistance.[8] After rejoining Allied lines he was flown to England and then sent back to the United States to recover from his head injury. In November 1944, he attended Central Instructors School for B-24 at Smyrna, Tennessee. After graduation he became a test pilot and was then assigned to Wright Field, Ohio. While at Wright Field, he attended Experimental Flight Test School and later became assistant chief, Bomber Section, and chief, Bomber Operations Section, Flight Test Division. Post-World War II to retirement In 1945, he started piloting experimental aircraft. He piloted a captured German jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262 and the Arado Ar 234 bomber. Cardenas also piloted the XB-42 Mixmaster and XB-43 Jetmaster. He was assigned chief test pilot for bomber aircraft and flew all prototypes of that class for the next four years.[9] In 1947, he was assigned the Officer in Charge of Operations and was the command pilot for the B-29 Superfortress that launched Captain Chuck Yeager in the supersonic experimental aircraft, Bell X-1.[10] Then in 1948, Major Cardenas was the Officer in Charge of Flight Test Division at Muroc Air Force Base and was Chief Air Force Test Pilot of the Northrop YB-49 flying wing.[11] During the Korean War, he was assigned to Wright Field and Edwards Air Force Base testing new fighters and bombers.[12] Additionally, he was assigned to Okinawa and then to The Pentagon. During the Vietnam War, Cardinas flew F-105 Thunderchief combat missions and was then assigned to McConnell AFB as a trainer for the F-105.[13] In 1968, Colonel Cardinas was promoted to Brigadier General and assigned to Command of the Air Force Special Operations Force at Eglin Air Force Base. Following his assignment to Eglin AFB, he became Vice Commander of the 16th Air Force in Spain. There he negotiated with Muammar al-Gaddafi the withdrawal of US forces from Wheelus Air Base in Libya.[14] After his assignment in Spain, General Cardenas was assigned to Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Belgium. At SHAPE, he was the U.S. Deputy to LIVE OAK, a code name for joint military planning operation of the United States, Great Britain and France in response to the Soviet blockade and interference of Western access to Berlin. His final duty assignment was Chief of National Strategic Target List Division, Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff, at Offutt AFB, Nebraska.[15] He retired from the Air Force as a Brigadier General in 1973. Post-military career General Cardenas has worked as an executive in the private sector. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan appointed him California coordinator for Southwest Border Economic Action Group. In 1985, he was appointed to Chairman of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Group by California Governor George Deukmejian. He also served on the California Council of Criminal Justice.[16] In 1987, Governor Duekmejian appointed General Cardenas to the California Veterans Board, he eventually became the Chairman.[17] In 1993, General Cardenas resigned from the California Veterans Board to serve as the Chairman of the San Diego United Veterans Council and a Director on the Board of Veterans Memorial Center & Museum, in San Diego.[18] He is currently is a member of the Veteran Administration’s Memorials and Cemetery Committee. He was appointed to the committee by former VA Secretary Anthony Principi. He is also a Trustee of the Flight Test Historical Foundation at Edwards AFB.[19] He currently lives with his wife, Gladys, and family in San Diego, California.[20] Military awards and decorations United States (in order of precedence):   Air Force Distinguished Service Medal   Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster   Distinguished Flying Cross   Purple Heart   Meritorious Service Medal   Air Medal with four Oak Leaf Clusters   Joint Service Commendation Medal   Air Force Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster,   Presidential Citation,   Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with two Oak Leaf Clusters Spain: Grand Legion of Aeronautical Merit with Sash & Dagger. Civilian honors In 1993, The University of New Mexico’s Department of Engineering honored him for his professional contribution and leadership. In 1995, inducted into the Aerospace Walk of Fame in Lancaster, California and the Sigma Chi fraternity awarded him the "Significant Sig" medal. In 2004, honored as a Distinguished Alumnus from the United States Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards AFB References ^ Derek Horne, "Brigadier General Robert L. 'Bob' Cardenas," Lycos Network Website, available at: http://derekhorne.tripod.com/cardenas.html. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ "Brigadier General Robert L. Cardenas," United States Air Force Biography (Sept. 1, 1971), available at: http://www.af.mil/information/bios/bio.asp?bioID=4917. ^ Telegram from U.S. Military Attaché, Bern, Switzerland to U.S. War Department, Number 1261, dated 23 March 1944, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD, RG 319, E57. ^ See 44th Bomb Group Roll of Honor and Casualties (2005), p.243-4, available at http://www.greenharbor.com/ROHPDF/ROH.pdf. ^ Telegram from U.S. Military Attaché, Bern, Switzerland to U.S. War Department, Number 1422, dated 29 May 1944, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD, RG 319, E57. ^ Internment Data Card of Robert Cardenas, Swiss Federal Archives, Bern, Switzerland, Box E 5791 1988/6. ^ Derek Horne, "Brigadier General Robert L. 'Bob' Cardenas," Lycos Network Website, available at: http://derekhorne.tripod.com/cardenas.html. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ "Brigadier General Robert L. Cardenas," United States Air Force Biography (Sept. 1, 1971), available at: http://www.af.mil/information/bios/bio.asp?bioID=4917. ^ Derek Horne, "Brigadier General Robert L. 'Bob' Cardenas," Lycos Network Website, available at: http://derekhorne.tripod.com/cardenas.html. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. United States Air Force portal Personal Biography Detailed unofficial website by Derek Horne (friend of General Cardenas) Official Air Force Biography Persondata Name Cardenas, Robert L. Alternative names Short description Date of birth March 10, 1920 Place of birth Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico Date of death Place of death