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For other uses, see Stew (disambiguation). Beef Stew A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables (such as carrots, potatoes, beans, peppers and tomatoes, etc.), meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used. While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, wine, stock, and beer are also common. Seasoning and flavourings may also be added. Stews are typically cooked at a relatively low temperature (simmered, not boiled), allowing flavors to mingle. Stewing is suitable for the least tender cuts of meat that become tender and juicy with the slow moist heat method. This makes it popular in low-cost cooking. Cuts having a certain amount of marbling and gelatinous connective tissue give moist, juicy stews, while lean meat may easily become dry. Stews may be thickened by reduction or with flour, either by coating pieces of meat with flour before searing, or by using a roux or beurre manié, a dough consisting of equal parts of butter and flour. Thickeners like cornstarch or arrowroot may also be used. Stews are similar to soups, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two. Generally, stews have less liquid than soups, are much thicker and require longer cooking over low heat. While soups are almost always served in a bowl, stews may be thick enough to be served on a plate with the gravy as a sauce over the solid ingredients.[1] Highland stew, a common Cantabrian dish. Contents 1 History 2 Types of stew 3 List of stews 4 See also 5 References 6 External links History Lamb and Lentil Stew Stews have been made since ancient times. Herodotus says that the Scythians (8th to 4th centuries BC) "put the flesh into an animal's paunch, mix water with it, and boil it like that over the bone fire. The bones burn very well, and the paunch easily contains all the meat once it has been stripped off. In this way an ox, or any other sacrificial beast, is ingeniously made to boil itself." Some sources consider that this was how boiling was first done by early man, perhaps as long ago as ½ to 1 million years ago.[citation needed] Amazonian tribes used the shells of turtles as vessels, boiling the entrails of the turtle and various other ingredients in them. Other cultures used the shells of large mollusks (clams etc.) to boil foods in.[citation needed] There is archaeological evidence of these practices going back 8,000 years or more.[citation needed] There are recipes for lamb stews and fish stews in the Roman cookery book Apicius, believed to date from the 4th century. Le Viandier, one of the oldest cookbooks in French, written by the French chef known as Taillevent, has ragouts or stews of various types in it.[citation needed] Hungarian Goulash dates back to the 9th century Magyar shepherds of the area, before the existence of Hungary. Paprika was added in the 18th century.[citation needed] The first written reference to 'Irish stew' is in Byron's 'Devil's Drive' (1814): "The Devil ... dined on ... a rebel or so in an Irish stew."[citation needed] Types of stew In meat-based stews, white stews, also known as blanquettes or fricassées, are made with lamb or veal that is blanched, or lightly seared without browning, and cooked in stock. Brown stews are made with pieces of red meat that are first seared or browned, before a browned mirepoix, sometimes browned flour, stock and wine are added.[citation needed] List of stews Sundubu jjigae, a Korean spicy stew made of soft tofu Baeckeoffe, a potato stew from Alsace Barbacoa, a meat stew from Mexico Bigos, a traditional stew in Polish cuisine Birria, a goat stew from Mexico Bo Kho, (Vietnamese: bò kho), a beef stew in rich seasonings, served with bread, noodle or plain rice from Vietnam Bouillabaisse, a fish stew from Provence Bourguignon, a French dish of beef stewed in red burgundy wine Booyah, an American meat stew Brunswick stew, from Virginia and the Carolinas Burgoo, a Kentuckian stew Caldeirada, a fish stew from Portugal Carnitas, a pork meat stew from Michoacán, Mexico Cassoulet, a French bean stew Cawl, a Welsh stew, usually with lamb and leeks Charquican, a Chilean dish Chankonabe, a