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Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria Date 1223 (first), 1229-1230 (second) and 1236 bc (third) Location Volga Bulgaria Result Mongol victory Belligerents Mongol Empire Volga Bulgaria Commanders and leaders Subutai, Jebe Strength  ?  ? Casualties and losses  ?  ? v · d · e Mongol invasions Central Asia (Khwarizm) – Georgia and Armenia – Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend – Bilär) – Anatolia – Europe (Dzurdzuketia – Rus' – Poland – Hungary) – Tibet – Baghdad – Korea – India – Japan (Bun'ei – Kōan) – Vietnam (Bạch Đằng) – China (Jin – Song) – Burma (Ngasaunggyan – Pagan  – Bhamo) – Java – Syria – Palestine (Ain Jalut) History of Tatarstan This article is part of a series Great Bulgaria Khazars Volga Bulgaria Kipchaks Mongol invasion Golden Horde Khanate of Kazan Muscovy Kazan Governorate Idel-Ural State Tatar ASSR Republic of Tatarstan Tatarstan Portal v · d · e The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. Contents 1 The Mongol campaigns 2 Population transfer 3 Rebellions 4 Impact on the region 4.1 Ethnolinguistic impact 5 Aftermath 6 See also 7 Sources The Mongol campaigns See also: Friar Julian In 1223, after defeating Russian and Kipchak armies at the Battle of Kalka, a Mongol army under the generals Subutai and Jebe was sent to subdue Volga Bulgaria. At that point in history Genghis Khan's troops were seen as invincible. However in 1223, the Bulgars defeated the Mongols. An army led by the Bulgar iltäbär (king) Ghabdulla Chelbir and including the armies of Mordvin princes or inäzors Puresh and Purgaz,ambushed and defeated Subutais's forces in 1223 (Battle of Samara Bend), one of the first defeats of the Mongols. The Mongols returned in 1229 under the command of Kukday and Bubede. This force defeated Bulgar frontier-guards at the Ural River and began the occupation of the upper Ural valley. A few years later, in 1232, the Mongol cavalry subjugated the southeastern part of the Bashkiria, and occupied southern portions of Volga Bulgaria itself. Following the failure of the various Bulgar lords to unite in common defense, the Mongols struck again in 1236. Mongol forces led by Batu Khan besieged and seized Bilär, Bolghar, Suar, Cükätaw, and other cities and castles of Volga Bulgaria. The inhabitants were killed or sold into slavery. Volga Bulgaria became a part of the Ulus Jochi, later known as the Golden Horde. It was divided into different "duchies"; later each of them became a vassal of the Golden Horde and received some autonomy. Population transfer The surviving agricultural population was forced to leave steppe lands. The majority settled along the Kama river and in adjacent areas further north. The area around Kazan, which was settled by Mari people some years before, became the new center of Bolgar culture and the nucleus of Kazan tatars population. Kazan and Çallı became new major political and trade centers. Some cities such as Bolghar and Cükätaw were rebuilt, but they were primarily trading centers and the population was not, for the most part, Bolgar. Rebellions After the Mongols left Volga Bulgaria to conquer the Russians, the Bulgars rebelled (see Rebellion of Bayan and Cik, Baçman movement), led by the nobility. The Mongols then returned and put down the rebellions. Impact on the region According to some historians, over 80% of the country's population was killed during the invasion. The remaining population mostly relocated to the northern areas (territories of modern Chuvashia and Tatarstan). Some autonomous duchies appeared in those areas. The steppe areas of Volga Bulgaria were settled by nomadic Kipchaks and Mongols, and the agricultural development suffered a severe decline. Over time, the cities of Volga Bulgaria were rebuilt and became trade and craft centers of the Golden Horde. Some Bulgarians, primarily masters and craftsmen, were forcibly moved to Sarai and other southern cities of the Golden Horde. Volga Bulgaria remained a center of agriculture and handicraft. Ethnolinguistic impact The population of Volga Bulgaria was mostly Muslim. Under the influence of Bulgarian culture, more and more nomadic Mongols and Kipchaks were converted to Islam. On the other hand, the language used by Muslims of the Golden Horde transformed into the Kipchak language, adopted by all Muslim Volga Bulgars. As a result of a later mixing of the Kipchak and Bolgar languages, the literary language of the Golden Horde became what is now called the Old Tatar language, and eventually evolved into