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Ingrown nail Classification and external resources ICD-10 L60.0 ICD-9 703.0 DiseasesDB 29440 eMedicine emerg/593 ped/942 Onychocryptosis (from Greek ὄνυξ onyx "nail" + κρυπτός kryptos "hidden"), also known as an ingrown toenail, or unguis incarnatus[1] is a common form of nail disease. It is an often painful condition in which the nail grows so that it cuts into one or both sides of the paronychium or nail bed. The common opinion is that nail enters inside paronychium but an ingrown toenail may be overgrown toe skin.[2] The disease starts from a microbial inflammation of the paronychium, secondary a granuloma, and the result is a nail buried inside the granuloma.[3] While ingrown nails can occur in both the nails of the hand and feet, they occur most commonly with the toenails. A true ingrowing toenail, or onychocryptosis, is caused by the actual penetration of the flesh by a sliver of nail.[4] This should not be confused with other painful nail conditions such as involuted nails, or the presence of small corns, callus or debris down the nail sulci (grooves either side of the nail plate)or under the nail plate itself.[5] Also it should not be confused with a similar nail disorder, onychocyrtosis (from Greek ὄνυξ onyx "nail" + κυρτός kyrtos "convex") or convex nail.[3] Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Causes 3 Prevention 4 Management 4.1 Conservative 4.2 Band-Aid method 4.3 Phenolisation 4.4 Surgery 4.4.1 Vandenbos procedure 4.4.2 Wedge resection 4.4.3 Avulsion procedure 4.4.4 The Syme procedure 5 See also 6 Footnotes and References 7 External links ‎ Signs and symptoms Nail Arc Convexity Symptoms of an ingrown nail include pain along the margins of the nail (caused by hypergranulation that occurs around the aforementioned region), worsening of pain when wearing tight footwear, and sensitivity to pressure of any kind, even the weight of bedsheets. Bumping of an affected toe can produce sharp, even excruciating, pain as the tissue is punctured further by the nail. By the very nature of the condition, ingrown nails become easily infected unless special care is taken to treat the condition early on and keep the area clean. Signs of infection include redness and swelling of the area around the nail, drainage of pus, and watery discharge tinged with blood. The main symptom is swelling at the base of the nail on the side the nail is ingrowing (may be both sides). Causes The main cause of onychocryptosis is unsuitable footwear, including shoes with inadequate toe-box room and tight stockings that apply top and or side pressures. Less frequent causes include the damp atmosphere of enclosed shoes, softening the nail-plate and swelling the epididymis keratin, which eventually increases the convex arch permanently; genetics; and trauma and disease. Improper cutting may cause the nail to cut into the side-fold skin from growth and impact, whether or not the nail is "ingrown" (true onychocryptosis). The nail bends inwards or upwards depending on the angle of its cut. If the cutting tool, such as scissors, is in an attitude where the lower blade is closer to the toe than the upper blade, that will cause the toenail to grow from its base upwards, and vice versa. The process is visible along the nail as it grows, appearing as a warp advancing to the end of the nail. The upper corners turn more easily than the center of the nail tip. As people cut their nails by holding the tool always in the same angle, they induce these conditions by accident; as the nail turns closer to the skin, it becomes harder to fit the lower blade in the right attitude under the nail. When cutting a nail, it is not just the correct angle that is important, but also how short it is cut. A shorter cut will bend the nail more, unless the cut is even on both top and bottom of the nail. Causes may include: Bad nail-care, including cutting the nail too short, rounded off at the tip or peeled off at the edges instead of being cut straight across[6] Ill-fitting shoes, as those that are too narrow or too short can cause bunching of the toes in the developmental stages of the foot (frequently in those under 21), causing the nail to curl and dig into the skin Trauma to the nail plate or toe, which can occur by stubbing the toenail, dropping things on the toe or going through the end of the shoes (as during sports or other vigorous activity), can cause the flesh to become injured