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This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2011) This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars in academia, whether tenured or non-tenured. The lists below refer specifically to colleges and universities throughout the world, although other institutions of higher learning may follow a similar schema. Contents 1 Argentina (Public Universities) 1.1 Academic ranks 1.1.1 Other professorships 1.1.2 Temporary professorships 1.1.3 Teaching auxiliaries or assistants 1.2 Administrative ranks 2 Australia and New Zealand 2.1 Academic ranks 2.2 Administrative ranks 3 Belgium 3.1 Academic ranks (Flemish community) 3.2 Administrative ranks (Flemish community) 3.3 Academic ranks (French community) 3.4 Scientific ranks (French community) 3.5 Administrative ranks (French-speaking community) 4 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.1 Administrative ranks 5 Brazil 6 Bulgaria 6.1 Academic ranks 6.2 Administrative ranks 7 Canada 7.1 Academic ranks 7.2 Administrative ranks 8 China, People's Republic of 8.1 Academic ranks 8.2 Administrative ranks 9 Croatia 9.1 Academic ranks 9.2 Honorary academic rank 9.3 Administrative ranks 10 Cyprus 10.1 Academic ranks 11 Czech Republic and Slovakia 11.1 Administrative 11.2 Academic 12 Denmark 13 Egypt 14 Finland 15 France 16 Germany 16.1 Academic ranks 16.1.1 Appointment grades 16.1.2 Non-appointment grades 16.2 Administrative ranks 17 Greece 17.1 Academic ranks 17.2 Administrative ranks 18 Hong Kong 18.1 Academic ranks 18.2 Administrative ranks 19 Hungary 19.1 Academic ranks - teaching staff 19.1.1 At universities ("egyetem") 19.1.2 At college level ('főiskola') 19.2 Academic ranks - research staff 19.2.1 At universities 19.3 Administrative ranks 20 Indonesia 20.1 Academic ranks 20.2 Administrative ranks 21 Iran 21.1 Academic ranks 21.2 Emeritus ranks 21.3 Administrative ranks 22 Jordan 23 Iraq 24 Israel 25 Italy 25.1 Academic ranks 25.2 Administrative ranks 26 Japan 27 Korea 28 Macau SAR 29 Macedonia 30 Malaysia 31 Mexico 32 Netherlands 33 New Zealand 34 Norway 35 Poland 35.1 Academic posts 35.1.1 Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank) 35.1.2 Teaching staff: (lower rank) 35.2 Elected or nominated posts 36 Portugal 36.1 Academic ranks 37 Romania 37.1 Administrative ranks 37.2 Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank) 37.3 Teaching staff (lower rank) 38 Russia 39 South Africa 39.1 Academic ranks 39.2 Administrative ranks 40 Spain 40.1 Academic ranks 40.2 Administrative ranks 41 Sri Lanka 41.1 Academic ranks 41.2 Administrative ranks 42 Sweden 42.1 Academic ranks 42.2 Administrative ranks 43 Serbia 44 Switzerland 44.1 German-language universities of Switzerland 44.2 French-language universities of Switzerland 45 Taiwan 45.1 Academic ranks 46 Thailand 46.1 Academic ranks 46.2 Administrative ranks 47 Turkey 47.1 Academic ranks 47.2 Administrative ranks 48 United Kingdom 48.1 Academic ranks 48.1.1 Teaching, research, and scholarship career pathway 48.1.1.1 Pre-/non-career grade 48.1.2 Research career pathway 48.1.2.1 Pre-/non-career grade 48.2 Emeritus ranks 48.3 Administrative ranks 48.3.1 England, Wales, and Northern Ireland 48.3.2 Scotland 49 United States 49.1 Academic ranks 49.2 Administrative ranks 49.2.1 Officers of the corporation 49.2.2 Academic administrators 50 Venezuela 50.1 Academic Ranks 50.2 Dedication Rank 50.3 Administrative Ranks (Public National) 50.4 Other Professors 50.4.1 Auxiliary and Lab Assistants 51 References Argentina (Public Universities) Academic ranks Professors are usually categorized as "ordinario" or "concursado" (tenured, elected by an independent committee composed of colleagues from other universities), "interino" (non-tenure, but stable position, the professor is proposed by the director of the corresponding department -sometimes after different selection processes- and accepted by the Consejo Directivo of the corresponding school), or "suplente" (substite, hired through the same process as interinos). In most cases, classes are taught by a professioral team (a "cátedra"), formed by one or two professors and auxiliars, which generally also functions as a research team. Regardless of the rank, professors in public universities (and in many private ones) must perform research. This ranking system is the one used at the Universidad de Buenos Aires (the largest Argentine university) and by most of the public universities, but not all of them; being autonomous, they can choose their own scale. Private universities have their own rank in each case, sometimes based on the public university system, although as a general rule they have less ranks or hold a higher ranking as the starting point for a teaching career (devoting auxiliar ranks to undergraduates). Profesor Titular Plenario Honorary degree, the professor has the same duties and rights as a Profesor Titular. Profesor Titular Profesor Asociado Profesor Adjunto (The first rank with which a professor can be the head of a teaching team, a "cátedra"). Other professorships Profesor Emérito a retired tenured faculty member who demonstrated excellency in both teaching and researching Profesor Consulto also a retired faculty member who provides assistance in specific knowledge areas Profesor Honorario an honorary mostly ceremonial position Professors holding these positions usually teach upper classes, graduate classes, or do not teach (working as researchers or research advisors). Temporary professorships Profesor Invitado Profesor