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"The Brazilian society and culture are formed as variants of the Portuguese version of the traditional Western European civilization, differentiated by color legacy of Brazilian Indians and black Africans. Brazil emerges thus as a bud mutant, rescheduled from its own characteristics, but tied to the genetic Portuguese matrix, which unsuspected potential to grow and to be full were only realized here" O Povo Brasileiro, Darcy Ribeiro, , pag 16.[1] Brazilian culture is a culture of a very diverse nature. An ethnic and cultural mixing occurred in the colonial period between Native Americans, Portuguese and Africans formed the bulk of Brazilian culture. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Italian, German, Spanish, Arab and Japanese immigrants settled in Brazil and played an important role in its culture, creating a multicultural and multiethnic society.[2] The core culture of Brazil derived from Portuguese culture, because of strong colonial ties with the Portuguese empire. Among other inheritances, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, the Catholic religion and the colonial architectural styles.[3] This culture, however, was strongly influenced by African, Indigenous cultures and traditions, and other non-Portuguese European people.[4] Some aspects of Brazilian culture are contributions of Italian, German and other European immigrants; came in large numbers and their influences are felt closer to the South and Southeast of Brazil.[5] Amerindian peoples influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.[5][6] Contents 1 History of Brazilian culture 2 Cuisine 3 Arts 4 Literature and poetry 5 Cinema 6 Music 7 Sports 8 See also 9 External links // History of Brazilian culture The world-famous Rio Carnival. Brazil was a colony of Portugal for over 3 centuries. Large numbers of settlers from Portugal arrived during this period (nearly 1 million [7]) and brought their culture to the colony. The native inhabitants of Brazil had a strong contact with the colonists. Many were exterminated, others mixed with the Portuguese. For that reason, Brazil also holds Amerindian influences in its culture, mainly in its food and language (Brazilian Portuguese has hundreds of words of Native American origin, mainly from the Tupi-Guarani).[8] Black Africans, who were brought as slaves to Brazil, also participated actively in the formation of Brazilian culture. Although the Portuguese colonists forced their slaves to become "more civilized" (that meant to convert to Catholicism and speak Portuguese) their cultural influences were absorbed by the inhabitants of Brazil of all races and origins. Some regions of Brazil, especially Bahia, have obvious African legacy in the Music, Food, Language, etc.[9] Immigrants from Italy, Germany, Spain, Japan and the Middle East played an important role in the areas they settled (mostly Southern and Southeastern Brazil). They organized communities that became important cities (Joinville and Caxias do Sul, for example) and brought important contributions to the culture of Brazil.[10][11] Cuisine Main articles: Brazilian cuisine and List of Brazilian dishes The national dish of Brazil, feijoada, contains black beans cooked with pork and many other elements. Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region. This diversity reflects the country's mix of native and immigrants. This has created a national cooking style marked by the preservation of regional differences.[12] Since the colonial period,[13] the Feijoada, directly linked to the presence of blacks in Brazilian land,[14] has been the country's national dish.[15][16] Luís da Câmara Cascudo wrote that, having been revised and adapted in each region of the country, it is no longer just a dish but has become a complete food.[17] Rice and beans, also present in the feijoada, and that are considered basic at Brazilians table, is highly regarded as healthy because it contains almost all amino acids, fiber and starches needed for our body.[18] Brigadeiro is a candy very popular in birthday parties in Brazil. Brazil has a variety of candies that are traditionally used for birthdays, like brigadeiros ("brigadiers") and beijinhos ("kissies"). Other foods typically consumed in Brazilian parties are Coxinhas, Churrasco, Sfihas, Empanadas, Pine nut (in Festa Junina). Specially in the state of Minas Gerais, are produced and consumed the famous cheese bun. The typical northern food is pato no tucupi tacacá, caruru, vatapá and maniçoba; the Northeast is known for moqueca (having seafood and palm oil), and acarajé (the salted muffin made with white beans, onion and fried in oil palm (dendê) which is filled with dried shrimp, red pepper), manioc, diz, hominy, dumpling and Quibebe. In the Southeast, it is common to eat Minas cheese, pizza, tutu, sushi, stew, polenta, and masses as macaroni, lasagna, gnocchi. In the South, these foods are also popular, but the churrasco is the typical meal of Rio Grande do Sul. Cachaça is the Brazil's native liquor, distilled from sugar cane, and it is the main ingredient in the national drink, the Caipirinha. Brazil is the world leader in production of green coffee (café);[19] because the Brazilian fertile soil, the country could produce and expand its market maker and often establish its economy with coffee since the Brazilian slavery,[20] whick created a whole culture around this national drink,[21][22] which became known as the "fever of coffee"[23] — and satirized in the novelty song "The Coffee Song" sung by Frank Sinatra and with lyrics by Bob Hilliard, interpreted as an analysis of the coffee industry,[24][25][26] and of the Brazilian economy and culture.