and the nail to grow irregularly and press into the flesh Predisposition, such as abnormally shaped nail beds, nail deformities caused by diseases, or a genetic susceptibility Ingrown toenails may be the result of a bacterial infection, treatable with antibiotics. See Treatments. A more physiologically sound description is that an ingrown toenail is actually too much skin around the nail ("overgrown toeskin")—the nail is not the problem. Vandenbos and Bowers theorized that pressure necrosis of the soft tissues surrounding the nail due to weight-bearing is the primary cause of ingrowing toenails. They wrote "the term 'ingrown toenail' is unfortunate in that it incriminates the nail as the causative factor and is responsible for the fact that most operative and conservative treatments are directed toward the nail. It is our thesis that persons who develop this condition have an unusually wide area of tissue medial and lateral to the nail and that with weight bearing this tissue tends to bulge up around the nail. When such persons trim the nail in a curved or rounded fashion instead of straight across, further bulging of soft tissue is allowed, and as the nail grows out, pressure necrosis of soft tissue occurs. If our thesis that the fault lies not with the nail but with an excess of soft tissue is correct, treatment by removal of a segment of nail is not rational. It increases the relative amount of soft tissue and predisposes to recurrence and at the same time inept attempts to remove some nail matrix lead to faulty regrowth of the nail. The logical conclusion is that soft tissue should be excised, so that with weight bearing there will be no tissue to bulge up across the nail.".[7] One study compared patients with ingrown toenails to healthy controls and found no difference in the shape of toenails between patients and controls and suggested that treatment should not be based on the correction of a non-existent nail deformity.[8] Ingrown toenails are caused by weight-bearing (activities such as walking, etc.) in patients that have too much soft tissue (skin) on the sides of the nail. Weight bearing causes this excessive amount of skin to bulge up along the sides of the nail. The pressure on the skin around the nail results in the tissue being damaged, resulting in swelling, redness and infection. In the past (and still today) the most common treatments are mainly directed at the nail (paradigm paralysis). Treatments often include removal of part or all of the nail. But since the nail is normal and the problem of too much skin around the nail is not treated, this often results in the problem returning or in deformity/mutilation of the nail. Prevention The most common place for ingrown nails is in the big toe, but ingrowth can occur on any nail. Ingrown nails can be avoided by cutting nails straight across; nails should not be cut along a curve, nor should they be cut too short. The important thing to avoid is cutting the nail shorter than the flesh around it. Footwear which is too small or too narrow, or with too shallow a 'toe box', will exacerbate any underlying problem with a toenail. It may not be so critical that the nails be cut perfectly 'straight across' as this may imply that they be squared at the corners. Sharp square corners may be uncomfortable and cause snagging on socks. Proper cutting leaves the leading edge of the nail free of the flesh, precluding it from growing into the toe. Filing of the corner is reasonable. Some nails require cutting of the corners far back to remove edges that dig into the flesh, this may be done as a partial wedge resection at a podiatrist's office. Ingrown toe nails can be caused by injury, commonly blunt trauma where the flesh is pressed against the nail causing a small cut that swells. Also, injury to the nail can cause it to grow abnormally, making it wider or thicker than normal or even bulged or crooked. Stubbing the toenail, dropping things on the toe and 'going through the end of your shoes' in sports are common injuries to the digits. Injuries to the toes can be prevented by wearing properly fitting shoes, especially when working or playing. One myth is that a V should be cut in the end of the ingrown nail. The reasoning of is that if one cuts a V in the nail, the edge of the nail will grow together as the nail grows out. This does not happen - the shape of the nail is determined by the growing area at the base of the toe and not by the end of the nail. A notch does not alleviate an ingrown toenail, and may do harm if cut too deeply.