Contratado (for a certain period) Teaching auxiliaries or assistants Jefe de Trabajos Prácticos (In many universities, holding a doctorate is now a non-formal requirement for this post.) Ayudante Diplomado, Ayudante de Primera Categoría Ayudante de Segunda Categoría or Ayudante Alumno (for undergraduate students) Administrative ranks Rector and a Consejo Superior, are sometimes elected by the Asamblea Universitaria, composed of professors, graduates (includes alumni, teaching auxiliaries and all other academic or research staff who do not qualify to vote as professors or undergraduate students) and undergraduate students elected by direct secret and compulsory vote. In other cases, the Consejo Superior is elected directly by this three-state system. In many universities, non-academic staff also has representatives, either with or without vote. The Consejo Superior designates several Secretarios to assist the Rector, and chooses one of its members to be the Vicerrector (the deputy to the Rector). Each faculty, school or college is headed by a Decano, designated by the Consejo Directivo or Consejo Académico, composed also by professors, graduates and undergraduate students. It also picks several Secretarios to assist the Dean on the daily business and the Vicedecano (deputy to the Dean). Departments are chaired by a Director, which is assisted by Secretarios and a Director Adjunto (deputy to the Director). They have a Junta Departamental, the collegiate body which assists the director, but does not govern by itself. Australia and New Zealand Academic ranks Teaching and Research Positions Professor - Level E appointments, equivalent to Chair Professor in most Asian countries and in the North American universities. Associate Professor and/or Reader - Level D appointments, equivalent to Professor in most Asian countries and North American universities. Senior Lecturer - Level C appointments, equivalent to Associate Professor in North American universities. Lecturer - Level B appointments, equivalent to Assistant Professor in North American universities (Most universities now require applicants for Lecturer positions with PhD degree). Associate or Assistant Lecturer, Senior Tutor, Tutor, Research Officer - Level A appointments. Research Only Positions Professor - Senior Principal Research Fellow (Level E) Associate Professor - Principal Research Fellow (Level D) Senior Research Fellow (Level C) Research Fellow (Level B) Post-Doctoral Research Fellow (Level A) Please note that, unlike the USA, the Australian public services or government organisations also employ a large number of academics or researchers. Different organisations have their own established title systems (e.g., principal scientist, senior officer etc). However, it is the level rather than the title determines the equivalent academic rank. With CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific & Industry Research Organisation) and most state governments, Level 4, equivalent to Postdoctoral Fellow or Associate Lecturer; Level 5, equivalent to Lecturer or Research Scientist; Level 6, equivalent to Senior Lecturer or Senior Scientist; Level 7, equivalent to Associate Professor; Level 8, equivalent to Professor; Level 9, Chief. The Western Australian state government introduced a specified calling system in 2008. Within this system, SC-Level 1, equivalent to Postdoctoral Fellow or Associate Lecturer; SC-Level 2, equivalent to Lecturer or Research Scientist; SC-Level 3, equivalent to Senior Lecturer or Senior Scientist; SC-Level 4, equivalent to Associate Professor; SC-Level 5, equivalent to Professor; SC-Level 6, Chief. Administrative ranks Visitor (titular) Chancellor (titular) Deputy Chancellor / Pro-Chancellor (titular) Vice-Chancellor Provost Deputy Vice-Chancellor Pro-Vice-Chancellor (could be the faculty dean) Registrar (there is not necessarily such a position) Faculty Dean (Normally Professor) Faculty Deputy Dean; Associate Dean (Normally Professor, Associate Professor or Reader) Head of School and Head of Department(Normally Professor, Associate Professor, or Reader) Program Director (Normally Senior Lecturer or above) Course Coordinator (Lecturer and Above) Belgium The ranks may differ between the Flemish Community and the French Community, as education is a community matter in Belgium. Academic ranks (Flemish community) Gewoon hoogleraar (Full Professor)(Professor Ordinarius) Buitengewoon hoogleraar (Full Professor)(Professor Extraordinarius) Hoogleraar (Professor) Hoofddocent (Senior Lecturer) Docent (Lecturer) Doctor-assistant (postdoc research assistant) Assistent (research assistant) Administrative ranks (Flemish community) Rector Vice-Rector Decaan (dean, i.e. head of a faculty) Academic ranks (French community) Professeur ordinaire (Full Professor) Professeur extraordinaire (Full Professor) Professeur (Professor) Chargé de cours définitif (Associate Professor, tenured) Chargé de cours temporaire (Assistant Professor, tenure-track) Chargé de cours invité (Visiting Assistant Professor, non-tenured) Maître de conférences (Associate Professor, tenured) Scientific ranks (French community) Directeur de recherche (Research director, appointed by federal research council FNRS) Chef de travaux agrégé (Senior researcher with teaching aggregation, with Ph.D.) Maître de recherche (Senior researcher, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS) Chef de travaux (Senior researcher, with Ph.D.) Chercheur qualifié (Senior researcher., appointed by federal research council