Your IP: 54.226.23.160 United States Near: United States

Lookup IP Information

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Next

Below is the list of all allocated IP address in 189.68.0.0 - 189.68.255.255 network range, sorted by latency.

Ukrainian Canadian Український канадець Randy Bachman • Luba Goy • Darren Dutchyshen • Chantal Kreviazuk • Ed Stelmach • Alex Trebek Total population 1,209,085 3.9% of the Canadian Population[1] Regions with significant populations Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario, British Columbia, Quebec Languages Canadian English, Ukrainian (particularly Canadian Ukrainian), Quebec French Religion Ukrainian Catholic, Ukrainian Orthodox, other,[2] none Related ethnic groups Ukrainians, British Ukrainians, French Ukrainians (in France), Ukrainian Americans, Ukrainian Australians, Slavic Peoples especially East Slavs A Ukrainian Canadian (Ukrainian: Український канадець, translit. Ukrayins'kiy kanadets) is a person of Ukrainian descent or origin who was born in or immigrated to Canada. In 2006, there were an estimated 1,209,085 persons residing in Canada (mainly Canadian-born citizens) of Ukrainian origin, making them Canada's ninth largest ethnic group, and giving Canada the world's third-largest Ukrainian population behind Ukraine itself and Russia. Self-identified Ukrainians are the plurality in several rural areas of Western Canada.[3] Contents 1 History 1.1 Settlement – First Wave (1891–1914) 1.2 Internment (1914–1920) 1.3 Settlers, Workers & Professionals – Second Wave (1920–1929) 1.4 Workers & Professionals – Third Wave (1945–1952) 2 Culture 2.1 Language 2.2 Politics 2.3 Religion 2.4 Arts 2.5 Music 2.6 Food 2.7 Institutions 3 Distribution 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links // History Over the last thirty years, a debate has been ongoing whether a tiny number of Ukrainians settled in Canada before 1891. Most controversial is the claim that Ukrainians may have been infantrymen alongside Poles in the Swiss French "De Meurons" and "De Watteville" regiments who fought for the British in the Niagara region during the War of 1812 – and that Ukrainians were among those soldiers who decided to stay in Upper Canada (southern Ontario).[4] Other Ukrainians supposedly arrived as part of other immigrant groups: claims that individual Ukrainian families may have settled in southern Manitoba in the 1870s alongside blocks of Mennonites and other Germans from the Russian Empire; or that single male Ukrainians were participants in the Russian Empire's exploration parties and fur trade along the western coast of North America (including British Columbia).[4] Because there is so little definitive documentary evidence of individual Ukrainians among these three groups, they are not generally regarded as among the first Ukrainians in Canada. Settlement – First Wave (1891–1914) Post-independence Ukrainian fifteen-kopiyka stamp commemorating the centenary of Ukrainian settlement in Canada, 1891-1991. The first wave of Ukrainian immigration to Canada began with Iwan Pylypow and Wasyl Eleniak, who arrived in 1891 – and brought several families to settle in 1892. Pylypow helped found the Edna-Star Settlement east of Edmonton, the first and largest Ukrainian block settlement. However, it is Dr. Josef Oleskow who is considered responsible for the large Ukrainian Canadian population through his promotion of Canada[5] as a destination for immigrants from Western Ukraine (the Austrian crownlands of Galicia and Bukovyna) in the late 1890s. Ukrainians from Eastern Ukraine, which was ruled by the Russian monarchy, also came to Canada[6] – but in smaller numbers than those from Halychyna and Bukovyna. Approximately 170,000 Ukrainians from the Austro-Hungarian Empire arrived in Canada from 1891 to 1914.[7] This Ukrainian immigration to Canada was largely agrarian, and at first Ukrainian Canadians concentrated in distinct block settlements in the parkland belt of the Prairie provinces – Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. While the Canadian Prairies are often compared to the steppes of Ukraine, the settlers came from Halychyna and Bukovyna – which are not steppe lands, but are wooded areas in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. This is why Ukrainians coming to Canada settled in the wooded aspen parklands – in an arch from Winnipeg and Stuartburn, Manitoba to Edmonton and the Peace River Country of Alberta – rather than the open prairies further