[6] Management Conservative Treatment of ingrown toenails ranges from soaking the afflicted area to surgery. The appropriate method is dictated by the severity of the condition. In nearly all cases, drainage of blood or watery discharge should mean a trip to the doctor, usually a podiatrist, a specialist trained explicitly to treat these conditions. Most practitioners agree that trying to outwait the condition is nearly always fruitless, as well as agonizing, but it can be done as long as the condition is not too severe and if the individual has a high pain threshold. Unfortunately, many consider that dealing with the nail is the correct way to cure the "ingrown" toenail. This is often incorrect. Ingrown toenails are often the result of a bacterial infection. If the infection is dealt with, the toe (and toenail) will heal itself.[citation needed] Soaking the affected toe in an anti-bacterial solution for 30 minutes at a time over a period of a few days or taking a course of erythromycin can clear up the infection allowing the toe to heal. Prying up the toenail will often make the infection worse and lead to further inflammation. The best way to deal with it is to leave the nail alone (no squeezing, pressing, lifting) and deal exclusively with the infection. In mild cases daily soaking of the affected digit in a mixture of warm water and Epsom salts and applying an over-the-counter antiseptic might allow the nail to grow out so it may be trimmed properly and the flesh to heal. Note that infection may be somewhat difficult to prevent in cleaning and treating ingrown nails owing to the warm, dark, and damp environment in shoes. Peroxide is immediately effective to help clean minor infections but iodine is more effective in the long term as it continues to prevent bacterial growth even after it is dry. However, iodine should not be used on deep wounds. In such cases a physician or podiatrist should be consulted. Although bandages can help keep out bacteria, it is not advisable to apply any of the new types of spray-on bandages to ingrown nails that show any discharge - preventing drainage will likely cause intense swelling and pain. Removal of spray-on bandages can be achieved with common rubbing alcohol. Some have advocated placing a small piece of cotton under the nail, specifically the affected area or as close to it as possible. In mild or moderate cases this may help the nail to grow back out from underneath the skin. But other foot doctors warn against the practice as many patients report that it increases spread of infection.[6] This solution is ineffective in advanced cases and usually only works in the early stages. Some doctors will apply silver nitrate to granulation tissue (overgrowth of irritated tissue at the side of the nail. This may look like reddish cauliflower, bleeds easily). This may [decrease?] the inflammation of the affected tissue at the side of the nail. Never ever attempt to alleviate the swelling using a needle, doing so can lead to an infection. If the infection is dealt with, the toe (and toenail) will heal itself. Soaking the affected toe in an anti-bacterial solution (such as colloidal silver or monatomic silver) for 30 minutes at a time over a period of a few days or taking a course of erythromycin can clear up the infection allowing the toe to heal. Footwear is a breeding ground for the bacteria that causes the infection. Socks should be changed at minimum daily, and removed at night to allow the toe to be kept cool and dry. Shoes should be kept dry and treated with an anti-bacterial shoe product to keep bacteria growth at a minimum. In serious cases these home remedies may be ineffective. When the flesh is excessively swollen and infected (purple skin around natural skin tone) these procedures may not work. These more severe cases where the area around the nail becomes infected, or the nail will not grow back properly, must be treated by a professional. Another way to deal with the ingrown toenail is to get the portion of your toenail which is growing under the skin removed. This must be performed by a podiatrist. The procedure is usually performed after administering a local anesthetic. Once the toe is numb the podiatrist will be able to remove the offending nail border. Once the nail is removed the nail matrix (aka nail root) can either be destroyed via chemical means by using phenol, or