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In an RC circuit, the value of the time constant (in seconds) is equal to the product of the circuit resistance (in ohms) and the circuit capacitance (in farads), i.e. τ = R × C. It is the time required to charge the capacitor, through the resistor, to 63.2 (≈ 63) percent of full charge; or to discharge it to 36.8 (≈ 37) percent of its initial voltage. These values are derived from the mathematical constant e, specifically 1 − e − 1 and e − 1 respectively. Contents 1 Cutoff frequency 2 Delay 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Cutoff frequency The time constant τ is related to the cutoff frequency fc, an alternative parameter of the RC circuit, by . or, equivalently, Short conditional equations: fc in Hz = 159155 / τ in µs τ in µs = 159155 / fc in Hz Other useful equations are: rise time (20% to 80%) rise time (10% to 90%) Standard time constants and cutoff frequencies for pre-emphasis/de-emphasis RC filters: Organization   Time constant τ in µs Cutoff frequency fc in Hz RIAA 7958 20 RIAA, NAB 3183 50 — 1592 100 RIAA 318 500.5 — 200 796 — 140 1137 MC 120 1326 — 100 1592 MC 90 1768 RIAA 75 2122 FM 70 2274 NAB, PCM 50 3183 DIN 35 4547 — 25 6366 AES 17.5 9095 PCM 15 10610 RIAA 3.18 50000 In more complicated circuits consisting of more than one resistor and/or capacitor, the open-circuit time constant method provides a way of approximating the cutoff frequency by computing a sum of several RC time constants. Delay The signal delay of a wire or other circuit, measured as group delay or phase delay or the effective propagation delay of a digital transition, may be dominated by resistive-capacitive effects, depending on the distance and other parameters, or may alternatively be dominated by inductive, wave, and speed of light effects in other realms. Resistive-capacitive delay, or RC delay, hinders the further increasing of speed in microelectronic integrated circuits. When the feature size becomes smaller and smaller to increase the clock speed, the RC delay plays an increasingly important role. This delay can be reduced by replacing the aluminum conducting wire by copper, thus reducing the resistance; it can also be reduced by changing the interlayer dielectric (typically silicon dioxide) to low-dielectric-constant materials, thus reducing the capacitance. The typical digital propagation delay of a resistive wire is about half of R times C; since both R and C are proportional to wire length, the delay scales as the square of wire length. Charge spreads by diffusion in such a wire, as explained by Lord Kelvin in the mid nineteenth century.[1] Until Heaviside discovered that Maxwell's equations imply wave propagation when sufficient inductance is in the circuit, this square diffusion relationship was thought to provide a fundamental limit to the improvement of long-distance telegraph cables. That old analysis was superseded in the telegraph domain, but remains relevant for long on-chip interconnects.[2][3][4] See also Time constant and exponential decay RC circuit, RL circuit, and RLC circuit Filter (signal processing) and transfer function Cutoff frequency and frequency response Emphasis, preemphasis, deemphasis High-pass filter, low-pass filter, band-pass filter References ^ Andrew Gray (1908). Lord Kelvin. Dent. http://books.google.com/books?id=nmdBauZWa6sC&pg=PA265&dq=intitle:kelvin+diffusion+%22product+of+the+capacity+and+resistance%22+%22square+of+the+length%22&lr=&as_brr=1&ei=HTX0SO3iO5HKMvLk-N0I.  ^ Ido Yavetz (1995). From Obscurity to Enigma. Birkhäuser. ISBN 3764351802. http://books.google.com/books?id=SQszfj7biVMC&pg=PA245&dq=preece+heaviside+telegraph+square&ei=MR7uSOafJYLwsQPzm4idBw&sig=ACfU3U0-1ZMeNjbKwbRbt-DjqKXpoTWcXw#PPA244,M1.  ^ Jari Nurmi, Hannu Tenhunen, Jouni Isoaho, and Axel Jantsch (2004). Interconnect-centric Design for Advanced SoC and NoC. Springer. ISBN 1402078358. http://books.google.com/books?id=Uj7RvVE2Ln0C&pg=PA59&dq=vlsi+rc+delay+distributed+diffusion&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=My_0SNqUNoGmMsHzzOkI&sig=ACfU3U1oqAlJTW0QP310hMfCGszYlPhC5g#PPA59,M1.  ^ Scott Hamilton (2007). An Analog Electronics Companion. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521687802. http://books.google.com/books?id=2BntAEtXsBMC&pg=PA580&dq=preece+distributed+heaviside+diffusion+thomson&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=qjD0SMelCKPCM67-sOcI&sig=ACfU3U0YCYUS3lRhkwooQ_XHBqMOI2BKGA#PPA580,M1.  External links RC Time Constant Calculator Conversion time constant τ to cutoff frequency fc and back RC time constant