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Bontang Bontang (Indonesia) Location of Bontang in East Kalimantan Lambang of Bontang Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island Borneo in Indonesia. It is in the province East Kalimantan. Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demography 5 Economy 5.1 Fishing 5.2 Agriculture 5.3 Manufacturing 5.4 Energy 5.5 Mining 6 Government 7 Culture 7.1 Gantar Dance 7.2 Perang/War Dance 7.3 Kancet Ledo/Gong Dance 7.4 Hudoq Dance 7.5 Serumpai Dance 7.6 Kuyang Dance 8 Education 9 Media 10 Sports 11 References 12 External links History The etymology of Bontang refers to the town’s traditional status throughout history as a humble village populated mostly by immigrants. ‘Bon’ can refer in Indonesian to ‘receipt’ and ‘tang’ to ‘debt.’ Alternately, the name of the town means group of visitors.[1] A coastal town, Bontang was initially a settlement governed under the Kutai Sultanate based in Tenggarong, a city in East Kalimantan. In 1972 the government of the Kutai regency recognized Bontang as a district, and in 1984 its status changed to town.[1] The major development of Bontang took place after two major companies were founded there in the 1970s, PT Badak Liquid Natural Gas and PT Pupuk Kaltim. The former was established in 1974. PT Pupuk Kaltim, a company specializing in the production of ammonia and fertilizer, followed three years later. Geography Bontang is located between 117023 LE and 117032 LE and 0001 LN and 0012 LN. It occupies an area of 497.57 km2.[1] The town is hilly and located on an ocean estuary. It is relatively swampy, with frequent flooding, especially in its north district. There is little to no tectonic activity in Bontang. A mangrove forest (600 ha) is located in the town.[1] Bontang gets its fresh water from the Api-Api River. Climate Bontang has a tropical climate. As such there are just two seasons, dry and rainy. The dry season lasts from April until September. The rainy season starts every September and ends in April. Demography In 2002, the population of Bontang was 105,000, and was growing at a rate of 4% per year.[1] According to a survey done that year, there were slightly more males than females, with males accounting for 52.09% of the population. The same survey reported that the majority of people living in Bontang are young, with 42.6% of the population 19 and under, 47.3% between the ages of 20 and 44, and only 10.1% of the population over the age of 44. Economy Fishing Despite being located on the ocean, the fishing industry in Bontang is small. It consists mainly of small-scale fish farming for consumption in Bontang and nearby cities, such as Balikpapan, Makassar, and Hong Kong.[2] Agriculture Only a small portion of the land in Bontang is available and/or suitable for farming. As such, only about 4% of Bontang residents are involved in agriculture.[2] Manufacturing PT Pupuk Kaltim was established in 1977. It is an Indonesian government-owned fertilizer company that manufactures ammonia and urea from the area’s natural gas. The company operates three units of ammonia factory and four units of urea factory, producing 1,520,000 tons of ammonia and 2,410,000 tons of urea per year. Ammonia produced by Pupuk Kaltim is exported to countries such South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and India, as well as used locally in Indonesia. Pupuk Kaltim is currently the largest urea-producing factory in the world.[2] Energy PT Badak NGL was established on November 26th, 1974. The company is a joint-venture of Pertamina, Vico, and Jilco, and currently produces around 22 million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per year. The majority of the LNG produced is exported to Japan.[3] Mining PT Indominco, a coal mining company, was established in 1977. It is owned by a Thai company, Banpu, and extracts up to 11 million tons of coal per year. The majority of the coal is sold to electricity companies in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan.[4] Government Bontang has a democratic city government. The current mayor of Bontang is Andi Sofian Hasdam. Culture The following is a summary of some of the traditional dances from this region.