south. As well the feudal nature of land ownership in the Austrian Empire meant that in the "Old Country" people had to pay the pan (landlord) for all their firewood and lumber for building. Upon arriving in Canada, the settlers often demanded wooded land from officials so that they would be able to supply their own needs, even if this meant taking land that was less productive for crops. They also attached deep importance to settling near to family, people from nearby villages or other culturally similar groups, furthering the growth of the block settlements. Fraternal organizations established by these settlers include the Ukrainian Labour Farmer Temple Association (ULFTA, affiliated with the Communist Party of Canada),[8] the Ukrainian Catholic Brotherhood[1] (UCB, affiliated with the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Canada),[8] and the Ukrainian Self-Reliance League[2] (USRL, affiliated with the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada).[8] The ULFTA transformed itself into the Association of United Ukrainian Canadians in 1946,[9] the UCB and USRL are part of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress today.[10] By 1914, there were also growing communities of Ukrainian immigrants in eastern Canadian cities, such as Toronto, Montreal, Hamilton, and Windsor. Many of them arrived from the provinces of Podillia, Volhynia, Kyiv and Bessarabia in Russian-ruled Ukraine.[6] In the early years of settlement Ukrainian immigrants faced considerable amounts of discrimination at the hands of native-born Canadians, an example of which was the internment. [3] [4] [5] Internment (1914–1920) Main article: Ukrainian Canadian internment Commemorative plaque and a statue entitled "Why?" / "Pourquoi"? / "Chomu"?, by John Boxtel, at the location of the Castle Mountain Internment Camp, Banff National Park. Commemorative statue and damaged plaque at the "Ukrainian cemetery" of the Kapuskasing Internment Camp; Kapuskasing, northern Ontario. From 1914 to 1920, the political climate of the First World War allowed the Canadian Government to classify immigrants with Austro-Hungarian citizenship as "aliens of enemy nationality". This classification, authorized by the 1914 War Measures Act, permitted the government to legally compel thousands of Ukrainians in Canada to register with authorities. About 5,000 Ukrainian men, and some women and children, were interned at government camps and work sites. The internment continued for two more years after the war had ended, although most Ukrainians were paroled into jobs for private companies by 1917. There are nearly two dozen plaques and memorials in Canada commemorating the internment, including one at the location of a former internment camp in Banff National Park. Most were placed by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association and its supporters. On August 24, 2005, Prime Minister Paul Martin recognized the Ukrainian Canadian internment as a "dark chapter"[citation needed] in Canadian history, and pledged $2.5 million to fund memorials and educational exhibits. On May 9, 2008, the Canadian government established a $10 million fund[citation needed] with the Ukrainian Canadian Foundation of Taras Shevchenko, for the commemoration of the experiences of thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans who were interned between 1914–1920 and the suspension of civil liberties of tens of thousands of fellow Canadians. Grants are now available [6] to commemorate and educate other Canadians about what happened. Settlers, Workers & Professionals – Second Wave (1920–1929) See also: Pacification of Ukrainians in Eastern Galicia (1930) In 1923, the Canadian government modified the Immigration Act to allow former citizens of the Austrian Empire to once again enter Canada – and Ukrainian immigration started anew.[11] Ukrainians from Volhynia (under Polish rule) joined a new wave of emigrants from Galicia and Bukovyna. Around 70,000 Ukrainians from Poland and Romania arrived in Canada from 1924 to 1939.[7] Relatively little farmland remained unclaimed – mostly in the Peace River region of northwestern Alberta – and less than half of this group settled as farmers in the Prairie provinces.[12] The majority became workers in the growing industrial centres of the Montreal region and the Eastern Townships of Quebec, southern Ontario, the mines, smelters and forests of northern Ontario, and the small heavy industries of urban western Canada.