surgically by excising the nail matrix. After either procedure the nail will have to be dressed daily with antibiotic cream and a dressing. The goal of these procedures is to permanently remove the nail border that becomes ingrown, and should prevent ingrowns from happening again. Of the two procedures the surgical procedure usually has a better outcome than the chemical one. Several variations of these procedures are outlined below. Band-Aid method This method is non-invasive. The theory is that by physically pulling the side of the nailbed away from the nail, one can decrease pressure while simultaneously improving drainage of accumulated pus and drying of the wound. Digit should be clean and unoiled by ordinary soap for best adhesion of Band-Aid. The pulling is achieved with an ordinary or elastic adhesive bandage. A user of this method sticks one side of the bandage securely to the immediate area of the nailbed, pulling suitably as the bandage is wound around the digit at an angle so that the other end overlaps the first, but does not cover the wound itself. Thus the second side secures the first and keeps it from coming loose under the tension. Loosening while walking can be a problem but there are other ways to fix the bandage. Application of Band-Aid (wound on right side of nail) 1) Pulling 2) Sticking at an angle 3) Securing Procedure for double-sided ingrown nail (demonstrating photos after treatment) Results of procedure for double-sided ingrown nail Phenolisation Toothpick segment as home remedy to prevent ingrowing Following injection of a local anaesthetic at the base of the toenail and perhaps application of a tourniquet, the surgeon will remove (ablate) the edge of the nail growing into the flesh and destroy the matrix area with phenol to permanently and selectively ablate the matrix that is manufacturing the ingrown portion of the nail (i.e., the nail margin). This is known as a partial matrixectomy, phenolisation, phenol avulsion or partial nail avulsion with matrix phenolisation. Also, any infection is surgically drained. After this procedure, other suggestions on aftercare will be made, such as salt water bathing of the digit in question. The point of the procedure is that the nail does not grow back where the matrix has been cauterized and so the chances of further ingrowths are very low. The nail is slightly (usually one millimetre or so) narrower than prior to the procedure and is barely noticeable one year later. The surgery is advantageous because it can be performed in the doctor's office under local anaesthesia with minimal pain following the intervention. Also, there is no visible scar on the surgery site and a nominal chance of recurrence. Although the chances of reoccurrence of ingrown nails in an area that has undergone phenolisation are lower than nails who have just had the ingrown nail removed, if the application of the phenol was improperly performed or an insufficient quantity of phenol was applied to the afflicted area; the nail matrix can regenerate from its partial cauterization and grow new nail. This will result in a recurrence of the ingrown nail in approximately 4–6 months as the skin that the original ingrown nail grew under would also recover from the procedure (but the recovery of the skin either side of the nail is standard in this type of procedure) as well as the nail. Many patients who suffer from a minor recurrence of the ingrown nail often have the procedure performed again, with wiser patients asking the doctor to revise the procedure and try to assure that the procedure is performed correctly. However, some patients who suffer a more severe recurrence see a podiatrist who will perform the procedure again or resort to a more drastic and permanent solution (such as removal of the entire nail or the Vandenbos Procedure, which is described below) if there are multiple recurrences of the ingrown nail. Surgery Vandenbos procedure The Vandenbos procedure was first described by Vandenbos KQ and Bowers WP in 1959 in the US Armed Forces Medical Journal.