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For historical accounts of the development of science and technology, see history of science and history of technology. Part of a series on Science Natural sciences Astronomy Astrophysics · Cosmology Galactic astronomy · Planetary geology Planetary science · Stellar astronomy Biology Anatomy · Astrobiology · Biochemistry Biogeography · Biological engineering · Biophysics Behavioral neuroscience · Biotechnology Botany · Cell biology · Cryobiology Developmental biology Ecology · Ethnobiology Evolutionary biology (introduction) Genetics (introduction) Gerontology · Immunology · Limnology Marine biology · Microbiology Molecular biology · Neuroscience Paleontology · Parasitology · Physiology Radiobiology · Soil biology Theoretical biology · Toxicology · Zoology Chemistry Acid-base reaction theories · Alchemy Analytical chemistry · Astrochemistry Biochemistry · Crystallography Environmental chemistry · Food science Geochemistry · Green chemistry Inorganic chemistry · Materials science Molecular physics · Nuclear chemistry Organic chemistry · Photochemistry Physical chemistry · Radiochemistry Solid-state chemistry · Stereochemistry Supramolecular chemistry Surface science · Theoretical chemistry Earth sciences Atmospheric sciences · Ecology Environmental science · Geodesy Geology · Geomorphology Geophysics · Glaciology · Hydrology Limnology · Mineralogy · Oceanography Paleoclimatology · Palynology Physical geography · Soil science Space science Physics Applied physics · Atomic physics Computational physics Condensed matter physics Experimental physics · Mechanics Particle physics · Plasma physics Quantum mechanics (introduction) Solid mechanics · Theoretical physics Thermodynamics · Entropy General relativity · M-theory Special relativity Social and behavioral sciences Anthropology · Archaeology Criminology · Demography Economics · Geography History · Linguistics Political science · Psychology Sociology Applied sciences Engineering Agricultural · Aerospace · Biomedical · Chemical · Civil Computer · Electrical · Fire protection Genetic · Industrial · Mechanical · Military Mining · Nuclear · Security Science  · Software Health sciences Biological engineering · Dentistry Epidemiology · Health care · Medicine Nursing · Pharmacy · Social work Veterinary medicine Formal sciences Computer science Logic Mathematics Statistics Related topics Interdisciplinarity Applied physics · Artificial intelligence Bioethics · Bioinformatics · Biogeography Biomedical engineering · Biostatistics Cognitive science · Computational linguistics Cultural studies · Cybernetics Environmental studies · Ethnic studies Evolutionary psychology · Forestry Health · Library science · Logic Mathematical biology · Mathematical physics Scientific modelling · Neural engineering Neuroscience · Political economy Science and technology studies Science studies · Semiotics · Sociobiology Systems theory · Transdisciplinarity Urban planning Scientific method History of science Philosophy of science Science policy Humanities Fringe science Pseudoscience v · d · e The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it (technology) have changed over the centuries. This academic discipline also studies the cultural, economic, and political impacts of scientific innovation. Histories of science were originally written by practicing and retired scientists, starting primarily with William Whewell, as a way to communicate the virtues of science to the public. In the early 1930s, after a famous paper given by the Soviet historian Boris Hessen,was focused into looking at the ways in which scientific practices were allied with the needs and motivations of their context. After World War II, extensive resources were put into teaching and researching the discipline, with the hopes that it would help the public better understand both science and technology as they came to play an exceedingly prominent role in the world. In the 1960s, especially in the wake of the work done by Thomas Kuhn, the discipline began to serve a very different function, and began to be used as a way to critically examine the scientific enterprise. At the present time it is often closely aligned with the field of Science studies. Modern engineering as it is understood today took form during the scientific revolution, though much of the mathematics and science was built on the work of the Greeks, Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Chinese, Indians and Muslims. See the main articles History of science and History of technology for these respective topics. Contents 1 Universities with HST programs 1.1 Argentina 1.1.1 Australia 1.1.2 Belgium 1.1.3 Canada 1.1.4 France 1.1.5 Germany 1.1.6 Greece 1.1.7 India 1.1.8 Israel 1.1.9 Japan 1.1.10 Netherlands 1.1.11 Spain 1.1.12 Sweden 1.1.13 Switzerland 1.1.14 United Kingdom 1.1.15 United States 2 Prominent historians of the field 3 Journals and periodicals 4 See also 5 Professional societies 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links // Universities with HST programs Argentina Buenos Aires Institute of Technology, Argentina, has been offering courses on History of the Technology and the Science. National Technological University, Argentina, has a complete history program on its offered careers. Australia The University of Sydney offers both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the History and Philosophy of Science, run by the Unit for the History and Philosophy of Science, within the Science Faculty. Undergraduate coursework can be completed as part of either a Bachelor of Science or a Bachelor of Arts Degree. Undergraduate study can be furthered by completing an additional Honours year. For postgraduate study, the Unit offers both coursework and research based degrees. The two course-work based postgraduate degrees are the Graduate Certificate in Science (HPS) and the Graduate Diploma in Science (HPS). The two research based postgraduate degrees are a Master of Science (MSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). [1] Belgium University of Liège, has a department called Centre d'histoire des sciences et techniques.