[27][28][29][30] Arts Main articles: Brazilian art and Academic art in Brazil Arrufos (Temporary resentments), by Belmiro de Almeida, symbol of Brazilian realism. The oldest known examples of Brazilian art are cave paintings in Serra da Capivara National Park in the state of Piauí, dating back to c. 13,000 BC.[31] In Minas Gerais and Goiás have been found more recent examples showing geometric patterns and animal forms.[32] One of the most sophisticated kinds of Pre-Columbian artifact found in Brazil is the sophisticated Marajoara pottery (c. 800–1400 AD), from cultures flourishing on Marajó Island and around the region of Santarém, and statuettes and cult objects, such as the small carved-stone amulets called muiraquitãs, also belong to these cultures.[33] Many of the Jesuits worked in Brazil under the influence of the Baroque, the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century.[34][35] The Baroque in Brazil flourished in Bahia and Pernambuco and Minas Gerais, generating valuable artists like Manuel da Costa Ataíde and especially the sculptor-architect Aleijadinho.[35] Ismael Nery, Nude woman crouching , modernist work undated. In 1816, the French Artistic Mission in Brazil created the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts and imposed a new concept of artistic education and was the basis for a revolution in Brazilian painting, sculpture, architecture, graphic arts, and crafts.[36] A few decades later, under the personal patronage of Emperor Dom Pedro II, who was engaged in an ambitious national project of modernization, the Academy reached its golden age, fostering the emergence of the first generation of Romantic painters, whence Victor Meirelles and Pedro Américo, that, among others, produced lasting visual symbols of national identity. It must be said that in Brazil Romanticism in painting took a peculiar shape, not showing the overwhelming dramaticism, fantasy, violence, or interest in death and the bizarre commonly seen in the European version, and because of its academic and palatial nature all excesses were eschewed.[37][38][39] The beginning of the 20th century saw a struggle between old schools and modernist trends. Important modern artists Anita Malfatti and Tarsila do Amaral were both early pioneers in Brazilian art.[40] Both participated of The Week of Modern Art festival, held in São Paulo in 1922, that renewed the artistic and cultural environment of the city[41] and also presented artists such as Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, Vicente do Rego Monteiro, and Victor Brecheret.[42] Based on Brazilian folklore, many artists have committed themselves to mix it with the proposals of the European Expressionism, Cubism, and Surrealism. From Surrealism, arises Ismael Nery, concerned with metaphysical subjects where their pictures appear on imaginary scenarios and averse to any recognizable reference.[43] In the next generation, the modernist ideas of the Week of Modern Art have affected a moderate modernism that could enjoy the freedom of the strict academic agenda, with more features conventional method, best exemplified by the artist Candido Portinari, which was the official artist of the government in mid-century.[44] In our times, names such as Oscar Araripe, Beatriz Milhazes and Romero Britto are well acclaimed. Literature and poetry Main article: Brazilian literature Machado de Assis, poet and novelist whose work extends for almost all literary genre, is widely regarded as the greatest Brazilian writer.[45] Literature in Brazil dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and natives that amazed Europeans that arrived in Brazil.[46] When Brazil became a colony of Portugal, there was the "Jesuit Literature", whose main name was father António Vieira, a Portuguese Jesuit who became one of the most celebrated Baroque writers of the Portuguese language. A few more explicitly literary examples survive from this period, José Basílio da Gama's epic poem celebrating the conquest of the Missions by the Portuguese, and the work of Gregório de Matos Guerra, who produced a sizable amount of satirical, religious, and secular poetry. Neoclassicism was widespread in Brazil during the mid-18th century, following the Italian style. Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism — novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and José de Alencar wrote novels about love and pain. Alencar, in his long career, also treated Indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist novels O Guarany, Iracema, Ubirajara.[47] The French Mal du siècle was also introduced in Brazil by the likes of Alvares de Azevedo, whose Lira dos Vinte Anos and Noite na Taverna are national symbols of the Ultra-romanticism. Gonçalves Dias, considered one of the national poets,[48] sang the Brazilian people and the Brazilian land on the famous Song of the Exile (1843), known to every Brazilian schoolchild.[48] Also dates from this period, although his work has hatched in Realism, Machado de Assis, whose works include Helena, Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas, O alienista, Dom Casmurro, and who is widely regarded as the most important writer of Brazilian literature.[49][50] Assis is also highly respected around the world.[51][52] My land has palm trees, Where the Thrush sings; The birds, that sing here, Do not sing as they do there. Gonçalves Dias.[53] Monteiro Lobato, of the Pré-Modernism (literary moviment essentially Brazilian),[54] wrote mainly for children, often bringing Greek mythology and didacticism with Brazilian folklore, as we see in his short stories about Saci Pererê.[55] Some authors of this time, like Lima Barreto and Simões Lopes Neto and Olavo Bilac, already show a distinctly modern character; Augusto dos Anjos, whose works combine Symbolistic, Parnasian and even pre-modernist elements has a "paralytic language".[56] Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade, from Modernism, combined nationalist tendencies with an interest in European modernism and created the Modern Art Week of 1922. João Cabral de Melo Neto and Carlos Drummond de Andrade are placed among the greatest Brazilian poets;[57] the first, post-modernist, concerned with the aesthetics and created a concise and elliptical and lean poetic, against sentimentality;[58] Drummond, in turn, was a supporter of "anti-poetic" where the language was born with the poem.[59] In Post-Modernism, João Guimarães Rosa wrote the novel Grande Sertão: Veredas, about Sertão,[60] with a highly original style and almost a grammar of his own,[61] while Clarice Lispector wrote with an introspective and psychological probing of her characters.[62] Nowadays, Nelson Rodrigues, Rubem Fonseca and Sérgio Sant'Anna, next to Nélida Piñon and Lygia Fagundes Telles, both members of Academia Brasileira de Letras, are important authors who write about contemporary issues sometimes with erotic or political tones. Ferreira Gullar and Manoel de Barros are two highly admired poets and the former has also been nominated for the Nobel Prize.[63] Cinema Main articles: Cinema of Brazil and Television in Brazil Gramado Film Festival. The Cinema has a long tradition in Brazil, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century, and gained a new level of international acclaim in recent years.[64] Bus 174 (2002), by José Padilha, about a bus hijacking, is the highest rated foreign film at Rotten Tomatoes.[65] O Pagador de Promessas (1962), directed by Anselmo Duarte, is one of the most acclaimed Brazilian film critics and the first (and only, to date) Brazilian film to won the Palme d'Or at the 1962 Cannes Film Festival.[66] Fernando Meirelles' City of God (2002), is the highest rated Brazilian film on the IMDb Top 250 list,[67] and Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (1964), from Cinema Novo and directed by Glauber Rocha. The highest-grossing film in Brazilian cinema, taking 12 million viewers to cinemas, is Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands (1976), directed by Bruno Barreto and basead on the novel of the same name by Jorge Amado.[68][69][70] Music Main article: Music of Brazil The São Paulo concerthall. Brazil's popular music developed parallel to its classical music and it also united traditional European instruments: guitar, piano, and flute, with a whole rhythm section of sounds produced by frying pans, small barrels with a membrane and a stick inside (cuícas) that make wheezing sounds, and tambourines. During the 1930s Brazilian popular music played on the radio became a powerful means of mass communication. In the mid 1960's, the haunting, story-telling lyric of "Garota de Ipanema", carried by a rich melodic line, was the first big international hit to emerge from the bossa nova movement of Brazilian singers and composers.[71] Popular regional music in Brazil includes the forró from the northeast where the accordion and the flute join guitars and percussion in a footstomping country dance.