[9] They reported on 55 patients and had no recurrences. Subsequently, Dr. Henry Chapeskie performed this procedure on over 560 patients with no recurrences. Unlike other procedures used to treat ingrown toenails, the Vandenbos procedure doesn't touch the nail. In this procedure, the involved toe is first anesthetized with a digital block and a tourniquet applied. An incision is made proximally from the base of the nail about 5 mm (leaving the nail bed intact) then extended toward the side of the toe in an elliptical sweep to end up under the tip of the nail about 3–4 mm in from the edge. It is important that all the skin at the edge of the nail be removed. The excision must be adequate often leaving a soft tissue deficiency measuring 1.5 × 3 cm. A portion of the lateral aspect of the distal phalanx is occasionally exposed without fear of infection. Antibiotics are not necessary as the wound is left open to close by secondary intention. Postoperative management involves soaking of the toe in warm water 3 times/day for 15–20 minutes. The wound is healed by 4–6 weeks. No cases of Osteomyelitis have been reported. When healed, the nail fold skin remains low and tight at the side of the nail. This procedure can be performed on mild to severe cases, and preferably before anyone has attempted a nail resection. Ingrown toe before Vandenbos procedure Intraoperative toe during the procedure Intraoperative toe during the procedure Healed ingrown toe after Vandenbos procedure Healed ingrown toe after Vandenbos procedure Ingrown toe before Vandenbos procedure Healed ingrown toe after Vandenbos procedure Wedge resection Partial removal of the nail or an offending piece of nail. More complex than a complete nail avulsion (removal). Here, the digit is first injected with a common local anesthetic. When the area is numb, the physician will perform an onychotomy in which the nail along the edge that is growing into the skin is cut away (ablated) and the offending piece of nail is pulled out. Any infection is surgically drained. This process is referred to as a "wedge resection" or simple surgical ablation and is non-permanent (i.e., the nail will re-grow from the matrix). The entire procedure may be performed in a physician's office and takes approximately thirty to forty-five minutes depending on the extent of the problem. The patient is allowed to go home immediately and the recovery time is anywhere from a two weeks to two months barring any complications such as infection. As a followup, a physician may prescribe an oral or topical antibiotic or a special soak to be used for approximately a week after the surgery. Some use "lateral onychoplasty" or "wedge resection" as the method of choice, for ingrown toenails. A wide wedge resection, with a total cleaning of nail matrix, has a nearly 100% success rate.[3] Some physicians will not perform a complete nail avulsion (removal) except under the most extreme circumstances. In most cases, these physicians will remove both sides of a toenail (even if one side is not currently ingrown) and coat the nail matrix on both of those sides with a chemical or acid (usually phenol) to prevent re-growth. This leaves the majority of the nail intact, but ensures that the problem of ingrowth will not re-occur. Disadvantages: If the nail matrix is not coated with the applicable chemical or acid (phenol) and is allowed to re-grow, this method is prone to failure. Also, the underlying condition can still become symptomatic as the nail grows out over the course of up to a year: the nail matrix might be manufacturing a nail that is simply too curved, thick, wide or otherwise irregular to allow for normal growth. Furthermore, the flesh can be injured very easily by concussion, tight socks, quick twisting motions while walking or just the fact the nail is growing wrongly (likely too wide). This hypersensitivity to continued injury can mean chronic ingrowth; the solution is nearly always edge avulsion by the highly successful phenolisation. Recurrence: If the nail becomes ingrown again after a wedge resection more invasive surgery is required. This can often include the destruction of the nail bed. This surgery takes longer than the minor wedge resection. During it the toe will be torniqued and incisions will be made from the front of the toe to around 1 cm behind the rear of the visible part of the nail. These incisions are quite deep and will require stitching and will also scar. The nail will then be cut out, much like a wedge resection and the nail bed broken to prevent regrowth. The nail will be significantly narrower after this surgery and may appear visibly deformed but will not become ingrown again. Note: if undertaking this surgery it is advisable to leave at least four days before walking any further than very short distances as even with painkillers this can be exceedingly