[12] A few Ukrainian professionals and intellectuals were accepted into Canada at this time; they later became leaders in the Ukrainian Canadian community.[7] The "second wave" was heavily influenced by the struggle for Ukrainian independence during the Russian Civil War, and established two competing fraternal organizations in Canada: the United Hetman Organization (UHO) in 1934[13] - which supported the idea of a Ukrainian "Cossack kingdom" led by Pavlo Skoropadskyi,[14] and the rival Ukrainian National Federation (UNF) in 1932[15] - which supported the idea of an independent Ukrainian republic and the armed Ukrainian nationalist insurgency in Western Ukraine.[16] The UHO ceased to exist by 1960, and the UNF would merge into the Ukrainian Canadian Committee (later Ukrainian Canadian Congress) during World War II. Workers & Professionals – Third Wave (1945–1952) See also: Ostarbeiter and Displaced Persons camp Since World War II, most Ukrainians coming to Canada have tended to move to cities in southern Ontario and Quebec - there are now large Ukrainian communities in Toronto and Montreal. In fact more Ukrainians live in the East today than on the Prairies. However, because they make up a much greater percentage of the population in the West, especially in rural areas of the parkland belt, the Ukrainian cultural presence is more keenly felt in western Canada. Culture See also: Culture of Ukraine Having been separated from Ukraine, Ukrainian Canadians have developed their own distinctive Ukrainian culture in Canada. To showcase their unique hybrid culture, Ukrainian Canadians have created institutions that showcase Ukrainian Canadian culture such as Edmonton's Shumka troupe – among the world's elite Ukrainian dancers, or the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village – where Ukrainian pioneer buildings are displayed along with extensive cultural exhibits. Ukrainian Canadians have also contributed to Canadian culture as a whole. Actress and comedienne Luba Goy, singer Gloria Kaye,[17] and painter William Kurelek, for example, are well known outside the Ukrainian community. Historically Ukrainian Canadians were among Canada's poorest and least educated minorities; but as the process of cultural integration has accelerated, this is no longer the case and Ukrainian Canadians are near the national economic average. Perhaps one of the most lasting contributions Ukrainian Canadians have made to the wider culture of Canada is the concept of multiculturalism which was promoted as early as 1964 by Senator Paul Yuzyk. During and after the debates surrounding the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism Ukrainian leaders, such as linguist Jaroslav Rudnyckyj, came out in force against the notion of English - French biculturalism which they believed denied the contributions other peoples had made to Canada. Partly in response to this, Prime Minister Trudeau shifted Canada to a policy of official multiculturalism. Language See also: Canadian Ukrainian and Ukrainophone In addition to the official English and French languages, many prairie public schools offer Ukrainian language education for children. Generally this is the local Canadian Ukrainian dialect, rather than Standard Ukrainian. There are a few Ukrainian Catholic elementary schools in the Greater Toronto Area including St. Josaphat's Catholic Elementary school (Toronto), Josef Cardinal Slipyj Elementary school (Etobicoke), St. Sofia Catholic Elementary school (Mississauga), as well as Holy Spirit Eastern Rite Elementary School in Hamilton. Politics Many Ukrainians fled Russia, and later, the Soviet Union, to find freedom and a better life in Canada. For them Canada became an "Anti-Russia", where they could realize their political and economic ideas. Most Ukrainians were anti-Soviet, but a minor group of Ukrainians has for a long time supported Canadian socialism and contributed to the formation of the Communist Party of Canada, and formed a smaller bloc within that group. They were also active in other Marxist organizations like the Ukrainian Labour Farmer Temple Association (UFLTA). Ukrainians also played a central role in the formation of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the New Democratic Party. The nationalist movement was also an important part of the community. After Ukraine became independent Canada was one of the first nations to recognize Ukraine. Later Ukrainian Canadians were vital in fundraising to build