Japanese dish flavoured with soy sauce or miso. Chankonabe is traditionally eaten by sumo wrestlers. Chicken stew, whole chicken and seasonings Chicken paprikash, chicken stew with paprika Chili con carne, Mexican meat and bean stew Chili sin carne, a meatless American adaptation of the Mexican dish Chilorio, a pork stew from Sinaloa, Mexico Cincinnati chili, chili developed by Greek immigrants in the Cincinnati area Cholent, a slow-cooked Jewish dish eaten on the Shabbat Cochinita pibil, an orange color pork stew from Yucatán, Mexico Cotriade, a fish stew from Brittany Cocido, a traditional Spanish stew. In Portugal, it is called cozido Cream stew, a yoshoku Japanese white stew Daube, a French stew made with cubed beef braised in wine, vegetables, garlic, and herbs. Dinuguan, pork blood stew from the Philippines. Fabada Asturiana, a Spanish bean and meat stew Feijoada, Brazilian or Portuguese bean stew. Főzelék, a thick Hungarian vegetable dish. Gaisburger Marsch, a German dish of stewed beef served with Spätzle and potatoes Gheimeh, an Iranian stew with cubed lamb and yellow split peas Ghormeh Sabzi, an Iranian stew with green herbs, dried limes, beans and meat. Goulash, a Hungarian meat stew with paprika Gumbo, a Louisiana creole dish Hasenpfeffer, a sour, marinated rabbit stew from Germany Haleem, a Pakistani lentil and beef stew. Hayashi rice, a Japanese dish of beef, onions and mushrooms in red wine and demi-glace sauce, served with rice Irish stew, made with lamb or mutton, potato, onion and parsley Ishtu, a curry in Kerala, India made from chicken or mutton, potato, and coconut milk.[2] Istrian Stew or yota, or jota, a dish popular in Croatian and Slovenian Istra and NE Italy Jjigae, a diverse range of Korean stews. Kare-kare, stewed beef or oxtail and vegetables in peanut sauce from the Philippines. Karelian hot pot, from the region of Karelia in eastern Finland. Khash, a stew from Armenia and Georgia. Khoresht, a variety of Persian stews, often prepared with saffron. Kokkinisto, a Greek stew with red meat, in a tomato passata with shallots, cinnamon and other spices. Lancashire Hotpot, an English stew Locro, a South American stew (mainly in the Andes region) Mechado, a Philippine-style beef stew Nihari, a Pakistani beef stew made overnight and served for breakfast. Nikujaga, a Japanese beef and potato stew Olla podrida, a Spanish red bean stew Pasticada, a Croatian stew from the region of Dalmatia Peperonata, an Italian stew made with peppers Pescado Blanco, a white fish stew from Patzcuaro Michoacán Mexico Pörkölt, a Hungarian meat stew resembling goulash, flavoured with paprika Potjiekos, a South African stew Pot au feu, a simple French stew Pozole, a Mexican stew or soup Puchero, a South American and Spanish stew Pulusu, is a form of stew from Andhra Pradesh in India. They are named after the main ingredient like Gummadikaaya pulusu meaning Pumpkin stew, Ullipaaya Pulusu meaning Onion stew, Royyalu pulusu meaning Prawn Stew or Kodi pulusu meaning Chicken Stew. Ragout, a highly seasoned French stew Ratatouille, a French vegetable stew Sancocho, a stew from the Caribbean Scouse, a stew commonly eaten by sailors throughout Northern Europe, popular in seaports such as Liverpool. The Stew, a stew from the La Tour du Pin Semur, a typical Javanese stew with beef or chicken, potatoes, carrots, various spices and kecap manis (sweet soy sauce) from Indonesia. Stoofvlees, a Belgian beef stew with beer, mustard and laurel Tagine, a Moroccan stew, named after the conical pot in which it is traditionally cooked and/or served in. Tharid, a traditional Arab stew of bread in broth Waterzooi, a Belgian stew Yahni, a Greek (γιαχνί), Turkish, and Persian stew. See also Food portal Casserole Eintopf Hot pot Jugging Nabemono Pottage Soup References ^ http://www.journalgazette.net/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20081109/FEAT0103/811090311 ^ http://www.recipezaar.com/Koshi-Ishtu-Kerala-Chicken-Stew-265726 External links Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Stews Look up stew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. 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