[2] Canada Carleton University Ottawa offer courses in Ancient Science and Technology in its Technology, Society and Environment program University of Toronto has a program in history and philosophy of Science and Technology.[3] University of King's College in Halifax, Nova Scotia has a History of Science and Technology Program.[4] France Nantes University has a dedicated department called Centre François Viète. Paris Diderot University(Paris 7) has a Department of History and philosophy of Science. Pantheon-Sorbonne University (Paris 1) has a dedicated Institute of History and Philosophy of Science and Technics. The École Normale Supérieure de Paris has a history of science Department. Germany Technische Universität Berlin, has a program in the History of science and technology.[5] Greece The University of Athens has a Department of Philosophy and History of Science [1] India Banaras Hindu University,ANDHRA UNIVERSITY, has a program: one in History of science and Technology at the Faculty of Science and one in Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities at the Faculty of Humanities Israel Tel Aviv University. The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas is a research and graduate teaching institute within the framework of the School of History of Tel Aviv University.[6] Bar Ilan University has a Department for Science and Technology Studies. [7] Japan Kyoto University has a program in the Philosophy and History of Science. [8] Tokyo Institute of Technology has a program in the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science and Technology. [9] The University of Tokyo has a program in the History and Philosophy of Science. [10] Netherlands Utrecht University, has two co-operating programs: one in History and Philosophy of Science at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and one in Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities at the Faculty of Humanities.[11][12] Spain Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, offers a master degree and PhD programme in HST together with the Universitat de Barcelona.[13] Universitat de València, offers a master degree and PhD programme in HST together with the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.[14] Sweden Linköpings universitet, has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes HST.[15] Switzerland University of Bern, has an undergraduate and a graduate program in the History and Philosophy of Science.[16] United Kingdom University College London has an undergraduate programme in History and Philosophy of Science in the Department of Science and Technology Studies, offering three BSc degrees. A taught MSc programme is offered through the London Centre for History of Science, Medicine and Technology. An MPhil/PhD research degree is offered, too.[17] UCL also contains The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine which runs a postgraduate programme.[18] University of Oxford has a one-year graduate course in 'History of Science: Instruments, Museums, Science, Technology' associated with the Museum of the History of Science.[19] University of Leeds has both undergraduate and graduate programmes in History and Philosophy of Science in the Department of Philosophy.[20] University of Manchester offers undergraduate modules and postgraduate study in History of Science, Technology and Medicine and is sponsored by the Wellcome Trust.[21] University of Bristol has a masters and PhD program in the Philosophy and History of Science.[22] University of Cambridge has an undergraduate course and a large masters and PhD program in the History and Philosophy of Science (including the History of Medicine).[23] University of Durham, UK, has several undergraduate History of Science modules in the Philosophy department, as well as Masters and PhD programs in the discipline.[24] London Centre for the History of Science, Medicine, and Technology - this Centre was formed in 1987 and runs a taught MSc programme, jointly taught by Imperial College London, University College London, and the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL.[25] United States Academic study of the history of science as an independent discipline was launched by George Sarton at Harvard with his book Introduction to the History of Science (1927) and the Isis journal (founded in 1912). Sarton exemplified the early 20th century view of the history of science as the history of great men and great ideas. He shared with many of his contemporaries a Whiggish belief in history as a record of the advances and delays in the march of progress. The history of science was not a recognized subfield of American history in this period, and most of the work was carried out by interested scientists and physicians rather than professional historians.[26] With the work of I. Bernard Cohen at Harvard, the history of science became an established subdiscipline of history after 1945.[27] Brown University has a program in Science and Technology Studies[28] and the History of Mathematics.