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Code Co-op Developer(s) Reliable Software Initial release 1996; 15 years ago (1996) Stable release 5.2a / June 4, 2011; 50 days ago (2011-06-04)[1] Operating system Windows Available in English Type Revision control License Commercial Website op/ Code Co-op is the peer-to-peer revision control made by Reliable Software. Contents 1 Distinguishing features 2 Standard features 3 History 4 Challenges 5 Theoretical Foundations 5.1 Bibliography 6 References 7 External links Distinguishing features Code Co-op is a distributed revision control system of the replicated type. It uses peer-to-peer architecture to share projects among developers and to control changes to files. Instead of using a centralized database (the repository), it replicates its own database on each computer involved in the project. The replicas are synchronized by the exchange of (differential) scripts. The exchange of scripts may proceed using different transports, including e-mail (support for SMTP and POP3, integration with MAPI clients, Gmail) and LAN. Code Co-op has a built-in peer-to-peer wiki system, which can be used to integrate documentation with a software project. It is also possible to create text-based Wiki databases, which can be queried using simplified SQL directly from wiki pages. Standard features Distributed development support through E-mail, LAN, or VPN Change-based model—modifications to multiple files are checked in as one transaction File additions, deletions, renames, and moves are treated on the same level as edits—they can be added in any combination to a check-in changeset File changes can be reviewed before a check-in using a built-in or user-defined differ Synchronization changes can be reviewed in the same manner by the recipients Three-way visual merge Project history is replicated on each machine. Historical version can be reviewed, compared, or restored Integration with Microsoft SCC clients, including Visual Studio History Code Co-op was the first[citation needed] distributed version control system. It debuted at the 7th Workshop on System Configuration Management in May 1997 [1]. The development of Code Co-op started in 1996, when Reliable Software, the distributed software company that makes it, was established. Reliable Software needed a collaboration tool that would work between the United States and Poland. The only dependable and affordable means of communication between the two countries was e-mail, hence the idea of using e-mail for the exchange of diffs. Of course, with such slow transport, using a centralized repository was unfeasible. Each user of Code Co-op had to have a full replica of the repository, including the history of changes. The problem was reduced to that of designing a distributed database that uses slow and unreliable transport for synchronization (later, faster LAN transport was also added). It also followed that the synchronization between multiple sites must use some kind of peer-to-peer protocol. Challenges The biggest challenge for a distributed system is the merge problem—How to create a single "official" version of the project from contributions made by many independent developers? In a centralized version control system, it's the server that keeps the official copy of the project—the central repository. All changes are made against the trunk version stored in that repository. Conflicts are avoided by providing a centralized locking mechanism. The server is locked during each individual check-in operation. In a distributed system, each project member works on his or her private copy of the project, and check-ins are made into a local repository. In open distributed systems each user works on their respective branch, which has to be manually merged into the trunk at some point. A closed system, like Code Co-op, creates instead the illusion of a single trunk against which all check-ins are done. This alleviates the need for frequent merges. Theoretical Foundations Code Co-op is an example of a distributed database. Local repositories are considered the replicas of this virtual database. Each check-in corresponds to a distributed commit—a non-blocking version of a two-phase commit. Bibliography Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman, "Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems", Chapter 7, Distributed Recovery Bartosz Milewski, "Distributed Source Control System", in Raidar Conradi, ed., Software Configuration Management, ICSE'97 SCM-7 Workshop, Proceedings, Springer 1997 (full text available at Google Books) References ^ "Code Co-op Release Notes".  External links Reliable Software Product review by ColdFusion Developer's Journal. Review in Larkware News v · d · eRevision control software Years, where available, indicate the date of first stable release. Systems with names in italics are no longer maintained or have planned end-of-life dates. Local only Free/open-source SCCS (1972) · RCS (1982) Proprietary PVCS (1985) Client-server Free/open-source CVS (1990) · CVSNT (1998) · Subversion (2004) Proprietary Software Change Manager (1970s) · ClearCase (1992) · Visual SourceSafe (1994) · Perforce (1995) · StarTeam (1995) · AccuRev SCM (2002) · Vault (2003) · Team Foundation Server (2005) · Rational Team Concert (2008) Distributed Free/open-source GNU arch (2001) · Darcs (2002) · DCVS (2002) · SVK (2003) · Monotone (2003) · Codeville (2005) · Git (2005) · Mercurial (2005) · Bazaar (2005) · Fossil (2007) Proprietary TeamWare (1990s?) · Code Co-op (1997) · BitKeeper (1998) · Plastic SCM (2006) Concepts Branch · Fork · Changeset · Commit · Delta compression · diff · Merge · Tag · Trunk List of revision control software · Comparison of revision control software