FNRS) Premier assistant (Senior research assistant, with Ph.D.) Chargé de recherche (Researcher, typically post.doc., appointed by federal research council FNRS) Assistant de recherche (Research assistant) Administrative ranks (French-speaking community) Recteur (President of University) Vice-Recteur 'Doyen (Dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected) 'Président d'institut (Director of research institute, elected) 'Vice-Doyen (Vice-Dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty) 'Président de département (Department head, elected) Bosnia and Herzegovina FU Administrative ranks Rektor/Rector Dekan fakulteta/Dean of the faculty Sef katedre/Head of department Brazil At the University of Sao Paulo the academic rank system is: Professor Titular (MS-6): equivalent to a "full professor" in the US Professor Associado (MS-5): must hold a Livre Docente title (equivalent to a German Habilitation) Professor Doutor (MS-3): must hold a doctorate; equivalent to an "assistant professor" in the US Professor Assistente (MS-2): must hold a master's or equivalent degree Auxiliar de Ensino (MS-1): only a bachelor's degree is required In the Federal Universities the academic ranks receive other names:(In portuguese) Professor Titular Professor Associado, levels A, B and C (or I, II, III) Professor Adjunto, levels A, B, C and D (or I, II, III, IV) Professor Assistente, levels A, B, C and D (or I, II, III, IV) Professor Auxiliar, levels A, B, C and D (or I, II, III, IV) More information: (In portuguese) Bulgaria Academic ranks The Ranking System at the Sofia University Assistant – Асистент Senior Assistant – Старши Асистент Chief Assistant – Главен Асистент Docent – Доцент – Associate Professor Professor – Професор – Full Professor Administrative ranks General Assembly Academic Council Council of the Rectors Rector Vice-Rectors Assistant Rector Secretary General Council of the Deans Control Council Academic ?Ombudsman? Canada Academic ranks Titles for regular faculty (and faculty with special or temporary appointments): Distinguished Professor or University Professor (Distinguished Professor Emeritus, University Professor Emeritus) Professor or Full Professor (Research Professor, Visiting Professor, Adjunct Professor, Professor Emeritus) Associate Professor (Research Associate Professor, Visiting Associate Professor, Adjunct Associate Professor) Assistant Professor (Research Assistant Professor, Adjunct Assistant Professor) Lecturer or Instructor (Sessional Lecturer or Sessional Instructor) Traditionally, Assistant Professor is the entry-level rank for non-tenured members of faculty. Titles for non-faculty teaching and research personnel: Senior Fellow, Senior Research Fellow or Senior Scientist Fellow, Research Fellow or Scientist Research supervisor or Principal Investigator Research Associate or Postdoctoral Associate Research Assistant or Teaching Assistant Administrative ranks Dean (often also Full Professors) Associate Dean (often also Full Professors) Directors of Administrative Departments Associate/Assistant Directors of Administrative Departments Chairs of Academic Departments (usually Full Professors) Graduate Coordinators Undergraduate Coordinators China, People's Republic of Most universities in the People's Republic of China adopt a four-level academic rank system, i.e. professor, associate professor, lecturer, and teaching assistant. The American title of assistant professor does not exist. Most PhD graduates will be appointed at the lecturer level initially and receive the qualification to be promoted to associate professorship after two years of teaching. However, people holding a doctorate from Western universities and with some working experience overseas will normally be appointed at a higher level, in exceptional cases at the full professor level directly. Academic ranks Principal Professor (in Chinese: 首席教授, on exists in some Chinese universities) Emeritus Professor (in Chinese: 退休教授) Principal faculty ranks in the mainland of PR China are: Professor (in Chinese: 教授) Associate Professor (in Chinese: 副教授) Lecturer (in Chinese: 讲师) Teaching Assistant (in Chinese:助教 ) Academic trainee ranks in the mainland of PR China are: Postdoctoral Research Fellow (in Chinese: 博士后研究员) and Research Fellow/Researcher (in Chinese: 研究员) Research Assistant (in Chinese: 研究助理) and Teaching Assistant (in Chinese: 教学助理/助教) Postgraduate (in Chinese: 研究生) Undergraduate (in Chinese: 本科生) Academic title awards for certain purposes: Honorary Professor (in Chinese: 名誉教授, usually for people with great academic or social contribution) Guest Professor (in Chinese: 客座教授, usually for famous scholars of other schools) Distinguished Professor (in Chinese: 特聘教授, usually for people with great achievement in certain field) Administrative ranks President (in Chinese: 校長) Vice-President (in Chinese: 副校長) Registrar (in Chinese: 教務長) and Secretary of the party committee (in Chinese: 黨委書記) Dean (in Chinese: 院長) Deputy Dean or Associate Dean (in Chinese: 副院長) of schools and faculties Associate Secretary of the party committee (in Chinese: 黨委副書記) Director (in Chinese: 所長/主任) of academic centre and Director (in Chinese: 系主任) of academic departments Croatia Academic ranks Redoviti profesor equivalent to Full Professor (prof.dr.sc. Name Surname) Izvanredni profesor equivalent to Associate Professor (prof.dr.sc. Name Surname) Docent equivalent to Assistant Professor (doc.dr.sc. Name Surname) Viši asistent equivalent to Senior Assistant Asistent equivalent to Assistant