[29] (This program is in the process of being phased out. There are no longer any full-time faculty, and no new students are being admitted to the program.) California Institute of Technology offers courses in the History and Philosophy of Science to fulfill its core humanities requirements. Case Western Reserve University has an undergraduate interdisciplinary program in the History and Philosophy of Science [30] and a graduate program in the History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine (STEM).[31] Cornell University offers a variety of courses within the Science and Technology course. One notable course is called Science and Technology History, taught currently by Professor Peter Dear, which centers upon the development of Science and Technology History from the Newtonian era up to the Einsteinian revolution. This class is one of the longest running classes at Cornell University and is offered by the College of Arts and Sciences and caters to students who want to learn more about the development of modern science.[32] Georgia Institute of Technology has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Technology and Society.[33] Harvard has a large undergraduate and graduate program in History of Science, and is one of the largest departments currently in the world.[34] Indiana University offers undergraduate courses and a masters and PhD program in the History and Philosophy of Science.[35] Johns Hopkins University has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Science, Medicine, and Technology.[36] University of Kings College has a degree program in History of Science and Technology Lehigh University offers an undergraduate level STS concentration (founded in 1972) and a graduate program with emphasis on the history of industrial America.[37] Massachusetts Institute of Technology has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes HST.[38] New Jersey Institute of Technology has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes the History of Science and Technology[39] Oregon State University offers a Masters and Ph.D. in History of Science through its Department of History.[40] Princeton University has a program in the History of Science.[41] Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has a Science and Technology Studies department Stanford has a History and Philosophy of Science and Technology program.[42] Stevens Institute of Technology has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Science. University of California, Berkeley offers a graduate degree in HST through its History program, and maintains a separate sub-department for the field.[43] University of California, Los Angeles has a relatively large group History of Science and Medicine faculty and graduate students within its History department, and also offers an undergraduate minor in the History of Science.[44] University of California Santa Barbara has an interdisciplinary graduate program emphasis in Technology & Society through the Center for Information Technology & Society. The history department is affiliated with the emphasis.[45] University of Florida has a Graduate Program in 'History of Science, Technology, and Medicine' at the University of Florida provides undergraduate and graduate degrees.[46] University of Minnesota has a Ph.D. program in History of Science, Technology, and Medicine as well as undergraduate courses in these fields.[47] University of Oklahoma has an undergraduate minor and a graduate degree program in History of Science.[48] University of Pennsylvania has a program in history and sociology of science.[49] University of Pittsburgh's department of history and philosophy of science offers graduate and undergraduate courses.[50] University of Puget Sound has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes the history of science and technology.[51] University of Wisconsin–Madison has one of the largest programs in History of Science, Medicine and Technology, with particular strength in medical history, history of biology, history of science and religion, and environmental history. This program was the first to exist as an independent academic department. It offers M.A. and Ph.D. degrees as well as an undergraduate major.[52] Wesleyan University has a Science in Society program.[53] Yale University has a program in the History of Science and Medicine.[54] Prominent historians of the field See also the list of George Sarton medalists. Garland Allen Wiebe Bijker Peter J. Bowler Janet Browne James Burke Edwin Arthur Burtt Johann Beckmann Jim Bennett Herbert Butterfield (1900–1979) Martin Campbell-Kelly Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995) Allan Chapman I. Bernard Cohen (1914–2003) A. C. Crombie (1915–1996) Peter Dear E. J. Dijksterhuis Pierre Duhem (1861-1916) A. Hunter Dupree George Dyson Jacques Ellul Eugene S. Ferguson Peter Galison Sigfried Giedion Charles Coulston Gillispie Robert Gunther (1869–1940) Paul Forman Donna Haraway Peter Harrison Ahmad Y Hassan John L. Heilbron Reijer Hooykaas David A. Hounshell Thomas P. Hughes Evelyn Fox Keller Daniel Kevles Robert Kohler Alexandre Koyré (1892-1964) Melvin Kranzberg Thomas Kuhn Bruno Latour Simon Lavington David C. Lindberg G. E. R. Lloyd Anneliese Maier Leo Marx Lewis Mumford (1895-1990) Otto Neugebauer (1899–1990) William R. Newman Ronald Numbers David Nye Abraham Pais (1918–2000) Trevor Pinch Theodore Porter Lawrence M. Principe Raul Rojas Michael Ruse A. I. Sabra Jan Sapp George Sarton (1884-1956) Simon Schaffer Howard Segel Steven Shapin Wolfgang Schivelbusch Charles Singer Merritt Roe Smith Stephen Snobelen John Staudenmaier M. Norton Wise Frances A. Yates (1899-1981) Journals and periodicals Annals of Science British Journal for the History of Science Centaurus Dynamis History and Technology (magazine) History of Technology (journal) Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences (HSPS) Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (HSNS) ICON IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Isis Journal of the History of Biology Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences Notes and Records of the Royal Society Osiris Science & Technology Studies Science in Context Science, Technology, & Human Values Social Studies of Science Technology and Culture Transactions of the Newcomen Society Historia Mathematica Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society See also Science and technology in the United States Technological and industrial history of the United States Science and technology in Argentina Science and technology in Canada Professional societies The British Society for the History of Science (BSHS) History of Science Society (HSS) Newcomen Society [2] Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) Society for the Social Studies of Science (4S) Scientific Instrument Society [3] References ^ The University of Sydney. "History and Philosophy of Science". http://www.usyd.edu.au/hps. Retrieved December 3, 2009.  ^ Université de Liège. "CHST". http://chst.european-is.net/. Retrieved january 3, 2010.  ^ University of Toronto. "History and Philosophy of Science and Technology". http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/ihpst/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of King's College. "History of Science & Technology". Archived from the original on April 30, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060430050935/http://www.ukings.ca/kings_2902.html. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Berlin Technical University. "Philosophy, Theory of Science, and History of Science and Technology". Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060719212353/http://www.tu-berlin.de/fak1/philosophie/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Tel Aviv University. "History and Philosophy of Science". http://www.tau.ac.il/~cohn/. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  ^ Bar Ilan University. "History and Philosophy of Science". http://www.sts-biu.org/default.asp. Retrieved December 4, 2009.  ^ Kyoto University. = November 20, 2010 "Philosophy and History of Science". http://www.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/phisci/indexe.html = November 20, 2010.  ^ Tokyo Institute of Technology. [Division of History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science and Technology "Department of History and Philosophy of Science"]. Division of History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science and Technology. Retrieved November 20, 2010.  ^ The University of Tokyo. "Department of History and Philosophy of Science". http://hps.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index_en.php. Retrieved November 20, 2010.  ^ Utrecht University. "History and Philosophy of Science". Archived from the original on June 14, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060614024909/http://www1.phys.uu.nl/masters/histphilmaster/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Utrecht University. "Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and Humanities". Archived from the original on June 14, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060614005154/http://www2.let.uu.nl/Solis/homelet/master/hiscompstudies/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. "Centre d'Història de la Ciència". http://www.uab.es/cehic/. Retrieved April 10, 2008.  ^ Universitat Valencia. "Instituto de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia Lopez Piñero". http://www.ihmc.uv-csic.es/. Retrieved April 10, 2010.  ^ Linköping University. "Tema Teknik och social förändring". http://www.tema.liu.se/tema-t/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Bern. "History and Philosophy of Science". http://www.philoscience.unibe.ch. Retrieved December 21, 2006.  ^ University College London. "Science and Technology Studies". http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sts. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University College London. "The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine". http://www.ucl.ac.uk/histmed/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Oxford. "History of Science: Instruments, Museums, Science, Technology". Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060719083457/http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/course/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Leeds. "History & Philosophy of Science". http://www.philosophy.leeds.ac.uk/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Manchester. "History of Science, Technology and Medicine". http://www.chstm.manchester.ac.uk/. Retrieved December 12, 2007.  ^ University of Bristol. "Department of Philosophy". http://www.bris.ac.uk/philosophy/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Cambridge. "History and Philosophy of Science". http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Durham. "Department of Philosophy". http://www.dur.ac.uk/philosophy/undergrad/courses/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ London Centre for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology. "History of Science, Medicine and Technology". http://www.londoncentre-hstm.ac.uk.  ^ Nathan Reingold, "History of Science Today, 1. Uniformity as Hidden Diversity: History of Science in the United States, 1920-1940," British Journal for the History of Science 1986 19(3): 243-262 ^ Dauben, JW; Gleason, ML; Smith, GE (2009). "Seven decades of history of science: I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), second editor of Isis". Isis; an international review devoted to the history of science and its cultural influences 100 (1): 4–35. doi:10.1086/597575. PMID 19554868.  ^ Brown University. "Committee of Science and Technology Studies". http://www.brown.edu/Faculty/COSTS/.  ^ Brown University. "History of Mathematics at Brown". Archived from the original on June 12, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060612213047/http://brown.edu/Departments/History_Mathematics. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Case Western Reserve University. "History and Philosophy of Science". http://www.case.edu/artsci/hpst/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Case Western Reserve University. "History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine". http://www.case.edu/artsci/hsty/graduate.html#stem. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Cornell University. "Science and Technology Studies". http://www.cuinfo.cornell.edu/Academic/Courses/AS.php. Retrieved May 16, 2006.  ^ Georgia Institute of Technology. "School of History, Technology, and Society". http://www.hts.gatech.edu/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Harvard University. "Department of the History of Science". http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hsdept/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Indiana University. "Department of History and Philosophy of Science". http://www.indiana.edu/~hpscdept/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Johns Hopkins University. "History of Science, Medicine, and Technology". http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/graduateprograms/history_of_science/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Lehigh University. "The Science, Technology, and Society Program". http://www.lehigh.edu/~insts/insts.html. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Program in Science, Technology, and Society". http://web.mit.edu/sts/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ New Jersey Institute of Technology. "Program in Science, Technology, and Society". http://catalog.njit.edu/undergraduate/programs/sts.php. Retrieved February 28, 2007.  ^ Oregon State University. "Graduate Programs". Archived from the original on October 22, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071022131754/http://oregonstate.edu/cla/history/grad/. Retrieved May 15, 2007.  ^ Princeton University. "Program in History of Science". http://www.princeton.edu/~hos/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ Stanford University. "History and Philosophy of Science and Technology". http://hpst.stanford.edu/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of California, Berkeley. "History of science and technology". http://ohst.berkeley.edu. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of California, Los Angeles. "History of Science Program". http://www.history.ucla.edu/graduate/fields/science.html. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of California Santa Barbara. "Center for Information Technology & Society". http://cits.ucsb.edu. Retrieved October 6, 2010.  ^ University of Florida. "Department of History". http://www.history.ufl.edu/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Minnesota. "History of Science, Technology, and Medicine". http://hstm.umn.edu/. Retrieved April 21, 2009.  ^ University of Oklahoma. "Department of the History of Science". http://www.ou.edu/cas/hsci/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Pennsylvania. "History & Sociology of Science". http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/hss2/hss/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  ^ University of Pittsburgh. "History & Philosophy of Science". http://www.hps.pitt.edu/. Retrieved June 8, 2010.  ^ University of Puget Sound. "Science, Technology, & Society". Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080623001530/http://www.ups.edu/x3013.xml. Retrieved September 13, 2008.  ^ University of Wisconsin–Madison. "History of Science". http://histsci.wisc.edu/. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ Wesleyan University. "Science in Society program". http://www.wesleyan.edu/sisp/. Retrieved April 29, 2009.  ^ Yale University. "History of Science and Medicine". http://www.yale.edu/hshm/. Retrieved July 30, 2006.  Bibliography Historiography of science H. Floris Cohen, The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry, University of Chicago Press 1994 - Discussion on the origins of modern science has been going on for more than two hundred years. Cohen provides an excellent overview. Ernst Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, Belknap Press 1985 Michel Serres,(ed.), A History of Scientific Thought, Blackwell Publishers 1995 Companion to Science in the Twentieth Century, John Krige (Editor), Dominique Pestre (Editor), Taylor & Francis 2003, 941pp The Cambridge History of Science, Cambridge University Press Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science, 2003 Volume 5, The Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 2002 History of science as a discipline J. A. Bennett, 'Museums and the Establishment of the History of Science at Oxford and Cambridge', British Journal for the History of Science 30, 1997, 29–46 Dietrich von Engelhardt, Historisches Bewußtsein in der Naturwissenschaft : von der Aufklärung bis zum Positivismus, Freiburg [u.a.] : Alber, 1979 A.-K. Mayer, 'Setting up a Discipline: Conflicting Agendas of the Cambridge History of Science Committee, 1936–1950.' Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 31, 2000 External links Science and Education in Argentina The History of Science Society's "Guide to the Profession" A page of Science, Technology, and Society links. What's wrong with "technology as applied science?" History of Science and Technology - Resources for Science Learning, The Franklin Institute