[72] The frevo also from the northeast, which has an energetic, simple style; the chorinho (literally "small tears") from Rio de Janeiro which combines various types and sizes of guitars, flutes, percussions, and an occasional clarinet or saxophone in a tender form of instrumental music. The lambada achieved international fame during the 1980s. Also the brazilian rock is a highly popular music style in Brazil. Rita Lee and Os Mutantes opened the doors for Brazilian acts such as Legião Urbana, Cazuza, Barão Vermelho, Titãs, Capital Inicial, Sepultura to the world. Some of the Brazil's contemporary bands include Biquini Cavadão, Os Paralamas do Sucesso, Cachorro Grande, Candei de Ser Sexy, Charlie Brown Jr., CPM 22, Detonautas Roque Clube, Engenheiros do Hawaii, Roupa Nova, Ira!, Raimundos, Jota Quest, Matanza, Ultraje a Rigor and Velhas Virgens. Sports Main article: Sport in Brazil Maracanã Stadium, at the Brazilian Championship, highest division of Brazilian Football. Football is the most popular Sport in Brazil.[12] Many famous Brazilian players such as Pelé, Ronaldo, Kaká, and Ronaldinho are among the most well known players in the sport. The Brazilian national football team (Seleção) is currently ranked first in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings. They have been victorious in the FIFA World Cup a record 5 times, in 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002.[73] Basketball, Volleyball, Auto racing, and Martial arts also attract large audiences. Though not as regularly followed or practiced as the previously mentioned Sports, Tennis, Team Handball, Swimming, and Gymnastics have found a growing sporting number of enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil. Beach Football,[74] Futsal (official version of Indoor Football),[75] and Footvolley emerged in the country as variations of Football. In Martial arts, Brazilians have developed Capoeira,[76] Vale Tudo,[77] and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.[78] In Auto racing, Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One World Championship 9 times: Emerson Fittipaldi in 1972 and 1974;[79] Nelson Piquet in 1981, 1983 and 1987;[80] and Ayrton Senna in 1988, 1990 and 1991.[81] Brazil has undertaken the organization of large-scale sporting events: the country organized and hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup,[82] and is chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup event.[83] The circuit located in São Paulo, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.[84] São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963,[85] and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007.[85] Brazil also tried for the 4th time to host the Summer Olympics with Rio de Janeiro candidature in 2016.[86] On October 2, 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games, which will be the first to be held in South America.[87] See also History of Brazil List of Brazilians Painting in Brazil Sculpture in Brazil Literature of Brazil Brazil Skyscrapers Tourism in Brazil External links Brazilian ministry of culture (Portuguese) Consulate General of Brazil in San Francisco Eyes On Brazil - Brazilian Cultural Site References ^ Darcy Ribeiro, O Povo Brasileiro, page 16 ^ BRASIL CULTURA | O site da cultura brasileira ^ "15th-16th Century". History. Brazilian Government official website. http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/history/xvi_cent/. Retrieved 2008-06-08. [dead link] ^ "People and Society". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_3/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-10.  ^ a b "Population". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_3/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-10. [dubious – discuss] ^ Freyre, Gilberto (1986). "The Afro-Brazilian experiment - African influence on Brazilian culture". UNESCO. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1986_May-June/ai_4375022. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  ^ IBGE teen ^ IBGE teen ^ IBGE teen ^ IBGE teen ^ IBGE teen ^ a b "Way of Life". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_4/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  ^ (English) "As origens da Feijoada: O mais brasileiro dos sabores", by João Luís de Almeida Machado. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ Gastronomia: Feijoada. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ http://www.braziltravelguide.com/feijoada-the-brazilian-national-dish.html ^ Brazil National Dish: Feijoada Recipe and Restaurants. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ CASCUDO, Luís da Câmara. História da Alimentação no Brasil - 2 vols. 2ª ed. Itatitaia, Rio de Janeiro, 1983. ^ (Portuguese) "Benefícios do arros e feijão, par perfeito". In http://www.cnpaf.embrapa.br/. Visted on November 8, 2009. ^ International Coffee Organization ^ "Sabor do Café/História do café". Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ http://www.revistacafeicultura.com.br/index.php?tipo=ler&mat=8740 ^ Museu do Café. Café no Brasil. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ Gislane e Reinaldo. História (Textbook). Editora Ática, 2009, p. 352 ^ "There's an awful lot of coffee in - Vietnam". http://www.new-agri.co.uk/01-4/focuson/focuson2.html. Retrieved 2008-07-21.  ^ "An Awful Lot of Coffee in the Bin". Time Magazine. September 1967. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,837267,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-21.  ^ Philip Hoplins (July 2003). "More home-grown beans in the daily grind". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/07/13/1058034875328.html. Retrieved 2008-07-21.  ^ There's an Awful Lot of Bubbly in Brazil ^ They've got an awful lot of taxes in Brazil ^ There's an awful lot of motivation in Brazil ^ An Awful Lot of Brazilians in Paraguay ^ Almanaque Abril 2007. São Paulo: Editora Abril, 2007, p. 234. ^ Martins, Simone B. & Imbroisi, Margaret H. História da Arte, 1988 ^ Correa, Conceição Gentil. Estatuetas de cerâmica na cultura Santarém. Belém: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 1965. ^ KARNAL, Leandro. Teatro da Fé: Formas de Representação Religiosa no Brasil e no México do Século XVI. São Paulo, Editora Hucitec, 1998. [1] ^ a b The Brazilian Baroque. Encyclopaedia Itaú Cultural ^ CONDURU, Roberto. Araras Gregas. In: 19&20 - A revista eletrônica de DezenoveVinte. Volume III, n. 2, abril de 2008 [2] ^ BISCARDI, Afrânio & ROCHA, Frederico Almeida. O Mecenato Artístico de D. Pedro II e o Projeto Imperial. In: 19&20 - A revista eletrônica de DezenoveVinte. Volume I, n. 1, maio de 2006 [3] ^ CARDOSO, Rafael. A Academia Imperial de Belas Artes e o Ensino Técnico. In: 19&20 - A revista eletrônica de DezenoveVinte. Volume III, n. 1, janeiro de 2008 [4] ^ FERNANDES, Cybele V. F. A construção simbólica da nação: A pintura e a escultura nas Exposições Gerais da Academia Imperial das Belas Artes. In: 19&20 - A revista eletrônica de DezenoveVinte. Volume II, n. 4, outubro de 2007 [5] ^ "Art and Architecture". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_5/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  ^ http://www.pitoresco.com.br/ ^ Semana da Arte Moderna. Pitoresco Website ^ (English) "Ismael Nery: Critical Commentary". On Itaú Cultural Visual Artes. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ Modernism in Brazil. Encyclopedia Itaú Cultural ^ Candido; Antonio. (1970) Vários escritos. São Paulo: Duas Cidades. p.18 ^ "Literature". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_5/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  ^ "Brazilian Literature: An Introduction". Embassy of Brasil - Ottawa. Visited on November 2, 2009. ^ a b "Antonio Gonçalves Dias". Article on Encyclopaedia Britannica. ^ Caldwell, Helen (1970) Machado de Assis: The Brazilian Master and his Novels. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, University of California Press. ^ Fernandez, Oscar Machado de Assis: The Brazilian Master and His Novels The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Apr., 1971), pp. 255-256 ^ João Cezar de Castro Rocha, "Introduction". Portuguese Literature and Cultural Studies 13/14 (2006): xxiv. ^ Harold Bloom, Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds (New York: Warner Books), 674. ^ Gonçalves Dias. Song of the Exile. Translated by John Milton and disponible on The NeoConcrete Movement. Page visited on November 3, 2009. ^ (Portuguese) E-Dicionário de literatura. Visited on April 4, 2008. ^ (Portuguese) Unnamed. "José Bento Monteiro Lobato reconta a Mitologia Grega", in: Recanto das Letras. Visited on May 13, 2009. ^ Anjos, Augusto. A Idéia ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright. 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products N.V. ^ (Portuguese) Terra, Ernani. De Nicola, José. Português: de olho no mundo do trabalho (Textbook), p.523. 3rd edition. Editora Scipione, São Paulo, 2006. ^ (Portuguese) Terra, Ernani. De Nicola, José. Português: de olho no mundo do trabalho (Textbook), p.28 ^ http://educaterra.terra.com.br/literatura/livrodomes/2004/09/24/003.htm ^ (Portuguese) Terra, Ernani. De Nicola, José. Português: de olho no mundo do trabalho (Textbook), p.516. ^ (Portuguese) Terra, Ernani. De Nicola, José. Português: de olho no mundo do trabalho (Textbook), p.517 ^ Brazilian's literature. Portuguese Language Guide. Visited on November 2, 2009. ^ "Theater and Film". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_5/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  ^ Best of Foreign at Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2009-10-27 ^ "Festival de Cannes: O Pagador de Promessas". festival-cannes.com. http://www.festival-cannes.com/en/archives/ficheFilm/id/3153/year/1962.html. Retrieved 2009-02-23.  ^ Cidade de Deus (2002) at the Internet Movie Database ^ Revista de Cinema. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ Ancine. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ Filme B. Visited on November 8, 2009. ^ The Girl of Ipanema Music ^ Forró Music in Brazil ^ "Football in Brazil". Goal Programme. International Federation of Association Football. 