Honorary academic rank Professor Emeritus - awarded to some Full Professors in retirement Administrative ranks Rektor equivalent to Rector, Head of University (in USA equivalent to President of University) Prorektor equivalent to Prorector, assistant to Head of University (in USA equivalent to Vice-President of University) Dekan equivalent to Dean, Head of Faculty or School in University Prodekan equivalent to Vice-Dean, assistant to Dean Pročelnik odsjeka equivalent to Head of Department Predstojnik zavoda equivalent to Head of Department Predstojnik katedre equivalent to Head of Chair Cyprus Academic ranks Chair Professor Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Lecturer Research assistant and teaching assistant (or tutor, instructor, demonstrator) Czech Republic and Slovakia See also: Academic_degree#Czech_Republic. Administrative Rektor (Rector), head of the University Prorektor (Vice-Rector), typically 3 to 5 people are vice-rectors; the position is usually further specified by indicating domain a vice-rector is responsible for (e. g. research, communication, study-related issues) Kvestor (Registrar, Bursar), a "manager" of the University Děkan (Slovak: Dekan, English: Dean), head of a faculty Proděkan (Slovak: Prodekan, English: Vice-Dean) Ředitel (Slovak: Riaditeľ, English: Director), head of a sub-unit at a faculty (e.g. institute, research center) Vedoucí katedry (Slovak: Vedúci katedry, English: Departmental Chair), sometimes at the same level as director Academic Profesor (Professor), both degree and position. Professors are appointed by the president after a successful accomplishment of řízení o udělení profesury (process of awarding a professorship). One of the requirements is an already accomplished docent degree. Docent (Associate Professor), both degree and position. The degree is awarded by the rector after a certain amount of years of teaching and after a successful accomplishment of habilitace (a process concluded by a defense of a reviewed research manuscript and a public lecture). Odborný asistent (lecturer / researcher), this title covers positions from lecturers to researchers. Requirements for lecturers / researchers vary, usually a Ph.D. is required. Asistent (assistant lecturer), at least Master degree is required. Denmark Administrative positions: Rektor (Rector) Dekan (Dean), head of a faculty (human sciences, natural sciences etc.) Institutleder (Department manager), head of a department (computer science, mathematics etc.) Academic positions: Professor Lektor (Associate professor), time traditionally divided as 50-40-10 between teaching, research, and administration Adjunkt (Assistant Professor), usually almost the same teaching/research/administration division as lektor, although sometimes a little more time for research Post-doc, generally a research position, but with the possibility of teaching Ekstern Lektor Part time teaching at university. Does not normally require a research degree (PhD or equivalent) Egypt MOEED (معيد), or Teaching Assistant. MODARESS MOSAED (مدرس مساعد), Senior Teaching Assistant (with Master’s degree) MODARESS (مدرس), equivalent to Assistant Professor in American Universities (with PhD) OSTAZ MOSAED (أستاذ مساعد), equivalent to Associate Professor. OSTAZ (أستاذ), equivalent to Professor (usually after minimum of five years serving as OSTAZ MOSAED) Finland There are a specific number of posts, which can be applied to when they are vacated or established. A Professor, for example, is a leader of a laboratory or a group. One of the idiosyncracies of the Finnish system is the absence of assistant and associate professors, as well as the limited number of full professorships. Kansleri Chancellor (only in the Universities of Helsinki, Tampere, Turku and in Åbo Akademi). Rehtori (Rector) Vararehtori (Vice Rector) Dekaani (Dean) Osastonjohtaja (Head of Department) Professori (Professor). Dosentti (Adjunct Professor), is not necessarily permanently associated with the university but holds the right to teach (Latin: venia docendi) and supervise Ph.D. students, and has academic merits significantly exceeding a Ph.D. degree similarly to German Privatdozent and Swedish docent. Lehtori or yliopistonlehtori (Lecturer), teaching-oriented faculty position usually requiring a PhD. Yliassistentti (Senior Assistant, Assistant Professor), post-doc or senior Ph. D student position), laboratorioinsinööri (Laboratory Engineer) a formally administrative position, the holders of which often conduct research and teach, however. Yliopisto-opettaja (University Teacher), a junior teaching-oriented faculty position. Assistantti (Assistant) and tutkija (Research Associate, Research Scientist) are Ph.D. student positions Tutkimusapulainen (Research Assistant) is an undergrad or Master's student position Ylioppilas (Student) France Main article: Academic rank in France National Universities Professeur agrégé (teaching in last classes o highschool, college and university). Maître de Conférences (previously Maître Assistant, (with or without an habilitation to direct PhD theses, known as HDR).) (i.e. Assistant Professor (without an HDR)/Associate Professor (with an HDR)) Professeur des Universités (i.e. full professor) Grandes Écoles vacataire or chargés d'enseignements (i.e. Instructor) professeur affilié (i.e. Adjunct professor) professeur assistant (i.e. Assistant professor) professeur associé (i.e. Associate professor) professeur (i.e. Full professor) Germany Academic ranks Appointment grades Professor (W3, equivalent to full professor in U.S. system) Professor (W2, equivalent to associate professor in U.S. system) Hochschuldozent (W2, only in Baden-Württemberg) Juniorprofessor (not tenured) (W1, equivalent to assistant professor in U.S. system) Juniordozent (not tenured) (W1, only in Baden-Württemberg) Akademischer Rat/Oberrat/Direktor auf Lebenszeit (A13, A14, A15) Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter auf Zeit, Akademischer Rat auf Zeit (TVöD, A13 a.Z.) Akademischer Mitarbeiter auf Zeit (TVöD only in Baden-Württemberg) Wissenschaftliche Hilfskraft (TdL) Studentische Hilfskraft (TdL) Non-appointment grades The title Privatdozent (Priv.