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Stephen Salter Born 1938 Johannesburg, South Africa Fields Engineering Geoengineering Fluid dynamics Institutions University of Edinburgh Alma mater University of Cambridge Known for • Salter's Duck • Cloud reflectivity enhancement • Wave generation and absorption in wave tanks Notable awards MBE, FRSE Stephen Hugh Salter (born 1938) is Emeritus Professor of Engineering Design at the University of Edinburgh[1] and inventor of the eponymous Salter duck wave energy device.[2][3] Salter is also a proponent of geoengineering and is responsible for creating the concept of the mechanical enhancement of clouds to achieve cloud reflectivity enhancement.[4] The wide tank at the University of Edinburgh — a novel design and invention by Stephen Salter, built in 1977 — was the world's first multi-directional wave tank equipped with absorbing wavemakers. Feedback control systems on the wavemaking flaps were used for the absorption of reflected waves, propagating along the water surface of the tank interior towards the 89 flaps.[5][6][7] Stephen Salter is a Specialist Advisor at wave energy company Aquamarine Power advising on the development of the Oyster wave energy converter.[8] Salter was appointed MBE in the 2004 Birthday Honours for services to engineering.[9] Salter's Duck Main article: Salter's duck While historic references to the power of waves do exist, the modern scientific pursuit of wave energy was begun in the 1970s by Stephen Salter, in response to the Oil Crisis. His 1974 invention became known as Salter's Duck or Nodding Duck, although it was officially referred to as the Edinburgh Duck. In small scale controlled tests, the Duck's curved cam-like body can stop 90% of wave motion and can convert 90% of that to electricity.[10] According to sworn testimony before the House of Parliament, The UK Wave Energy programme was shut down on 19 March 1982, in a closed meeting.[11] An analysis of Salter's Duck resulted in a miscalculation of the estimated cost of energy production by a factor of 10,[12] an error which was only recently identified. Some wave power advocates believe that this error, combined with a general lack of enthusiasm for renewable energy in the 1980s (after oil prices fell), hindered the advancement of wave power technology.[13] References and notes ^ Harvie, Barbra (2007-10-08). "Professor Stephen Salter". School of GeoSciences. University of Edinburgh. http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/harvieb/salter.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.  ^ McGrath, Jane. "Could Salter's Duck have solved the oil crisis?". Green Science. HowStuffWorks. http://science.howstuffworks.com/salters-duck.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-01.  ^ Salter, S.H. (1974). "Wave power". Nature 249 (5459): 720–724. Bibcode 1974Natur.249..720S. doi:10.1038/249720a0.  ^ Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Latham, John; Sahraei, Jalil; Salter, Stephen (2006). "Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds". Atmospheric Research 82 (1–2): 328–336. Bibcode 2006AtmRe..82..328B. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.11.013.  ^ Salter, S.H. (1981). "Absorbing wave-makers and wide tanks". Conference on Directional Wave Spectra Applications. ASCE. pp. 185–202.  ^ "Wide Wave Tank 1977 – 2001". University of Edinburgh. http://www.mech.ed.ac.uk/research/wavepower/wide%20tank/widetank.html. Retrieved 02-03-2009.  ^ "Wave master". The Engineer. April 10, 2007. http://www.theengineer.co.uk/Articles/299034/Wave+master.htm. Retrieved 02-03-2009.  ^ http://www.aquamarinepower.com/news-and-events/news/latest-news/view/72/appointment-of-specialist-advisor-professor-stephen-salter/ ^ The London Gazette, Number 57315, Saturday 12 June 2004. ^ "Edinburgh Wave Energy Project" (PDF). University of Edinburgh. http://www.mech.ed.ac.uk/research/wavepower/EWPP%20archive/duck%20efficiency%20&%20survival%20notes.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-22.  ^ "Memorandum submitted by Professor S H Salter, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Edinburgh". Parliament of the United Kingdom. http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm200001/cmselect/cmsctech/291/1031409.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-22.  ^ "Water Power Devices". Earth Science Australia. http://www.earthsci.org/mineral/energy/wavpwr/wavepwr.html. Retrieved 2008-10-22.  ^ "The untimely death of Salter's Duck". Green Left Weekly. http://www.greenleft.org.au/1992/64/2832. Retrieved 2008-10-22.  Further reading Walter Sullivan (April 15, 1975). "System of Tapping Wave Power Would Use Giant Lopsided Vane". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40D14F6395E157493C7A8178FD85F418785F9. Retrieved 02-03-2009.  John Vidal (June 16, 2004). "Eco sounding". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2004/jun/16/environment.environment1. Retrieved 2009-02-02.  Persondata Name Salter, Stephen Hugh Alternative names Short description Date of birth Place of birth Johannesburg, South Africa Date of death Place of death