[5] Gantar Dance This dance mimics motions used in traditional Dayak methods of cultivating rice. It begins with the planting, moves onto harvesting and preparing the rice, and finishes with serving the rice to guests. The dance, which has several variations, is performed at the beginning of events. Perang/War Dance This is a dance from the Dayak Kenyah tribe. It tells the story of a hero going to war and fighting his enemies. The dancers dance quickly and joyfully, shouting throughout the dance. They wear traditional Dayak Kenyah clothing, and don a shield and Mandau (a traditional Dayak sword). The dance is performed to the Sak Paku, a song played on the Sampe, a traditional instrument. Kancet Ledo/Gong Dance This is the opposite of the War Dance. It tells the story of a beautiful, gentle girl who dances like a rice plant waving in the wind. The dancers, all women, wear traditional clothing and hold five eagle feathers in each hand; each feather represents one finger. The dance derives its name from the location: it is usually performed near a gong. Hudoq Dance Dancers wear wooden masks carved to look like wild animals, and cover their bodies in banana or coconut leaves. It is closely related to a ceremonial dance from the Dayak Bahau and Modang tribes. The dance is thought to provide the community with the power to prevent crop destruction by animals, as well as to bless the community with fertile soil and bountiful food. Serumpai Dance This is a traditional dance of the Dayak Benuaq tribe meant to prevent people from falling ill, and to cure those who have been bitten by mad dogs. The name of the dance is derived from one of the instruments used in it, the serumpai (a flute-like instrument). Kuyang Dance A Dayak Belian dance, it serves to protect communities from the evil spirits that live in trees, so that if someone cuts down a tree they will not be haunted by an evil spirit. Education There are also a variety of parochial and secular private schools. There are three post-secondary institutions in Bontang, STITEK (Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi), STTIB (Sekolah Tinggi Teknik Industri Bontang), and Trunojoyo. Students begin Nature school at age 3, continue onto to Taman Kanak-Kanak for two years, and then start Sekolah Dasar at age 6. They usually graduate from high school at age 17 or 18. Media Kaltim Post (owned by Jawa Pos Group) and Tribun Kaltim (owned by Kompas-Gramedia Group) are Bontang's two major daily newspapers. Although they are printed in Balikpapan, they cover news of Bontang. The city is also served by other publications such as Jawa Pos, Kompas, Republika, Jakarta Post, and Tempo. Bontang has many radio stations. Major FM radio stations include EsKa's FM 103.9 FM, Buana FM, and Bhayangkara FM 99.5 FM. High School FM radio stations include YePeKar'z 107.5 FM. There are two major television stations, (Publik Khatulistiwa Televisi) PKTv and LNGTv. The city is also served by stations representing every major Indonesian Network, include RCTI, Metro TV, SCTV, Trans TV, Trans 7, Indosiar, ANTV, TVRI (Public Station), TV One, and Global TV. Sports Popular sports in Bontang include soccer, badminton, futsal (indoor soccer), softball, and volleyball. Soccer is by far the most prominent sport. The town has its own professional soccer club called Bontang FC (owned by the company Pupuk Kaltim past, now by the city government), which is one of only two professional clubs in East Kalimantan. Bontang has three major soccer stadiums, Mulawarman Stadium (owned by PKT), Taman Lestari Stadium, and Besai Berrinta Stadium. References ^ a b c d e Potret Lingkungan Hidup Kota Bontang. Pemerintah Kota Bontang: Kelompok Kerja Program Pengelolaan SDA. Bontang: 2003. ^ a b c Taman Nasional Kutai ^ ^ ^ External links (Indonesian) Useful Topics About Bontang v · d · eEast Kalimantan, Indonesia Capital: Samarinda Regencies Kutai Kartanegara • West Kutai • East Kutai • Paser • North Penajam Paser • Bulungan • Berau • Malinau • Nunukan • Tana Tidung Cities Samarinda • Balikpapan • Bontang • Tarakan Towns Tenggarong • Sendawar • Sangatta • Tanah Grogot • Penajam • Tanjung Selor • Tanjung Redeb • Nunukan • Malinau • Tideng Pale Islands Derawan Islands • Sebatik Island • Tarakan Island • Kakaban • Bunyu Airports Sepinggan, Balikpapan • Temindung, Samarinda • Juwata, Tarakan • Berau • Tanjung Harapan, Bulungan • Nunukan • Datadawai • Long Bawan • Long Apung Rivers Mahakam River • Sesayap River • Lawa River Mountains Mount Ilas Bungaan • Mount Ilas Mapulu • Mount Kemul Coordinates: 0°08′N 117°30′E / 0.133°N 117.5°E / 0.133; 117.5