-Doz. or PD) is used to denote those who have obtained a habilitation, but who have not formally been appointed as Professor. The latter abbreviation of Privatdozent must not be confused with the Ph.D.. The title Außerplanmäßiger Professor (apl. Prof.) can be conferred, in some German States, to a Privatdozent, who has been in service for several years, without formally being appointed as Professor. Administrative ranks Rektor, Präsident - Rector or President, highest representative of the University or Polytechnic, elected Prorektor, Vizepräsident, Prorector or Vice President, elected Kanzler - Chancellor, administrative head, often a permanent job Dekan - Dean, elected Institutsdirektor - Head of department, elected Greece Academic ranks Professor Emeritus Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Lecturer Adjunct Lecturer or Adjunct Assistant Professor (a temporary employee with a short-term contract, usually for one semester, usually holder of a Ph.D. as described in the Greek Presidential Decree 407/1980. Adjunct Lecturers are sometimes called simply as "407", after the number of the Decree) Teaching Assistant (This rank was abolished in 1982, but people holding it remain Teaching Assistants until retirement.) The prefix of Professor is only assumed by Professors and Professors Emeriti, not by Associate, or Assistant Professors. Administrative ranks Rector Vice-Rector Secretary General Dean Deputy Dean Chairman of the Department Deputy Chairman of the Department Director of the Section The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors. The only exception is Secretary General, who is not a faculty member. Hong Kong Academic ranks In the past, Hong Kong followed the British system (4 levels). In recent years it is moving towards the North American counterpart, with the titles renamed to their corresponding equivalence (professor, associate professor, and assistant professor). Institutions established in the 1980s and 1990s almost entirely follows the North American system, while older ones, notably The University of Hong Kong is in the process of transition. [1] Depending on institutions, the title of "Professor" is assumed by chair professors and professors, or assistant professors and above. Chair Professor Emeritus Professor Honorary Professor Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Lecturer Research Assistant Professor Post-doctoral Fellow Adjunct (Associate/Assistant) Professor Professional Consultant or Teaching Consultant/Fellow Research assistant and teaching assistant (or tutor, instructor, demonstrator) Postgraduate or graduate Undergraduate Administrative ranks Chancellor (titular, normally the Chief Executive (formerly the Governor) of Hong Kong) or President in the Hong Kong Shue Yan University Pro-Chancellor (titular, only for the University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) Vice-Chancellor or President (or Vice President Principal in the Hong Kong Shue Yan University): being the chief executive of the institutution Deputy Vice-Chancellor (as the first among Pro-Vice-Chancellors in the University of Hong Kong) Pro-Vice-Chancellors or Vice-Presidents or Deputy Presidents Associate Pro-Vice-Chancellors (as in the Chinese University of Hong Kong) or Associate Vice-President (as in the Hong Kong Baptist University, the Lingnan University, the Hong Kong Shue Yan University, and the Hong Kong Institute of Education) Registrar Provost (for some universities) Deans of Faculties / Schools Heads (or Directors) of Departments / Schools Hungary Academic ranks - teaching staff At universities ("egyetem") Professzor emeritus (emeritus professor, always with a special habilitation, and usually with a DSc. = Doctor of Science, a National Academy awarded title) Egyetemi tanár (university professor, always with a special habilitation, and usually with a DSc.); Egyetemi docens (reader (UK)/associate professor (US)/professor, always with Ph.D.) Adjunktus (senior lecturer (UK)/assistant professor(US)/associate professor, always with Ph.D. since 2005 or with rank of mestertanár = "master lecturer") Tanársegéd (graduate teaching assistant (UK)/ instructor (US), generally without PhD.) At college level ('főiskola') Főiskolai tanár (college professor, always with a Ph.D., and usually with a special habilitation) Főiskolai docens (college reader (UK)/ college associate professor (US), usually with Ph.D.) Adjunktus (senior lecturer (UK)/assistant professor(US), sometimes without a Ph.D.) Tanársegéd (graduate teaching assistant (UK)/instructor (US), generally without Ph.D.). Academic ranks - research staff At universities Kutatóprofesszor (honored professor with special habilitation, and usually with D.Sc.) Tudományos tanácsadó (research professor with special habilitation, usually with D.Sc.) Tudományos főmunkatárs (honored senior research fellow with Ph.D.) Tudományos