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Many of the founding figures of Existentialism represent its diverse background (clockwise from top left): Dane Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855) was a theologian, German Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) an anti-establishment wandering academic, Czech Franz Kafka (1883–1924) a short story writer and factory manager, and Russian Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881) a novelist. Existentialism is a movement within Continental philosophy that developed in the late-19th and 20th centuries. As a loose philosophical school, some persons associated with Existentialism explicitly rejected the label (e.g. Martin Heidegger), and others are not remembered primarily as philosophers, but as writers (Fyodor Dostoyevsky) or theologians (Paul Tillich). It is related to several movements within Continental philosophy including Phenomenology, Nihilism, and Post-modernism. Name Lived Nationality Occupation Notes Abbagnano, NicolaNicola Abbagnano 01901-07-15 July 15, 1901 – September 9, 1990 Italy Philosopher Also associated with Neopositivism Arendt, HannahHannah Arendt[1] 01906-10-14 October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975 Germany Philosopher Also associated with Phenomenology, associate of Heidegger Badawi, Abdel RahmanAbdel Rahman Badawi 01917-02-17 February 17, 1917 – July 25, 2002 Egypt Philosopher Barnes, HazelHazel Barnes 01915-12-16 December 16, 1915 – March 18, 2008 United States Philosopher, author Translated Sartre into English Barth, KarlKarl Barth 01886-05-10 May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968 Switzerland Theologian Founder of Neo-Orthodoxy Berdyaev, NikolaiNikolai Berdyaev 01874-03-18 March 18, 1874 – March 25, 1948 Russia Theologian, philosopher Christian Existentialist Biko, SteveSteve Biko 01946-12-18 December 18, 1946 – September 12, 1977 South Africa Activist Buber, MartinMartin Buber 01878-02-08 February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965 Germany Theologian Worked with Rosenzweig Bultmann, RudolfRudolf Bultmann 01884-08-20 August 20, 1884 – July 30, 1976 Germany Theologian Buzzati, DinoDino Buzzati 01906-10-16 October 16, 1906 – January 28, 1972 Italy Author Also associated with magical realism Camus, AlbertAlbert Camus 01913-11-27 November 27, 1913 – January 4, 1960 France Philosopher, author Founded Les Temps modernes with de Beauvoir and Sartre Carlyle, Jane WelshJane Welsh Carlyle 01801-07-14 July 14, 1801 – April 21, 1866 United Kingdom Essayist Wife of Thomas Carlyle Carlyle, ThomasThomas Carlyle 01795-12-04 December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881 United Kingdom Author, historian Husband of Jane Welsh Carlyle Cioran, EmilEmil Cioran 01911-04-08 April 8, 1911 – June 20, 1995 Romania Philosopher, essayist Also associated with Pessimism de Beauvoir, SimoneSimone de Beauvoir 01908-01-09 January 9, 1908 – April 14, 1986 France Philosopher, anthropologist Founded Les Temps modernes with de Beauvoir and Sartre, carried on long-term collaboration with the latter Dostoyevsky, FyodorFyodor Dostoyevsky 01821-11-11 November 11, 1821 – February 9, 1881 Russia Novelist Foundational figure of Existentialism Earle, William A.William A. Earle 01919 1919 – October 16, 1988 United States Philosopher Also associated with Phenomenology, co-founded the Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy with Wild and James M. Edie Ellison, RalphRalph Ellison[2] 01913-05-01 May 1, 1913 – April 16, 1994 United States Novelist Wrote Invisible Man, associate of Wright Fanon, FrantzFrantz Fanon 01925-07-20 July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961 France (Martinique), Algeria Philosopher, anthropologist, psychiatrist Also associated with Marxism Flusser, VilémVilém Flusser 01920-05-12 May 12, 1920 – November 17, 1991 Czechoslovakia Philosopher Also associated with Phenomenology Fondane, BenjaminBenjamin Fondane 01898-11-14 November 14, 1898 – October 2 or 3, 1944 Romania Author, poet, film director Froude, James AnthonyJames Anthony Froude 01818-04-23 April 23, 1818 – October 20, 1894 United Kingdom Historian Girnius, JuozasJuozas Girnius 01915 1915–1994 Lithuania Philosopher Christian Existentialist Goffman, ErvingErving Goffman 01922-06-11 June 11, 1922 – November 19, 1982 Canada, United States Sociologist Gordon, LewisLewis Gordon 01962 1962–present United States Philosopher Also associated with Africana philosophy, Black Existentialism, and Phenomenology Heidegger, MartinMartin Heidegger 01889-09-26 September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976 Germany Philosopher Also associated with Phenomenology and Hermeneutics, associate of Arendt, rejected the label of "Existentialist" Husserl, EdmundEdmund Husserl 01859-04-08 April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938 Austria, Germany Philosopher Founder of Phenomenology Ionescu, NaeNae Ionescu 01890-06-16 June 16, 1890 – March 15, 1940 Romania Philosopher, mathematician James, WilliamWilliam James[1] 01842-01-11 January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910 United States Philosopher, psychologist Foundational figure of Pragmatism Jaspers, KarlKarl Jaspers 01883-02-23 February 23, 1883 – February 26, 1969 Germany Philosopher Also associated with Neo-Kantianism Kafka, FranzFranz Kafka 01883-07-03 July 3, 1883 – June 3, 1924 Austria–Hungary Novelist Foundational figure of Existentialism