the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa. As well, Canada has recognized the Holodomor (Ukrainian Famine) as an act of genocide. Canada as well as its provinces, especially the Ukrainian strongholds in Middle West as Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, did much in support of Ukraine's economic and political development. Canada also sent many observers to Ukraine during the disputed 2004 presidential election (see: Orange Revolution). The Ukrainian Canadians had and have much more influence in Canadian society and policy than any other East European group. So they had several prominent figures in top positions: John Hnatyshyn was the 24th Governor General of Canada (1990 - 1995) and the first Governor General of Ukrainian descent. Ukrainians ruled alternating Canada's prairie provinces: Gary Filmon was Premier of Manitoba (1988 - 1999), nearly simultaneously with Hnatyshyn, Roy Romanow was Premier of Saskatchewan (1991-2001), also partly at the same time as Filmon and Hnatyshyn. Ed Stelmach became Premier of Alberta in 2006 as the third provincial prime minister of Ukrainian descent. He succeeded the German born Premier Ralph Klein (1992-2006), who enjoyed having cabinets with many Ukrainian ministers. Stelmakh himself is the grandson of Ukrainian immigrants, he speaks fluent Ukrainian and is the leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservative Party. At the moment he is the only Ukrainian head of a Canadian province.[18] Religion See also: History of Christianity in Ukraine, Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada, Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Winnipeg, and Ukrainian Evangelical Baptist Convention of Canada St. George's Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, Saskatoon. St. Volodymyr's Ukrainian Orthodox Cathedral, Toronto. Most Ukrainians who came to Canada from Galicia were Ukrainian Catholic and those from Bukovyna were Ukrainian Orthodox. However, people of both churches faced a shortage of priests in Canada. The Ukrainian Catholic clergy came into conflict with the Roman Catholic hierarchy because they were not celibate and wanted a separate governing structure. At the time, the Russian Orthodox Church was the only Orthodox Christian church that operated in North America – because they had arrived first via Alaska, and traditionally Orthodox churches are territorially exclusive. However, Ukrainians in Canada were suspicious of being controlled from Russia, first by the Tsarist government and later by the Soviets. Partially in response to this, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada was created as a wholly Ukrainian Canadian-controlled alternative. As well the Ukrainian Catholic clergy were eventually given a separate structure from the Roman Church. Arts See also: Ukrainian dance A Ukrainian dance troupe at the BC Ukrainian Cultural Festival The world's largest pysanka was erected in Vegreville, Alberta in 1974, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Canada is home to some of the most famous Ukrainian dance troupes in the world, rivaling even those from Ukraine. There are professional ensembles like Edmonton's Shumka and Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company, and hundreds of amateur groups. Ukrainians in general are noted for their elaborately decorated Easter Eggs or pysanky, and that is also true in Canada. The world's largest pysanka is in Vegreville, Alberta. Ukrainian Canadian churches are also famous for their onion domes, which have elaborately painted murals on their interior, and for their iconostasis, or icon walls. Music Ukrainian Canadian musicians and groups include: Randy Bachman, Canadian Bandurist Capella, Ron Cahute, Rick Danko, Chantal Kreviazuk, Canadian Idol final runner-up Theresa Sokyrka. Food See also: Ukrainian cuisine Cultural food is an important part of Ukrainian culture. Special foods are used at Easter as well as Christmas that are not made at any other time of the year. In fact on Christmas Eve (January 6[19] in the Gregorian calendar), a special twelve-dish meatless meal is served. The best-known foods are: borshch (a vegetable soup, usually with beets), holobtsi (cabbage rolls), pyrohy or varenyky (dumplings often called "perogies"), and kovbasa (garlic sausage or "kubasa"). Several items of Ukrainian food and culture have been enshrined with roadside attractions throughout the Prairie provinces. These are celebrated in the polka Giants of the Prairies by the Kubasonics. For example, the world's largest perogy is in Glendon, Alberta, [7] and the world's biggest kubasa is in Mundare, Alberta.