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The history of the Ukrainian minority in Poland dates back to the mid-14th century, when King Casimir III the Great annexed Red Ruthenia, whose population was predominantly Ukrainian (Ruthenian). In 1340, Poland annexed the lands of Przemysl, and in the following years, Polish rule was extended further east, reaching Kamianets-Podilskyi in 1366. After the Union of Lublin (1569), more ethnic Ukrainian lands were incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland, and the Polish borders reached as far east as Zaporizhia, and Poltava. Contents 1 Kingdom of Poland and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 2 Second Polish Republic 2.1 Religious Policies 2.2 Anti-Ukrainian mob violence 2.3 Educational Policies 3 Second World War 4 After Second World War 5 See also 6 References 7 External links // Kingdom of Poland and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Following the annexation of Red Ruthenia, Poland for the first time in history ruled lands which were not ethnically Polish. The total area of Ruthenian lands annexed by Poland was about 91,000 km2 (35,135 sq mi), and most of the population spoke Ruthenian/Ukrainian. The local nobility gradually became polonized, and many members of the Ruthenian szlachta converted to Roman Catholicism. Among the most famous Ruthenian families who polonized themselves were the Wiśniowiecki, Zbarascy, Zasławski, and Czartoryski families. Others, such as the Ostrogski, Sanguszko, and Kisiel families, resisted polonization. All these noble Ruthenian families were very influential in pre-1795 Poland, and one of the Polish kings, Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki, was the son of a notable Ruthenian magnate Jeremi Wiśniowiecki. Second Polish Republic After the end of the Polish-Ukrainian War, the eastern part of Galicia and Volhynia became a part of Poland. In Eastern Galicia, Ukrainians made up approximately 65% of the population while Poles made up only 22% of the population.[1] Of the 44 administrative divisions of Austrian eastern Galicia, Lviv (Polish: Lwów, German: Lemberg), the biggest and capital city of the province, was the only one in which Poles made up a majority of the population.[2] While national consciousness among the Galician Ukrainians was very strong, the Ukrainians of Volhynia were largely influenced by strong Russophile trends. Ukrainians represented about 16% of the total population of pre-war Poland. Over 90% of them lived in the countryside, 3-6% were industrial workers, and close to 1% belonged to upper class.[3] Two contradicting policies towards national minorities were competing in Poland at the time. The assimilationist approach advocated by Roman Dmowski (minister of foreign affairs) and Stanisław Grabski (minister of religion and education) clashed with the more tolerant approach advocated by the Polish chief of State Józef Piłsudski,[4] whose project of creating the Międzymorze federation with other states failed in the aftermath of the Polish-Soviet War. As most of the Polish government was initially controlled by Dmowski, the policies based on his views prevailed and were implemented,[5] with the result of alienating Poland's minorities to such an extent that, even after Piłsudski gained power in 1926, his attempted reforms did not affect the attitude of the minorities.[6] Piłsudski's reign marked the much-needed improvement in the situation of ethnic minorities. Piłsudski replaced the National-Democratic "ethnic assimilation" with a "state assimilation" policy: citizens were judged by their loyalty to the state, not by their nationality.[6] However the vicious spiral of terrorist attacks by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and government pacifications[6][7] meant that the situation continued to degenerate, despite Piłsudski's efforts. The attitude of the Ukrainians of that time is well shown in the statements of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, a noted Ukrainian historian, who wrote that: "the four centuries of Polish rule had left particularly destructive effects (...) economic and cultural backwardness in Galicia was the main "legacy of historical Poland, which assiduously skimmed everything that could be considered the cream of the nation, leaving it in a state of oppression and helplessness".[8] In 1928 Henryk Józewski, the former deputy minister for internal affairs in the Ukrainian government was nominated the voivode of Volhynia, to carry out a program of cultural and religious autonomy for Ukrainians. In 1930 the Ukrainian Scientific Institute was established with government funding. Until the outbreak of the Second World War the institute managed to publish more Ukrainian books than any other Ukrainian institution. In Volhynia the state also founded the Institute for the Study of Nationality Affairs and educational society for the Orthodox (which expanded to 870 chapters), subsidized Ukrainian reading societies (by 1937, it had 5,000 chapters), and sponsored Ukrainian Theater. The use of Ukrainian language during sermons was encouraged.[9] Józewski lost his post in 1938 and his programme was cancelled. A large number of Polish colonists were encouraged by the Polish government to resettle in majorty-Ukrainian territories. This number was estimated at 300,000 in both Galicia and Volhynia by Ukrainian sources and less than 100,000 by Polish sources (see osadnik) [10] Although the majority of the local population was Ukrainian, virtually all government official positions were assigned to Poles. Land reform designed to favour the Poles[11] brought further alienation of the Ukrainian population.