Kaufmann, WalterWalter Kaufmann 01921-07-01 July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980 United States Philosopher Translated Buber and Nietzsche into English Kierkegaard, SørenSøren Kierkegaard 01813-05-05 May 5, 1813 – November 11, 1855 Denmark Theologian, philosopher, author Foundational figure of Existentialism, Christian Existentialist Klíma, LadislavLadislav Klíma 01878-08-08 August 8, 1878 – April 19, 1928 Czechoslovakia Philosopher, novelist Also associated with Subjective idealism Levinas, EmmanuelEmmanuel Levinas 01906-01-12 January 12, 1906 – December 25, 1995 France Philosopher, theologian Studied with Heidegger and Husserl Park, James LeonardJames Leonard Park 01941 1941–present United States Philosopher Macquarrie, JohnJohn Macquarrie 01919-06-27 June 27, 1919 – May 28, 2007 United Kingdom Theologian Christian Existentialist Mačernis, VytautasVytautas Mačernis 01921-06-05 June 5, 1921 – October 7, 1944 Lithuania Poet Marcel, GabrielGabriel Marcel 01889-12-07 December 7, 1889 – October 8, 1973 France Theologian, philosopher Christian Existentialist Merleau-Ponty, MauriceMaurice Merleau-Ponty 01908-03-14 March 14, 1908 – May 3, 1961 France Philosopher Also associated with Phenomenology, associate of de Beauvoir and Sartre Nietzsche, FriedrichFriedrich Nietzsche 01844-10-15 October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900 Germany Philosopher Foundational figure of Existentialism, also associated with Nihilism Ortega y Gasset, JoséJosé Ortega y Gasset 01883-05-09 May 9, 1883 – October 18, 1955 Spain Philosopher Also associated with Perspectivism, Pragmatism, Vitalism, and Historicism Petrov, ViktorViktor Petrov 01894 1894–1969 Ukraine Novelist, anthropologist Rosenzweig, FranzFranz Rosenzweig 01887-12-26 December 26, 1887 – December 10, 1929 Germany Theologian, philosopher Worked with Buber Sartre, Jean-PaulJean-Paul Sartre 01905-06-21 June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980 France Philosopher, novelist, activist Also associated with Marxism, co-founded Les Temps modernes with de Beauvoir and Camus Shakra, AousAous Shakra 01908-04-22 April 22, 1908 – April 1, 1992 Palestine Politician, philosopher Shestov, LevLev Shestov 01866-01-31 January 31, 1866 – November 19, 1938 Russia, France Philosopher Also associated with Irrationalism Soloveitchik, Joseph B.Joseph B. Soloveitchik 01903 1903–1993 United States Rabbi Tillich, PaulPaul Tillich 01886-08-20 August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965 United States, Germany Theologian, philosopher Christian Existentialist Turner, RickRick Turner 01942 1942–1978 South Africa Philosopher Also associated with Marxism, studied with Sartre Unamuno, Miguel deMiguel de Unamuno 01864-09-29 September 29, 1864 – December 31, 1936 Spain Novelist, essayist, dramatist, philosopher Wild, John DanielJohn Daniel Wild 01902-04-10 April 10, 1902 – October 23, 1972 United States Philosopher Originally associated with Empiricism, Realism, and Pragmatism; later associated with Phenomenology; co-founded the Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy with Earle and James M. Edie Wilson, ColinColin Wilson 01931-06-26 June 26, 1931 – present United Kingdom Author Wrote The Outsider Wright, RichardRichard Wright 01908-09-04 September 4, 1908 – November 28, 1960 United States Author Associated with Black Existentialism, associate of Ellison Zapffe, Peter WesselPeter Wessel Zapffe 01899-12-18 December 18, 1899 – October 12, 1990 Norway Philosopher Founded biosophy Pre-Existentialist philosophers Several thinkers who lived prior to the rise of Existentialism have been retroactively considered proto-Existentialists for their approach to philosophy and lifestyle. Name Lived Nationality Occupation Notes Augustine of Hippo[1][3] 00354-11-13 November 13, 354 – August 28, 430 Algeria Theologian At various times associated with Gnosticism and Neoplatonism, Doctor of the Church Aquinas, ThomasThomas Aquinas 01225 1225 – March 7, 1274 Italy Theologian Foundational figure of Scholasticism, founder of Thomism, Doctor of the Church Mulla Sadra 01571 1571–1636 Persia Theologian Islamic philosopher associated with Illuminationism and transcendent theosophy Pascal, BlaiseBlaise Pascal[3] 01623-06-19 June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662 France Philosopher, theologian Rousseau, Jean-JacquesJean-Jacques Rousseau[1] 01712-06-28 June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778 France Philosopher Foundational figure of Liberalism and social contract theory Socrates[1] -4 !469–399 BC Greece Philosopher Foundational figure of Western philosophy Stoics[1] -3 !fl. 3 century BC – AD 529 Greece – Philosophical school which also had influence on Socrates Thoreau, Henry DavidHenry David Thoreau[1] 01817-07-12 July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862 United States Author, poet Foundational figure of Transcendentalism References ^ a b c d e f g Murchland, Bernard (2008) (in English) (Paperback), The Arrow That Flies by Night (1st ed.), United States: University Press of America, ISBN 0761840311  ^ Marino, Gordon (April 13, 2004) (in English) (Paperback), Basic Writings of Existentialism, Modern Library Classics (1st ed.), United States: Modern Library, ISBN 0375759891  ^ a b Earnshaw, Seven (2006) (in English) (Paperback), Existentialism: A Guide for the Perplexed, Guides for the Perplexed (First ed.), Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 2, ISBN 0-8264-8530-8