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Classical mechanics Newton's Second Law History of classical mechanics · Timeline of classical mechanics Branches Statics · Dynamics / Kinetics · Kinematics · Applied mechanics · Celestial mechanics · Continuum mechanics · Statistical mechanics Formulations Newtonian mechanics (Vectorial mechanics) Analytical mechanics: Lagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Fundamental concepts Space · Time · Velocity · Speed · Mass · Acceleration · Gravity · Force · Impulse · Torque / Moment / Couple · Momentum · Angular momentum · Inertia · Moment of inertia · Reference frame · Energy · Kinetic energy · Potential energy · Mechanical work · Virtual work · D'Alembert's principle Core topics Rigid body · Rigid body dynamics · Euler's equations (rigid body dynamics) · Motion · Newton's laws of motion · Newton's law of universal gravitation · Equations of motion · Inertial frame of reference · Non-inertial reference frame · Rotating reference frame · Fictitious force · Linear motion · Mechanics of planar particle motion · Displacement (vector) · Relative velocity · Friction · Simple harmonic motion · Harmonic oscillator · Vibration · Damping · Damping ratio · Rotational motion · Circular motion · Uniform circular motion · Non-uniform circular motion · Centripetal force · Centrifugal force · Centrifugal force (rotating reference frame) · Reactive centrifugal force · Coriolis force · Pendulum · Rotational speed · Angular acceleration · Angular velocity · Angular frequency · Angular displacement Scientists Isaac Newton · Jeremiah Horrocks · Leonhard Euler · Jean le Rond d'Alembert · Alexis Clairaut · Joseph Louis Lagrange · Pierre-Simon Laplace · William Rowan Hamilton · Siméon-Denis Poisson v • d • e Applied mechanics is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics. Applied mechanics examines the response of bodies (solids and fluids) or systems of bodies to external forces. Some examples of mechanical systems include the flow of a liquid under pressure, the fracture of a solid from an applied force, or the vibration of an ear in response to sound. A practitioner of the discipline is known as a mechanician. Applied mechanics, as its name suggests, bridges the gap between physical theory and its application to technology. As such, applied mechanics is used in many fields of engineering, especially mechanical engineering. In this context, it is commonly referred to as engineering mechanics. Much of modern engineering mechanics is based on Isaac Newton's laws of motion while the modern practice of their application can be traced back to Stephen Timoshenko, who is said to be the father of modern engineering mechanics. Within the theoretical sciences, applied mechanics is useful in formulating new ideas and theories, discovering and interpreting phenomena, and developing experimental and computational tools. In the application of the natural sciences, mechanics was said to be complemented by thermodynamics by the American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis and the American physical chemist Merle Randall. The study of heat and more generally energy, and electromechanics, the study of electricity and magnetism.[1] Contents 1 Applied mechanics in practice 2 Applied mechanics in engineering 3 Major topics of applied mechanics 4 Examples of applications 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 References 8 External links 8.1 Video Lectures 8.2 Professional organizations 8.3 Professional publications // Applied mechanics in practice As a scientific discipline, applied mechanics derives many of its principles and methods from the Physical sciences (in particular, Mechanics and Classical Mechanics), from Mathematics and, increasingly, from Computer Science. As such, Applied Mechanics shares similar methods, theories, and topics with Applied Physics, Applied Mathematics, and Computational Science. As an enabling discipline, applied mechanics has received impetus from the study of natural phenomena such as orbits of planets, circulation of blood, locomotion of animals, crawling of cells, formation of mountains, and propagation of seismic waves. Such studies have resulted in disciplines such as celestial mechanics, biomechanics and geomechanics. As a practical discipline, applied mechanics has also advanced by participating in major inventions throughout history, such as buildings, ships, automobiles, railways, petroleum refineries, engines, airplanes, nuclear reactors, composite materials, computers, and medical implants. In such connections, the discipline is also known as Engineering Mechanics, often practiced within Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Construction Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Structural engineering and Bioengineering. Applied mechanics in engineering Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or stresses. When treated as an area of study within a larger engineering curriculum, engineering mechanics can be subdivided into Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads Dynamics (or kinetics), the study of how forces affect moving bodies Mechanics of materials or strength of materials, the study of how different materials deform under various types of stress Deformation mechanics, the study of deformations typically in the elastic range Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces. Note that fluid mechanics can be further split into fluid statics and fluid dynamics, and is itself a subdiscipline of continuum mechanics. The application of fluid mechanics in engineering is called hydraulics. Continuum mechanics is a method of applying mechanics that assumes that all objects are continuous. It is contrasted by discrete mechanics and the finite element method. Major topics of applied mechanics Acoustics Analytical mechanics Computational mechanics Contact mechanics Continuum mechanics Dynamics (mechanics) Elasticity (physics) Experimental mechanics Fatigue (material) Finite element method Fluid mechanics Fracture mechanics Mechanics of materials Mechanics of structures Rotordynamics Solid mechanics Soil mechanics Stress waves Viscoelasticity Examples of applications Earthquake engineering See also Biomechanics Geomechanics Materials Science and Engineering Mechanical engineering Mechanicians Mechanics Physics Principle of moments Rotordynamics Structural analysis Engineering Kinetics (physics) Kinematics Analytical mechanics Dynamics (physics) Further reading J.P. Den Hartog, Strength of Materials, Dover, New York, 1949. F.P. Beer, E.R. Johnston, J.T. DeWolf, Mechanics of Materials, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981. S.P. Timoshenko, History of Strength of Materials, Dover, New York, 1953. J.E. Gordon, The New Science of Strong Materials, Princeton, 1984. H. Petroski, To Engineer Is Human, St. Martins, 1985. T.A. McMahon and J.T. Bonner, On Size and Life, Scientific American Library, W.H. Freeman, 1983. M. F. Ashby, Materials Selection in Design, Pergamon, 1992. A.H. Cottrell, Mechanical Properties of Matter, Wiley, New York, 1964. S.A. Wainwright, W.D. Biggs, J.D. Currey, J.M. Gosline, Mechanical Design in Organisms, Edward Arnold, 1976. S. Vogel, Comparative Biomechanics, Princeton, 2003. J. Howard, Mechanics of Motor Proteins and the Cytoskeleton, Sinauer Associates, 2001. J.L. Meriam, L.G. Kraige. Engineering Mechanics Volume 2: Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons., New York, 1986. J.L. Meriam, L.G. Kraige. Engineering Mechanics Volume 1: Statics, John Wiley & Sons., New York, 1986. References ^ Thermodynamics - and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances. Lewis, G. and M. Randall (1923) External links iMechanica, the web of mechanics and mechanicians. Applied mechanics website Video Lectures Applied Mechanics Video Lectures By Prof.SK. Gupta, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Delhi Professional organizations American Academy of Mechanics Applied Mechanics Division, American Society of Mechanical Engineers Engineering Mechanics Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (EMI) International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics [1] US National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Professional publications Advances in Applied Mechanics Applied Mechanics Reviews International Journal of Solids and Structures Journal of Engineering Mechanics Journal of Fluid Mechanics Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures Journal of Applied Mechanics Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids Mechanics of Materials Mechanics Research Communications Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Nonlinear Dynamics Journal of Vibration and Control