[8] Institutions There are a number of Ukrainian Canadian institutions such as: the Association of United Ukrainian Canadians, the main pro-Communist cultural association the Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies at the University of Manitoba the Prairie Centre for the Study of Ukrainian Heritage at the University of Saskatchewan St. Andrew's College (Winnipeg), an institution of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada affiliated with the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association, an independent group dedicated to the articulation and defence of the Ukrainian Canadian community's interests the Ukrainian Canadian Congress, a national organization representing the Ukrainian Canadian community the Ukrainian Cultural Centre of Toronto (UCCT) the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village, a living-history museum east of Edmonton the Ukrainian Canadian Archives & Museum Of Alberta in Edmonton the Ukrainian Museum of Canada, headquartered in Saskatoon – with branches in major cities across western Canada the St. Petro Mohyla Institute, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan – a non-profit university student residence, Ukrainian culture summer school, and youth hostel the Ukrainian Canadian Foundation of Taras Shevchenko the Canadian Ukrainian Immigrant Aid Society, a community agency assisting newcomers to Canada. Distribution Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division. Actual physical origins of ancestors may be different. Ukrainian-plurality areas are highlighted in light blue. Note that Ukrainians are a significant minority elsewhere; and that, numerically, most Ukrainian Canadians live in cities. Information in this section taken from 2006 Census Community Profiles. The provinces with the largest Ukrainian populations (single and multiple origins, 2006) are: Ontario, 336,355; Alberta, 332,180; British Columbia 197,265; Manitoba, 167,175; Saskatchewan 129,265; and Quebec, 31,955. In terms of proportion of the total population, the most Ukrainian provinces and territories are Manitoba (15%), Saskatchewan (13%), Alberta (10%), Yukon (5%), British Columbia (5%), and Ontario (3%). The metropolitan regions with the largest Ukrainian populations (single and multiple origins, 2006) are: Edmonton 144,620; Toronto, 122,510; Winnipeg, 110,335; Vancouver, 81,725; Calgary, 76,240; Saskatoon, 38,825; Hamilton 27,080; Montreal, 26,150; Regina, 25,725; Ottawa-Gatineau, 21,520; St. Catharines-Niagara, 20,990; Thunder Bay, 17,620; Victoria, 15,020; Kelowna, 13,425; Oshawa, 12,555; London, 10,765; and Kitchener 10,425. The Census Divisions with the largest percentage of Ukrainians are: Manitoba #12 (25%), Alberta # 10 (20%), Alberta # 12 (19%), Manitoba # 11 (15%), Manitoba # 7 (13%), Manitoba # 10 (12%), Manitoba #9 (12%), Manitoba #2 (10%). It is impossible to know which are proportionately the most Ukrainian municipalities in Canada since Statistics Canada does no release such information for communities with less than 5,000 people, and the Ukrainian are the most concentrated in the smallest communities in the rural West. That being said, the following are communities (total greater than 5,000) with a high percentage of Ukrainians: Vegreville, Alberta (41%), St. Paul, Alberta (town) (31%), St. Paul County, Alberta, 26%. Gallery Ukrainian Museum of Canada, Saskatoon St Petro Mohyla Institute, Saskatoon Sheptytsky Institute Ukrainians in Saskatoon See also List of Ukrainian Canadians List of Canadian place names of Ukrainian origin Canada-Ukraine relations Footnotes ^ see List of Canadians by ethnicity. ^ Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1863. ^ 2006 Census Community Profiles, see for example Division No. 12, Manitoba. ^ a b Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1862. ^ Dr. Oleskow, who had a PhD in agriculture, wrote two pamphlets – called "About Free Lands" (Pro Vilni Zemli, spring 1895), and "On Emigration" (O emigratsiy, December 1895) – which were widely read in the Prosvita halls in Austria. ^ a b Kukushkin, p. 30-54; Luciuk and Kordan 1989, map 3. ^ a b c Isajiw and Makuch, p. 333; Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1862. ^ a b c Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1862; Luciuk and Kordan 1989, map 18; Isajiw and Makuch, p. 346-47, 