2008-04-15. http://www.fifa.com/associations/association=bra/goalprogramme/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "Beach Soccer". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/developing/beachsoccer/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "Futsal". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/developing/futsal/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "The art of capoeira". BBC. 2006-09-20. http://www.bbc.co.uk/northyorkshire/content/articles/2005/09/13/capoeira_feature.shtml. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "Brazilian Vale Tudo". I.V.C. http://valetudo.com.br/. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Official Website". International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation. http://www.ibjjf.org/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Emerson Fittipaldi". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/282/. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Nelson Piquet". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/181/. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Ayrton Senna". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/45/. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "1950 FIFA World Cup Brazil". Previous FIFA World Cups. International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=7/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/brazil2014/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ "Formula 1 Grande Premio do Brasil 2008". The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/races/in_detail/brazil_804/circuit_diagram.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ a b "Chronological list of Pan American Games". Pan American Sports Organization. http://odepapaso.org/paso/chrono.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. [dead link] ^ "Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic bid official website". Brazilian Olympic Committee. http://www.rio2016.org.br/en/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  ^ The Guardian, October 2, 2009, Olympics 2016: Tearful Pele and weeping Lula greet historic win for Rio v · d · eCulture of Latin America and the Caribbean North America Mexico Central America Belize · Costa Rica · El Salvador · Guatemala · Honduras · Nicaragua · Panama Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Cuba · Dominica · Dominican Republic · Grenada · Haiti · Jamaica · Puerto Rico1 · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · Trinidad and Tobago South America Argentina · Bolivia · Brazil · Chile · Colombia · Ecuador · Guyana · Paraguay · Peru · Suriname · Uruguay · Venezuela Dependencies not included.   1 Defined as a semi-autonomous territory. v · d · e Brazil topics History First inhabitants · Colonization · Empire · Old Republic · Vargas Era · Republic of 46 · Military rule · Contemporary Politics Constitution · President · National Congress · Elections · Political parties · Foreign relations · Antarctic Geopolitics Law Law enforcement · Supreme Federal Tribunal · Human rights (LGBT rights) · Order of Attorneys Economy Real · Central Bank · List of companies · Agriculture · Industry · Economic history · Telecommunications · Tourism Geography Regions · States · Municipalities · Islands · Coastline · Climate · Environment · Extreme points · Protected areas · Capitals Demographics People · Languages · Religion · Immigration · Education · Health · Crime · Social issues · Largest cities · Apartheid Culture Art (general) · Carnival · Cuisine · Cinema · Holidays · Literature · Music (Musicians · Groups) · Painting · Sculpture Transport High-speed rail · Highway · Railways · Airports · Bus Rapid Transit Energy Renewable energy · Ethanol fuel · Electricity · Vale · Petrobras · Eletrobras Sports 1950 FIFA World Cup · 2014 FIFA World Cup · 2016 Summer Olympics · 2016 Summer Paralympics · 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup Other topics Military · International rankings · Science and technology · Mercosul · Potential superpowers Category · Portal · WikiProject v · d · eDemographics of Brazil Economic and social Apartheid · Attractions · Law · Crime · Education · GDP · Health · Human Development · Human Rights (LGBT Rights) · Immigration · Languages · People · Politics · Poverty · Races · Religions · Traditions · Wealth European immigration Armenian · Austrian · Belgian · Bulgarian · Croatian · Czech · Dutch · English · Finnish · French · German · Greek · Hungarian · Irish · Italian · Jewish · Latvian · Lithuanian · Luxembourger · Macedonian · Maltese · Polish · Portuguese · Russian · Scandinavian · Scottish · Spanish · Swiss · Ukrainian Arab Brazilians Lebanese · Palestinian · Syrian South American Brazilians Argentine · Bolivian · Chilean · Paraguayan · Peruvian · Uruguayan American Brazilians American (Confederados) Mixed-race Brazilians Pardo (Caboclo · Cafuzo · Mulatto) African Brazilians African Asian Brazilians Chinese · Indian · Korean · Japanese Native Brazilians Indigenous peoples Caribbean Brazilians Caribbean