the modern Tatar language. Some of Bulgaria's non-Islamic population kept the Bolgar language, which was influenced by the Mari language, a language commonly used in the territories they relocated to. This led to the development of the modern Chuvash language. Some historians hypothesize that during the rule of the Mongols, the ethnic makeup of the population of Volga Bulgaria did not change, remaining largely Bolgar and partly Finnic. Alternately, some hypothesize that some Kipchaks and Russians were forcibly relocated to Bulgaria's land. Undoubtedly, some Bulgars were forcibly relocated to the territory of modern Astrakhan Oblast, the population of which was previously nomadic (but see, e.g., Itil and Saqsin). Volga Bulgaria's Muslim community preferred to call themselves Muslims (Möselmannar), but used the word Bolghar to distinguish themselves from nomadic Moslem Kipchaks. They did not call themselves Tatars until the 19th century. Russian sources also originally distinguished Volga Bulgars from nomadic Tatars, but later the word "Tatar" became synonymous with "Turkic Muslim". To distinguish between themselves, they started to use names of the khanates: the population of Khanate of Kazan called themselves the people of Kazan (Qazanlı); this name was also used by the steppe Tatars and by the Russians. Aftermath In the middle of the 14th century some duchies of Volga Bulgaria became more independent and even coined their own money. The duchies were sometimes ruled by Bulgar nobles. In 1420s, the Kasan Duchy (Kazan Ulus) under the Ghiasetdin's leadership became practically independent from the Golden Horde. In 1440s, all lands with Volga Bulgar population were included into the Khanate of Kazan, which was ruled by Mongol dynasties. The Khanate also included Mari and Chuvash lands, while the rulers of the territories of Bashkirs, Udmurts, and Mordvins were considered vassals of Kazan. These were the peoples that traditionally had been under the economic and cultural influence of Volga Bulgaria. See also Volga Bulgaria Bulgars Mongolia Mongols Tatar invasions Russo-Kazan Wars Kazan Tatars Mongol Occupation of Eastern Europe Kummagyaria Sources (Tatar) "Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria". Tatar Encyclopedia. Kazan: Tatarstan Republic Academy of Sciences Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia. 2002.  Genghis Khan's Greatest General: Subotai the Valiant.Richard A.Gabriel v · d · eMongol Empire (1206–1368) Politics, organization and daily life Borjigin · Organization under Genghis Khan · Political divisions · Mongol military tactics and organization · Society and economy · Christianity among the Mongols · Armeno-Mongol alliance · Byzantine–Mongol alliance · Franco-Mongol alliance · Timeline of the Mongol Empire · Timeline of Mongol conquests · List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Russian states · Mongol and Tatar states in Europe · Banner of the Mongols · Destruction under the Mongol Empire Khanates Ilkhanate · Chagatai Khanate · Golden Horde · Ögedei Khanate · Yuan Dynasty Notable cities Almalik · Avarga · Azaq · Bukhara · Bolghar · Karakorum · Dadu · Majar · Maragheh · Qarshi · Samarkand · Sarai Batu · Sarai Berke · Saray-Jük · Shangdu · Soltaniyeh · Tabriz · Ukek · Xacitarxan Some campaigns and battles Asia Central 1207 Siberia · 1205–1209 Western China · 1211–1234 Northern China · 1211–1234 Manchuria · 1218–1221 Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran · 1236 and 1252 Tibet · 1221–1327 India East 1235–1276 Southern China · 1231–1260 Korea · 1277–1287 Burma · 1274–1281 Japan · 1257, 1284–1288 Vietnam  · 1293 Java Middle East 1241–1243 Anatolia · 1258 Iraq · 1243–1303 Syria · 1260, 1301 Palestine Europe 1237–1240 Georgia and Armenia · 1237-1240 (but fighting continues afterward) Chechnya 1229–1236 Volga Bulgaria · 1223, 1236–1240 Eastern Europe · 1240–41 Poland · 1241 Hungary Prominent people Rulers Genghis Khan · Börte · Tolui Khan · Ögedei Khan · Töregene Khatun · Güyük Khan · Oghul Qaimish · Möngke Khan · Kublai Khan · The Yuan Khagans Viceroys (khans) Jochi · Batu Khan · Orda Khan · Berke · Toqta · Uzbeg Khan · Chagatai Khan · Duwa · Kebek · Hulegu · Abagha · Arghun · Ghazan Military Subutai · Jebe · Muqali · Negudar · Bo'orchu · Guo Kan · Borokhul · Jelme · Chilaun · Khubilai · Aju · Bayan of the Baarin · Kadan · Burundai · Nogai Khan Terms Titles Khagan · Khan and Khatun · Khanum · Jinong · Khong Tayiji · Noyan Political and military Jarliq · Yam · Ordo · Pax Mongolica · Yassa · Kurultai · Paiza · Mangudai · Tumen · Kheshig