[6] In 1935 the situation temporarily improved, as the Polish government reached an agreement with the Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance (UNDO), the largest Ukrainian political party in Poland; most prisoners of the Bereza Kartuska prison were released. Ukrainian education and political participation improved.[12] But key demands by the Ukrainians, such as local autonomy, a Ukrainian-language university for Poland's millions of Ukrainians, and an end to Polish colonization efforts on Ukrainian territories, were never met.[13] Ukrainian extremists continued their attacks on the Poles, and the moderates lost their bid to stabilize the situation.[14] Olha Basarab, Ukrainian political activist, member of the executive of the Lviv branch of the Union of Ukrainian Women, was accused of belonging to the Ukrainian Military Organization and tortured to death during interogation by Polish police in 1924 [15][16] Ukrainians during the interbellum had several representatives in the Sejm (Polish parliament), in 1928-1930 there were 26 of them, including Marshall Deputy of the Sejm, Volodymyr Zahajkiewicz and the Secretary of the Sejm, Dymitr Ladyka. In those years, Ukrainian and Belarussian deputies created a powerful "Ukrainian-Belarussian Club" (Klub Ukrainsko-Bialoruski), whose members were very active. In 1935 there were 19 Ukrainian deputies and in 1938 - 14, including Vasyl Mudry - Deputy Marshal of the Polish Sejm.[17][18] There were numerous Ukrainian organizations, such as Prosvita (which continued to function in spite of Polish government suppression such as the closing of reading rooms [19]), Luh and the Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, several newspapers (including Dilo) and sports organizations, including the soccer team Ukraina Lwow, which was close to promotion to the Ekstraklasa (a Polish professional league for football clubs). In spite of Polish government efforts to limit them, including forcibly merging them with Polish cooperatives in some regions,.[20] according to statistics for the year 1937, 3,516 Ukrainian co-operative unions existed with a total of 661 thousand members. 120 Ukrainian periodicals were published in the 30s.[21] There were nine legal Ukrainian and Ruthenian parties, reflecting the full range of political opinion.[21] The vibrant political life and varieties of representation was due to the relative tolerance of inter-war Poland compared to the Stalinist Soviet Union.[22] Polish rule brought material progress to many Ukrainians. During the first decade of Polish rule, electrification and telephone service were introduced to all important towns, the proportion of children attending to schools raised from 15% to 70% in Volhynia alone,.[23] Religious Policies Following the First World War, the government policy was initially aimed at limiting the influence of the predominantly Greek Catholic Ukrainians from Galicia on the Orthodox[disambiguation needed] Ukrainians in Volhynia.[6] A decree defending the rights of the Orthodox minorities was issued but often failed in practice, as the Roman Catholic Church, also eager to strengthen its position, had official representation in the Sejm (Polish parliament) and the courts. Eventually, a hundred ninety Orthodox churches were destroyed and often abandoned [24] and another one hundred fifty were transformed into Roman Catholic churches.[25] Remaining Orthodox churches were forced to use the Polish language in their sermons. The last official government act of the Polish state in Volhynia was to, in August 1939, convert the last remaining Orthodox church in the Volhynian capital of Lutsk into a Roman Catholic one.[26] The Ukrainian population was outraged by the Polish government policies. A Polish report about the popular mood in Volhynia recorded a comment of a young Ukrainian from October 1938 as "we will decorate our pillars with you and our trees with your wives." [26] Anti-Ukrainian mob violence Between 1934 and 1938, a series of violent and sometimes deadly[27] attacks against Ukrainians were conducted in parts of Poland.[28] In 1938-1939 a number of Ukrainian libraries and reading rooms were burned by Polish mobs of misguided patriotic youth who often went unpunished by the Polish police forces.[25] Polish youths were organized into armed, local paramilitary strzelcy groups and terrorized the Ukrainian population under the pretext of maintaining law and order. Educational Policies Ukrainian language usage was negatively impacted by Polish educational policy. The law setting up bilingual Polish-Ukrainian schools and Polish schools, passed in 1924 by the government of Władysław Grabski, resulted in a rapid decline in the number of uni-lingual Ukrainian schools (from 2,426 in 1922 to 352 in 1938 in Galicia; and from 443 in 1922 to 8 in 1938 in Volhynia) and increase in Polish-Ukrainian bilingual schools (2,485 in Galicia; 520 in Volhynia) and Polish schools.[29] The Poles suppressed the Ukrainian educational system, reducing the number of Ukrainian-language schools from 440 to 8. Higher education became unattainable for Ukrainians in Poland. In the middle schools in Volhynia only 344 (14%) Ukrainians were enrolled in comparison to 2599 Poles (1938).[verification needed] The 80 Ukrainians who qualified to continue through to tertiary studies, only 3 were accepted in 1938-1939.[citation needed][30] In spite of such policies curbing the use of the theUkrainian language, the illiteracy rate in Ukrainian territories fell from 50 percent to 35 percent. By 1938, the number of elementary schools in Volhynia and Polessia increased over three times to 3,100, and from 4,030 to 4,998 in Galicia [29] Polish policy also gave rise to the first generation of educated Volhynian Ukrainians.[31] Ukrainians were openly discriminated against in the education system. In the 1936/37 academic year only 344 Ukrainians (13.3%)in comparison to 2599 Poles were enrolled in middle school. In the 1938/9 academic year only 6 Ukrainians were accepted for tertiary education.