munkatárs (associate research fellow with Ph.D.) Tudományos segédmunkatárs (funded research assistant usually without Ph.D.) Administrative ranks Rektor (Rektor - at least with a "docens" rank, usually an "egyetemi tanár" with D.Sc.) Rektorhelyettes (Vice-Rektor) Főigazgató (Deputy Principal) Dékán (Dean of Faculty) Dékánhelyettes (Vice-Dean) Gazdasági főigazgató Tanszékvezető (Head of Department) Indonesia Academic ranks There are 9 ranks, in total, which can be categorized to 4 main levels. Level 1: Asisten Ahli (Associate Lecturer) Level 2: Lektor (Lecturer) Level 3: Lektor Kepala (Senior Lecturer) Level 4: Guru Besar (Professor) Level 1: Asisten Ahli (Associate Lecturer): Asisten Ahli - Rate 100 Asisten Ahli - Rate 150 Level 2: Lektor (Lecturer): Lektor - Rate 200 Lektor - Rate 300 Level 3: Lektor Kepala (Senior Lecturer) Lektor Kepala - Rate 400 Lektor Kepala - Rate 550 Lektor Kepala - Rate 700 Level 4: Guru Besar (Professor) Guru Besar Madya (Associate Professor) - Rate 850 Guru Besar (Professor) - Rate 1050 Administrative ranks Universitas (University) Rektor (Rector) Wakil Rektor (Vice Rector) Fakultas-Fakultas (University Schools) Dekan (Dean) Wakil Dekan (Vice Dean) Kepala Program Studi (Head of Programme) Iran Academic ranks Ostad-e Momtaz (Distinguished Professor) Ostad (Professor) Daneshyar (Associate Professor) Ostadyar (Assistant Professor) Morabbi (Lecturer) Emeritus ranks Emeritus Professor Fellow Administrative ranks Chancellor Dean Head of Department Jordan Holders of Master and PH.D. degree can be: Professor Assistant Professor Lecturer Assistant Lecturer Iraq Holders of Master and PH.D. degree can be: Professor Assistant Professor Lecturer Assistant Lecturer Israel Tenured and tenure-track positions in Israeli universities (all require PhD or equivalent degree): Professor Emeritus/Emerita (Full Professor who has retired) Full Professor [Hebrew: "Professor Min HaMinyan"] Associate Professor [Hebrew: "Professor Khaver"] Senior Lecturer (Tenured position) [Hebrew: "Martze Bakhir"] Lecturer [Hebrew: "Martze"] Italy Academic ranks Faculty (all these positions are tenured or tenure-track): Professore Emerito (Full Professor after retirement age whose high importance in academic field has been credited by the Faculty Council: a Professore Emerito can work at a university for life, including after retirement age; however, he has no teaching duties) Professore Ordinario, but more precisely: Professore di I fascia (Full Professor; tenured position) Professore Straordinario (a professor taking his three years of testing before being confirmed as Full Professor) Professore Associato, but more precisely: Professore di II fascia (Associate Professor; tenured position) Ricercatore confermato (Assistant Professor or Researcher; tenured position) Ricercatore non confermato (Assistant Professor or Researcher with no tenure; a researcher taking his three years of testing before being confirmed as Researcher) Assistente (The former second level of permanent positions before Ricercatore replaced it in the early 1980s. No positions of Assistente were created since then, but some personnel kept the title, though most of them became Ricercatore confermato) Non-faculty and temporary: Professore a contratto (Professor with a temporary appointment for a given course or lecture series) Professore incaricato (Temporary Professor, as above) Assegnista di Ricerca (Research fellow with a temporary position, usually holding a Ph.D. title) Dottorando di Ricerca (Ph.D. student) Administrative ranks Rettore (Rector) Prorettore (Vice-Rector) Preside (Dean of Faculty) Presidente di Consiglio di Corso di Laurea (Head of a Bachelor/Msc curriculum on a given topic) Direttore di Dipartimento (Head of Department) Japan Tenured or non-tenured faculty ranks are mainly as follows: Professor, Kyōju (教授?) Associate Professor, Junkyōju (准教授?) Assistant Professor/(Full-time)Lecturer, Kōshi (講師?) Assistant Professor/Research Associate, Jokyō (助教?) Kōshi (講師?)andJokyō (助教?) are likely to be non-tenure (most kōshi in the national university system are, however, tenured). Fellow,Kenkyūin (研究員?) and Assistant,Joshu (助手?) There are various fellowship and assistantship. These positions are similar to those in the American system. Some of them require Hakushigō (博士号?) (Japanese Doctorate) or a doctorate. Korea The academic rank system in South Korea is very similar to that of the U.S. One notable difference is that Full-Time Instructor is the first tenure-track rank in some universities. Tenure track positions: (Full) Professor (정교수/교수) Associate Professor (부교수) Assistant Professor (조교수) Full-Time Instructor (전임 강사) : In some universities, this rank is missed and full-time academic career begins with the Assistant Professor rank. Other positions: Part-Time Instructor (시간 강사) Research Professor (연구 교수) Clinical Professor (임상 교수) Adjunct Professor (겸임 교수) Visiting Professor (객원 교수/초빙 교수) Chaired Professor (석좌 교수) Emeritus Professor (명예 교수) Macau SAR At the University of Macau there are four levels of faculty rank, namely professor, associate professor, assistant professor (with PhD) lecturer (without PhD) At the Macau Polytechnic Institute there are three levels professor (professor coordenador) associate professor (professor adjuncto) lecturer (assistente) Macedonia After get accepted into the university, the new student is automatically part of the Academia Brucosh, Бруцош-(First Year Student) Student, Студент-(Regular Student) Apsolvent, Апсолвент-(Final Year