345. ^ Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1863; Luciuk and Kordan 1989, map 18; Isajiw and Makuch, p. 346-47, 345. ^ Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1863; Luciuk and Kordan 1989, map 19; Isajiw and Makuch, p. 346-48. ^ Swyripa, "Canada", p. 344. ^ a b Isajiw and Makuch, p. 333. ^ Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1862; Isajiw and Makuch, p. 346-47, 345. ^ Swyripa, "Canada", p. 351; Luciuk and Kordan 1989, map 18. ^ Swyripa, "Ukrainians", p. 1862; Isajiw and Makuch, p. 346-48, 345; Luciuk and Kordan 1989, map 18. ^ Swyripa, "Canada", p. 352. ^ Czuboka, p. 211-212. ^ Hans-Joachim Hoppe: Ukrainian vastnesses – Canada was and is for many East Europeans a country of prophecy, in: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, no. 211, September 12/13, 2009, p. B3, http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/kultur/literatur_und_kunst/ukrainische_weiten_1.3544822.html ^ Because Ukrainian Canadians are the largest Eastern Christian group in Canada, January 6–7 is commonly referred by Canadians of all origins as "Ukrainian Christmas". References Swyripa, Frances A. (1985). "Ukrainians". In Mel Hurtig. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Vol. 3 (1st ed.). Edmonton, Alberta: Hurtig Publishers. p. 1863. ISBN 0-88830-272-x. "In 1981 only 30.0% and 18.6% of Ukrainian Canadians belonged to the Ukrainian Catholic and Ukrainian Orthodox churches, respectively; 16.8% were Roman Catholic and 13.3% United Church adherents".  Swyripa, Frances A. (1985). "Ukrainians". In Mel Hurtig. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Vol. 3 (1st ed.). Edmonton, Alberta: Hurtig Publishers. p. 1862. ISBN 0-88830-272-x. "Isolated individuals of Ukrainian background may have come to Canada during the War of 1812 as mercenaries in the de Meuron and de Watteville regiments. It is possible that others participated in Russian exploration and colonization on the West Coast, came with Mennonite and other German immigrants in the 1870s, or entered Canada from the US".  [United States - ed.] Luciuk, Lubomyr; Kordan, Bohdan (1989). Creating a Landscape: A Geography of Ukrainians in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. Map 3. ISBN 0-8020-5823-X. "Only about one-fifth of the Ukrainians in Canada would come from Ukrainian lands controlled by the tsarist empire until 1917 and by the Soviets thereafter."  Isajiw, Wsevolod; Makuch, Andrij (1994). "Ukrainians in Canada". In Ann Lencyk Pawliczko. Ukraine and Ukrainians Throughout the World. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 333. ISBN 0-8020-0595-0 (cloth). "Because most of the 'free' lands available for agricultural settlement had already been granted to earlier immigrants, the incoming population tended not to establish themselves as farmers. A substantial number settled in the Prairie provinces and worked as farm hands, while some took advantage of land grants being offered in the northern Peace River region of Alberta. Eventually, some of these immigrants did start up their own farming operations in and around the main areas of Ukrainian settlement. The majority of Ukrainians in this second wave, however, worked as labourers in the mining and forestry regions of northern Ontario and in the cities of central Canada and the Prairies. A small portion of the incoming immigration consisted of individuals with a higher level of education than that possessed by the earlier immigrants, affording them the opportunity to exact a different entry-level status. Among this group were skilled individuals who could assume critical positions in the Ukrainian press and the community's cultural-educational institutions".  Swyripa, Frances A. (1985). "Ukrainians". In Mel Hurtig. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Vol. 3 (1st ed.). Edmonton, Alberta: Hurtig Publishers. p. 1862. ISBN 0-88830-272-x. "Between the 2 world wars some 70,000 Ukrainians immigrated to Canada for political and economic reasons. They included war veterans, intellectuals and professionals, as well as peasants".  Swyripa, Frances (1984). "Canada". In Volodymyr Kubiyovych. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Vol. 1, A-F. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 351–52. ISBN 0-8020-3362-8. "Interwar immigrants introduced a number of new organizations. The paramilitary sporting Sitch (renamed the Canadian Sitch Organization in 1928) was founded in 1924 with official support from the Ukrainian Catholic church. It declined with the appearance of the Ukrainian Catholic Brotherhood and in 1934 was reorganized without church backing as the United Hetman Organization, a conservative monarchist movement that favoured P. Skoropadsky as hetman of Ukraine. After the death of his son, D. Skoropadsky, in 1957 the movement, never too popular, rapidly declined. In 1928 the republican-inclined veterans of the Ukrainian independence struggle formed the Ukrainian War Veterans' Association (UWVA). In 1932 it provided the base for the Ukrainian National Federation, which espoused the militant nationalism of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists".  Czuboka, Michael (1983). Ukrainian Canadian, Eh?: The Ukrainians of Canada and Elsewhere As Perceived By Themselves And Others. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Communigraphics / Printers' Aid Group. pp. 211–12. ISBN 0-920073-00-X. "Gloria Kaye was born in northern Alberta as Gloria Slavka Kolmatycki on March 10, 1956, the youngest of five children of Mike and Annie Kolmatycki. [...] Kolmatycki changed her Ukrainian name to 'Kaye' for 'ease in handling.' As Gloria Kaye, she sang on Canadian television on the Tommy Hunter Show, It's Happening, Show of the Week, Juliette, Music Hop, Robbie Lane, and the Merv Griffin show in the United States."  Sources Kordan, Bohdan and Luciuk, Lubomyr, eds. (1986). A Delicate and Difficult Question: Documents in the History of Ukrainians in Canada, 1899-1962, Kingston: Limestone Press. ISBN 0-919642-08-X. Kordan, Bohdan (2000). Ukrainian Canadians and the Canada Census, 1981-1996, Saskatoon: Heritage Press. ISBN 0-88880-422-9. Kordan, Bohdan (2001). Canada and the Ukrainian Question, 1939-1945, Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2230-1. Kukushkin, Vadim (2007). From Peasants to Labourers: Ukrainian and Belarusan Immigration from the Russian Empire to Canada, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. Kulyk-Keefer, Janice (2005). Dark Ghost in the Corner: Imagining Ukrainian-Canadian Identity, Saskatoon: Heritage Press. ISBN 0-88880-497-0. Luciuk, Lubomyr and Kordan, Bohdan (1989). Creating a Landscape: A Geography of Ukrainians in Canada, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5823-X. Luciuk, Lubomyr and Hryniuk, Stella, eds. (1991). Canada's Ukrainians: Negotiating an Identity, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5978-3. Luciuk, Lubomyr (2000). Searching For Place: Ukrainian Displaced Persons, Canada and the Migration of Memory, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8088-X. Lupul, Manoly, ed. (1984). Visible Symbols: Cultural Expression Among Canada's Ukrainians, Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. ISBN 0-920862-27-6. Martynowych, Orest (1991). Ukrainians in Canada: The formative period, 1891–1924. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. ISBN 0-920862-76-4. Melnycky, Peter. "'Canadians and Ukrainians Inseparably': Recent Writing on the History of Ukrainian Settlement in Canada," Manitoba History, Number 24, Autumn 1992 online edition, historiography Prymak, Thomas M. (1988). Maple Leaf and Trident: The Ukrainian Canadians During the Second World War. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario. Satzewich, Vic (2002). The Ukrainian Diaspora. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29658-7. Swyripa, Frances (1999). Ukrainians. Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario. External links Ukrainian Canadian Congress UCC - The history of the Ukrainian Canadian community Ukrainian diaspora in Canada and USA Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies Ukrainian Canadian Archives & Museum of Alberta Ukrainian Canadian Professional & Business Federation Ukrainian Toronto Community Portal Ukrainian Canadian Foundation of Taras Shevchenko Canadian Ukrainian Immigrant Aid Society Ukrainian Museum of Canada in Saskatoon Ukrainian community in Canada: experiences and issues, UNIAN Agency The Ukrainian Collection of the University of Calgary The John Luczkiw Collection, University of Toronto Multicultural Canada website, includes Ukrainian Canadian tabloids, magazines, newspapers, newsletters and calendar-almanacs. History of Ours: the Ukrainians A history of Ukrainians in Brantford, Ontario. v • d • e Ukrainian diaspora Europe Armenia · Czech Republic · Poland · Romania · Russia (Kuban) · United Kingdom Americas Argentina · Brazil · Canada · Paraguay · United States Asia and Oceania Australia · Kazakhstan