painful. It is also important if you are required by your employer to stand for extended periods of time that they be made aware you may be unable to work for 1–2 weeks (at most) depending on your speed of recovery. A resected wedge from the left side of the left big toe, shown to scale Wedge Resection for ingrown toenail Wedge Resection for ingrown toenail Post-surgery toe with removed nail shard Wedge Resection Avulsion procedure Toe healing process after nail removal In case of recurrence in spite of complete removal, and if the patient never feels any pain before inflammation occurs, the condition is more likely to be onychia which is often confused for an ingrown or ingrowing nail (onychocryptosis). Complete removal of the whole nail is a simple procedure. Anaesthetic is injected and the nail is removed quickly by pulling it outward from the toe. The patient can function normally immediately after the procedure and most discomfort fades after a few days. The entire procedure can be performed in approximately 20 minutes and is less complex than the wedge resection above. The nail will grow back. However, in most cases it will cause further problems as it can become ingrown very easily as the nail grows outward. It can be easily injured by concussion and in some cases grows back too thick, too wide or deformed. This procedure can thus result in chronic ingrown nails and is therefore considered a generally unsuccessful solution, especially considering the pain involved. Accordingly, in some cases as determined by a doctor, the nail matrix is coated with a chemical (usually phenol) so none of the nail will ever grow back. This is known as a permanent or full nail avulsion, or full matrixectomy, phenolisation, or full phenol avulsion. As can be seen in the images below, the nail-less toe looks much like a normal toe and fake nails or nail varnish can still be applied to the area. The Syme procedure Onychocyrtosis (Clubnail), The Syme procedure In difficult or recurrent cases of Onychocryptosis (Ingrown Toenail) or Onychocyrtosis the patient's symptoms persist and he/she asks for a permanent operative solution. The "Avulsion procedure" is a simple method, but surgeon needs to be experienced for a total destruction, or removal of the nail matrix. A second disadvantage is the long term of healing and recovery time(> 2 months). In these cases, the best method is the "Syme procedure", that means total nail matrix removal + skin flap transfer + phalanx partial osteotomy + stitching.[3] See also Onychauxis List of cutaneous conditions Footnotes and References ^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders. p. 789. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.  ^ Chapeskie H (2008). "Ingrown toenail or overgrown toe skin?". Canadian Family Physician 54 (11): 1561–2. PMC 2592332. PMID 19005128.  ^ a b c d Harry Gouvas: Wedge Resection (Lateral Onychoplasty) as the method of choice for Ingrown Toenail". Orthopaedic Medical Congress in Athens, 14 Oct, 2004, paper, 148 ^ Ingrown Toenail: ^ Ingrown Toenail: ^ a b c " Information on Ingrown Toenails". Retrieved 31 March 2010.  ^ ^ Pearson HJ, Bury RN, Wapples J, Watkin DF (November 1987). "Ingrowing toenails: is there a nail abnormality? A prospective study". J Bone Joint Surg Br 69 (5): 840–2. PMID 3680356.  ^ Vandenbos KQ, Bowers WP (1959). "Ingrown toenail: a result of weight bearing on soft tissue". US Armed Forces Medical Journal 10 (10): 1168–73.  Chapeskie H (2008). "Ingrown toenail or overgrown toe skin?". Canadian Family Physician 54 (11): 1561–1562. PMC 2592332. PMID 19005128.  Vandenbos KQ, Bowers WP (1959). "Ingrown toenail: a result of weight bearing on soft tissue". US Armed Forces Medical Journal 10 (10): 1168–1173.  Pearson HJ, Bury RN, Wapples J, Watkin DF (1987). "Ingrowing toenails: is there a nail abnormality? A prospective study". J Bone Joint Surg Br 69 (5): 840–842. PMID 3680356.  Aksakal AB, Ozsoy E, Gürer M (2003). "Silicone gel sheeting for the management and prevention of onychocryptosis". Dermatol Surg 29 (3): 261–4. doi:10.1046/j.1524-4725.2003.29061.x. PMID 12614420.  Boll OF (1945). "Surgical correction of ingrowing toenails". J Natl Assoc Chiroprod. 35: 8–9.  Kominsky SJ, Daniels MD (2000). "A modified approach to the phenol and alcohol chemical partial matrixectomy". J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 90 (4): 208–10. PMID 10800276.  Rounding C, Bloomfield S (2005). Rounding, Catherine. ed. "Surgical treatments for ingrowing toenails". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD001541. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001541.pub2. PMID 15846620.  Boberg JS, Frederiksen MS, Harton FM (2002). "Scientific analysis of phenol nail surgery". J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92 (10): 575–9. PMID 12438504.  External links "Ingrown Toenails" Information regarding ingrown toenails and a detailed description of the Vandenbos procedure including pictures, research articles and a video of the procedure "Nail Surgery" Chapter 33 of Textbook of Hallux Valgus and Forefoot Surgery, complete text online in PDF file "Complete Nail Surgery Photos Photos and comments showing a full nail removal from beginning to end. Ingrown toenail v · d · eDiseases of the skin and appendages by morphology Growths Epidermal wart · callus · seborrheic keratosis · acrochordon · molluscum contagiosum · actinic keratosis · squamous cell carcinoma · basal cell carcinoma · merkel cell carcinoma · nevus sebaceous · trichoepithelioma Pigmented Freckles · lentigo · melasma · nevus · melanoma Dermal and subcutaneous epidermal inclusion cyst · hemangioma · dermatofibroma · keloid · lipoma · neurofibroma · xanthoma · Kaposi's sarcoma · infantile digital fibromatosis · granular cell tumor · leiomyoma · lymphangioma circumscriptum · myxoid cyst Rashes With epidermal involvement Eczematous contact dermatitis · atopic dermatitis · seborrheic dermatitis · stasis dermatitis · lichen simplex chronicus · Darier's disease · glucagonoma syndrome · langerhans cell histiocytosis · lichen sclerosus · pemphigus foliaceus · Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome · Zinc deficiency Scaling psoriasis · tinea (corporis · cruris · pedis · manuum · faciei) · pityriasis rosea · secondary syphillis · mycosis fungoides · systemic lupus erythematosus · pityriasis rubra pilaris · parapsoriasis · ichthyosis Blistering herpes simplex · herpes zoster · varicella · bullous impetigo · acute contact dermatitis · pemphigus vulgaris · bullous pemphigoid · dermatitis herpetiformis · porphyria cutanea tarda · epidermolysis bullosa simplex Papular scabies · insect bite reactions · lichen planus · miliaria · keratosis pilaris · lichen spinulosus · transient acantholytic dermatosis · lichen nitidus · pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta Pustular acne vulgaris · acne rosacea · folliculitis · impetigo · candidiasis · gonococcemia · dermatophyte · coccidioidomycosis · subcorneal pustular dermatosis Hypopigmented tinea versicolor · vitiligo · pityriasis alba · postinflammatory hyperpigmentation · tuberous sclerosis · idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis · leprosy · hypopigmented mycosis fungoides Without epidermal involvement Red Blanchable Erythema Generalized drug eruptions · viral exanthems · toxic erythema · systemic lupus erythematosus Localized cellulitis · abscess · boil · erythema nodosum · carcinoid syndrome · fixed drug eruption Specialized urticaria · erythema (multiforme · migrans · gyratum repens · annulare centrifugum · ab igne) Nonblanchable Purpura Macular thrombocytopenic purpura · actinic purpura Papular disseminated intravascular coagulation · vasculitis Indurated scleroderma/morphea · granuloma annulare · lichen sclerosis et atrophicus · necrobiosis lipoidica Miscellaneous disorders Ulcers Hair telogen effluvium · androgenic alopecia · trichotillomania · alopecia areata · systemic lupus erythematosus · tinea capitis · loose anagen syndrome · lichen planopilaris · folliculitis decalvans · acne keloidalis nuchae Nail onychomycosis · psoriasis · paronychia · ingrown nail Mucous membrane aphthous stomatitis · oral candidiasis · lichen planus · leukoplakia · pemphigus vulgaris · mucous membrane pemphigoid · cicatricial pemphigoid · herpesvirus · coxsackievirus · syphilis · systemic histoplasmosis · squamous cell carcinoma v · d · eDisorders of skin appendages (L60–L75, 703–706) Nail thickness: Onychogryphosis · Onychauxis color: Beau's lines · Yellow nail syndrome · Leukonychia · Azure Lunula shape: Koilonychia · Nail clubbing behavior: Onychotillomania · Onychophagia other: Ingrown nail · Anonychia ungrouped: Paronychia (Acute paronychia, Chronic paronychia ) · Chevron nail · Congenital onychodysplasia of the index fingers · Green nails · Half and half nails · Hangnail · Hapalonychia · Hook nail · Lichen planus of the nails · Longitudinal erythronychia · Malalignment of the nail plate · Median nail dystrophy · Mees' lines · Melanonychia · Muehrcke's lines · Nail–patella syndrome · Onychoatrophy · Onychocryptosis · Onycholysis · Onychomadesis · Onychomatricoma · Onychomycosis · Onychophosis · Onychoptosis defluvium · Onychorrhexis · Onychoschizia · Platonychia · Pincer nails · Plummer's nail · Psoriatic nails · Pterygium inversum unguis · Pterygium unguis · Purpura of the nail bed · Racquet nail · Red lunulae · Shell nail syndrome · Splinter hemorrhage · Spotted lunulae · Staining of the nail plate · Stippled nails · Subungual hematoma · Terry's nails · Twenty-nail dystrophy Hair Hair loss/ Baldness noncicatricial alopecia: Alopecia/Alopecia areata (Alopecia totalis, Alopecia universalis, Ophiasis) Androgenic alopecia (male-pattern baldness) · Hypotrichosis · Telogen effluvium · Traction alopecia · Lichen planopilaris · Trichorrhexis nodosa · Alopecia neoplastica · Anagen effluvium · Alopecia mucinosa cicatricial alopecia: Pseudopelade of Brocq · Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia · Pressure alopecia · Traumatic alopecia · Tumor alopecia · Hot comb alopecia · Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens · Graham-Little syndrome · Folliculitis decalvans ungrouped: Triangular alopecia · Frontal fibrosing alopecia · Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis Hypertrichosis Hirsutism · Acquired generalized hypertrichosis · Generalized congenital hypertrichosis · Localized acquired hypertrichosis · Localized congenital hypertrichosis · Patterned acquired hypertrichosis · Prepubertal hypertrichosis · X-linked hypertrichosis Acneiform eruption Acne Acne vulgaris · Acne conglobata · Acne miliaris necrotica · Tropical acne · Infantile acne/Neonatal acne · Excoriated acne · Acne fulminans · Acne medicamentosa (e.g., steroid acne) · Halogen acne (Iododerma, Bromoderma, Chloracne) · Oil acne · Tar acne · Acne cosmetica · Occupational acne · Acne aestivalis · Acne keloidalis nuchae · Acne mechanica · Acne with facial edema · Pomade acne · Acne necrotica · Blackhead · Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei Rosacea Perioral dermatitis (Granulomatous perioral dermatitis) · Phymatous rosacea (Rhinophyma, Blepharophyma, Gnathophyma, Metophyma, Otophyma) · Papulopustular rosacea · Lupoid rosacea · Erythrotelangiectatic rosacea · Glandular rosacea · Gram-negative rosacea · Steroid rosacea · Ocular rosacea · Persistent edema of rosacea · Rosacea conglobata · variants (Periorificial dermatitis, Pyoderma faciale) Ungrouped Granulomatous facial dermatitis · Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma · Periorbital dermatitis · SAPHO syndrome Follicular cysts Epidermoid cyst · Trichilemmal cyst · Sebaceous cyst · Steatocystoma multiplex · Milia Inflammation Folliculitis (Folliculitis nares perforans, Tufted folliculitis) · Pseudofolliculitis barbae Hidradenitis (Hidradenitis suppurativa, Recurrent palmoplantar hidradenitis, Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis) Ungrouped Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica of Bazex · Acroosteolysis · Bubble hair deformity · Disseminate and recurrent infundibulofolliculitis · Erosive pustular dermatitis of the scalp · Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli · Hair casts · Hair follicle nevus · Intermittent hair–follicle dystrophy · Keratosis pilaris atropicans · Kinking hair · Koenen's tumor · Lichen planopilaris · Lichen spinulosus · Loose anagen syndrome · Menkes kinky hair syndrome · Monilethrix · Parakeratosis pustulosa · Pili (Pili annulati · Pili bifurcati · Pili multigemini · Pili pseudoannulati · Pili torti) · Pityriasis amiantacea · Plica neuropathica · Poliosis · Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome · Setleis syndrome · Traumatic anserine folliculosis · Trichomegaly · Trichomycosis axillaris · Trichorrhexis (Trichorrhexis invaginata · Trichorrhexis nodosa) · Trichostasis spinulosa · Uncombable hair syndrome · Wooly hair · Wooly hair nevus Sweat glands Eccrine Miliaria (Colloid milium • Miliaria crystalline • Miliaria profunda • Miliaria pustulosa • Miliaria rubra • Occlusion miliaria • Postmiliarial hypohidrosis), Granulosis rubra nasi, Ross’ syndrome, Anhidrosis, Hyperhidrosis (Generalized, Gustatory, Palmoplantar) Apocrine Body odor, Chromhidrosis, Fox–Fordyce disease Sebaceous Sebaceous hyperplasia M: SKA anat/phys/devp noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon proc, drug(D10)