Student) Alumnus, Алумнус-(Graduate) Young Assistant, Помлад Асистент-(B.Sc.) Assistant, Асистент-(M.Sc.) Docent-(Ph.D.) Vonreden Professor, Вонреден Професор-(Associate Professor) Professor, Професор-(Full Time Professor) Professor Emeritus, Пензиониран Професор-(Retired Proffesor) Academic, Академик-(Academician) Malaysia Staff ranking in Malaysian public universities are based on the British system as a legacy of the British colonising the country. There are only slight variations among the universities but the general ranking is as follows Academic positions (in descending hierarchy) Profesor DiRaja (Royal Professor, usually retired professors, title bestowed by King) Profesor Emeritus (usually retired professors) Senior Professor (a newly introduced rank mainly to denote salary and hierarchical difference) Professor Profesor Madya (Associate Professor) Senior Lecturer Lecturer/Tutor/Assistant Lecturer Instructor (with pre-degree qualifications) Administrative (in descending hierarchy) Chancellor (Federal/State Ruler) Pro Chancellor (non-executive) Vice Chancellor Deputy Vice Chancellor Assistants Vice Chancellor Deans of Faculties Head of Programme Mexico The model for the classification of academic positions is the National Autonomous University of Mexico Academic positions (in ascending hierarchy) Assistant Professor Subject Professor Full Time Professor Research Professor Professor Emeritus The last classification in only given to those academics that have a prominent career and has at least 25 years of service Netherlands The Dutch system is comparable to the U.S. system, although Ph.D candidates are usually employed by the university. However, some call for a general introduction of Ph.D student tracks, where students are given a scholarship instead of being paid wages. Faculty Positions Universiteitshoogleraar (a distinguished full professor) Hoogleraar 1 (a senior full professor, leading a large department or university institute) Hoogleraar 2 (a junior full professor, leading a research group) Universitair Hoofddocent (an associate professor) Universitair Docent (an assistant Professor) Onderzoeker / Postdoc (a senior research fellow; postdoctoral fellow) Junior Onderzoeker / Assistent in Opleiding / Promovendus (a junior researcher; Ph.D candidate employed by the university) Docent (Lecturer, teaching staff usually not holding a Ph.D) Student Assistent (Research or Teaching Assistant, (under)graduate student employed by university for research or teaching activities) Administrative position Rector Magnificus (Head of research and education of a university) Decaan (dean; head of research and education of a faculty/school) Department Chair Only full professors (including extraordinary professors) are allowed to carry the abbreviation 'prof.'. Although unlikely, it is possible for someone to become Rector Magnificus or Dean without being a full professor. In such cases, usually an honorary 'prof.'-title is granted for the duration of the office, however without the prerogatives usually attached to a full professorship. New Zealand See under Australia and New Zealand (above) Norway Elected faculty positions: Rektor (Rector; one per university; usually assisted by prorektor and sometimes viserektor) Dekan or dekanus (males)/dekana (females) (Dean; one per faculty), sometimes assisted by a prodekan) Professorial ranks: Professor (full professor) Professor emeritus/emerita (retired professor; unofficial title conferred to all former full professors, regardless of how they are currently employed) Professor II (Part-time professor; professors II are often full professors in another institution than the one in which they are professor II, or employed in other positions, for instance as a consultant at a university hospital) Postdoctoral ranks: Dosent (Reader; abolished at universities in 1985 (when all docents became full professors), today mostly used in professional colleges) Førsteamanuensis (associate professor) Førstelektor (senior lecturer) Postdoktor (senior research fellow; postdoctoral fellow) Postgraduate ranks: Amanuensis (assistant professor; rarely used in universities, somewhat more common in professional colleges) Universitetslektor (university lecturer; lecturers in professional colleges are called høgskolelektor) Stipendiat (research fellow) Vitenskapelig assistent (research assistant; usually a graduate student) Poland Academic posts Academic ranks in Poland are divided into two separate tracks: Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank) (pl asystent) - research-and-teaching assistant / research-and-teaching fellow (hold master degree) (pl adiunkt) - assistant professor (hold PhD) (pl docent) - senior lecturer (holds PhD or post-doc degree), (a new position since 2007, optional and only in some universities, does not involve any research duties and is meant mainly for teaching) (pl profesor nadzwyczajny) - associate professor (hold post-doc degree, according to German nomenclature sometimes called "professor extraordinarius" (pl profesor zwyczajny) - full professor, sometimes called "professor ordinarius" and also for a special purpose: (pl profesor wizytujący)- visiting professor (pl profesor emerytowany)- professor emeritus [NOTE: Please be careful, because "profesor" in Poland is a "scientific title" (degree like PhD) as well as the academic post, so there are a lot of troubles with the translation.] Teaching staff: (lower rank) (pl instruktor) - instructor (sport) (pl lektor) - instructor, foreign language teacher (pl