[32] Eventually, many Ukrainians were forced to seek education in institutions outside the country such as the Ukrainian Free University in Czechoslovakia, the Drahomanov Pedagogical College as well as at other education establishments there. Second World War This section requires expansion. See: Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, Proclamation of Ukrainian statehood, 1941 and massacres of Poles in Volhynia. After Second World War After the quashing of a Ukrainian insurrection at the end of World War II by the Soviet Union, about 140,000 Ukrainians remaining in Poland were forcibly moved to Soviet Ukraine, and to new territories in northern and western Poland during Operation Vistula. Since 1989, there has been a new wave of Ukrainian immigration, mostly consisting of jobseekers, and is concentrated in the larger cities. See also Historical demography of Poland Ukrainian minority in Poland Pacification of Ukrainians in Eastern Galicia (1930) References ^ Timothy Snyder. (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press. pg. 123 ^ Timothy Snyder. (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press. pg. 134 ^ G. Motyka, Ukraińska partyzantka, 1942-1960, PAN, 2006, p. 38-39 ^ Zbigniew Brzezinski in his introduction to Wacław Jędrzejewicz’s “Pilsudski A Life For Poland” wrote: Pilsudski’s vision of Poland, paradoxically, was never attained. He contributed immensely to the creation of a modern Polish state, to the preservation of Poland from the Soviet invasion, yet he failed to create the kind of multinational commonwealth, based on principles of social justice and ethnic tolerance, to which he aspired in his youth. One may wonder how relevant was his image of such a Poland in the age of nationalism.... Quoted from this website. ^ Lonnie R. Johnson, Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends ^ a b c d e Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10586-X Google Books, p.144 ^ Davies, God's Playground, op.cit. ^ C. M. Hann, Paul Robert Magocsi. Galicia: A Multicultured Land. University of Toronto, 2005. ISBN 0-8020-3781-X. Google Print, Page 85. ^ T. Snyder, Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine, Yale University Press, 2005, pg. 67, 302, 384 ^ Subtelny, O. (1988). Ukraine: a History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pg. 429. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6 ^ Snyder, op cit, Google Print, p.146 ^ Roy Francis Leslie, The History of Poland Since 1863, Cambridge University Press, 1983, ISBN 0521275016, Google Print, p.200 ^ Encyclopedia of Ukraine, "Normalization" article written by Andrzej Zięba ^ Subtelny, Ukraine.. p.431-432 ^ Encyclopedia of Ukraine University of toronto Press, 1984 ^ Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak (1988). Feminists despite themselves: women in Ukrainian community life, 1884-1939 Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies PRess, University of Alberta pg. 164 ^ M. Smogorzewska, Posłowie i senatorowie Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 1919-1939, t. 4, 1998, Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, p. 212 ^ [Posiedzenie Sejmu i Senatu RP 2 września 1939 r.] ^ Prosvita at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine ^ Paul Robert Magocsi. (1996). A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pg. 442 and pg. 589 ^ a b G. Motyka, Ukraińska partyzantka, 1942-1960, PAN, 2006, p. 41 ^ I. Vushko, Korenisatsiia and its discontents: Ukraine and the Soviet Nationality policies during the 1920s, EU working papers, MWP 2009/12 ^ T. Snyder, Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine, Yale University Press, 2005, p. 61 ^ The Impact of External Threat on States and Domestic Societie, Manus I. Midlarsky in Dissolving Boundaries, Blackwell Publishers, 2003, ISBN 1-4051-2134-3, Google Print, p.15 ^ a b Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6.  ^ a b Timothy Snyder. (2005). Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp.167 ^ In one of many such incidents, the Papal Nuncio in Warsaw reported that Polish mobs attacked Ukrainian students in their dormitory under the eyes of Polish police, a screaming Ukrainian woman was thrown into a burning Ukrainian store by Polish mobs, and a Ukrainian seminary was destroyed during which icons were desecrated and eight people were hospitalized with serious injuries and two killed. Taken from Jeffrey Burds. Comments on Timothy Snyder's article, "To Resolve the Ukrainian Question once and for All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947" Journal of Cold War Studies, Volume 1, Number 2 (Spring 1999). ^ Jeffrey Burds. Comments on Timothy Snyder's article, "To Resolve the Ukrainian Question once and for All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947" Journal of Cold War Studies, Volume 1, Number 2 (Spring 1999). ^ a b P. Magocsi, A history of Ukraine, Toronto University Press, 1996, p. 594 ^ Siwicki p.40 ^ T. Snyder, The reconstructions of nations, Yale University Press, 2003, p. 148 ^ Mieczyslaw Iwanicki, Oswiata i szkolnictwo ukrainskie w Polsce w latach 1918-1939. praca habilatacyjna. Siedlce, 1975 s. 162 Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6.  (English) Wiktor Poliszczuk "Bitter truth": The criminality of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), the testimony of a Ukrainian, ISBN 0-9699444-9-7 (Polish) Andrzej L. Sowa (1998). Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie 1939-1947. Kraków. OCLC 48053561.  External links To resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and for all: the ethnic cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland 1943-1947, written by Yale historian Timothy Snyder Documents on Ukrainian Polish Reconciliation Ut unum sint: Ukraine and Poland