wykładowca) - lecturer (pl starszy wykładowca) - senior lecturer Elected or nominated posts Elected faculty positions: Rector (Rektor) - the principal head of the university (one per university); usually assisted by several deputy rectors (pl prorektor) Dean (Dziekan); the principal head of the Faculty (one per faculty), usually assisted by several deputy deans (pl prodziekan); Head (Kierownik) - the head of the Institute/Department/Chair (one per organizational unit) Portugal Academic ranks Professor Catedrático, equivalent to Full Professor Professor Associado, equivalent to Associate Professor Professor Auxiliar, equivalent to Assistant Professor Both Professor Associado and Professor Auxiliar may have Habilitation, while that extra degree is mandatory to all applicants to the rank of Professor Catedrático. This is an additional degree to which one can apply to usually years after the PhD (similar to the French Agrégation). Agregação is a two days exam based on curriculum vitae evaluation and a public lecture, where the candidate is evaluated by secret vote by a large number of other full professors where the Professors insert a white or a black sphere into a bag according to his or her decision. The 3 ranks of professors may also be held by invited professors, according to the rank, coming from out of the university. Portuguese universities still have some few other teaching staff in two ranks not holding a PhD. These two ranks have been extinguished in 2009 and will vanish after all the ongoing contracts terminate in the next few years. Assistente, equivalent to Assistant Lecturer (without a PhD), normally someone who is simultaneously doing a PhD and holding a master's degree. Only teaches practical (or lab) classes. Assistante Estagiário, equivalent to a junior teaching assistant. It used to be the start of the teaching career until 2009 and already extremely rare to find since the Bologna agreement. They are typically graduate studentss and only teach practical (lab) classes. Romania Administrative ranks Rector ("Rector"; one per university; usually assisted by a "Prorector") Dean ("Decan"; one per faculty; assisted by a "Prodecan") Head of Department ("Şef de Catedră"; one per Department) Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank) professor ("profesor") associate professor ("conferenţiar") assistant professor ("lector" or "şef de lucrări") and also for a special purpose: visiting professor ("profesor vizitator") professor emeritus ("profesor emerit" or "profesor consultant") Teaching staff (lower rank) teaching assistant or assistant lecturer ("asistent") junior teaching assistant ("preparator") Russia Administrative positions: Rector (Russian: ректор) Provost (Russian: первый проректор) Vice-rectors (Academic, Research, Financial, Foreign Activity) Dean (Russian: декан) Associate Deans (Academic, Research) Chair (head) of a department (Russian: заведующий кафедрой) Head of Administrative Departments On a par with Rector, some universities has President Position, but it’s usually honored position. Academic department heads and chairs serve the same function, and there may also be associate and assistant department heads or chairs (though this is unusual). The term "Department Head" usually indicates the administrator is elected to the post by the faculty of the department, while the term "Department Chair" usually means the person is appointed by the dean without election by the faculty. Academic positions: Dean Chair (head) of a department Professor (Full Professor), usually Doctor of Sc. Associate Professor (dozent, доцент), usually Cand. of Sc. Lecturer - time divided equally between research and teaching (it can be both Professor or Dozent) Senior instructor (sometimes "Lecturer") Instructor (sometimes "Lecturer") Assistant Professor (usually first academic level after Cand. of Sc. dissertation defence) Research Assistant (research technicians, lab managers, and related personnel are generally regarded as administrative staff rather than faculty). South Africa Academic ranks Chancellor (honorific) Vice Chancellor Dean Extraordinary Professor Senior Professor (Must hold a PhD, except in Accounting) Professor (Must hold a PhD, except in Accounting, although sometimes appointed with still studying the PhD) Senior Lecturer (Must hold a PhD, except in Accounting, although sometimes appointed with still studying the PhD) Lecturer (Must hold a Masters degree, except in Accounting) Junior Lecturer (Must hold a Honours degree, except in Accounting) Research Assistant Tutor, Student-Assistant, Demonstrator Administrative Assistant Senior Secretary Administrative ranks Chancellor (titular), (honorific) Rector/Principal & Vice-Chancellor (dual title) Vice-Rector/Vice-Principal & Deputy Vice-Chancellor/Pro-Vice-Chancellor Dean Vice-Dean/Deputy Dean Programme Directors/Programme Convenor Departmental Chairperson or Head of Department In Afrikaans-speaking universities the terms Rector and Vice-Rector are common, whereas English-speaking universities tend to favour the terms Principal and Vice-Principal. The use of Deputy Vice-Chancellor seems to be phasing out Pro-Vice-Chancellor. Spain Academic ranks Tenured: Full Professor (Catedrático de Universidad) Associate Professor (Profesor Titular de Universidad) Non-tenured: Senior Lecturer (Profesor Contratado Doctor) Private University Lecturer Profesor de Universidad Privada (must hold a PhD) Profesor Colaborador (does not have to hold a PhD) (Lecturer, to be phased out) Lecturer (Profesor Ayudante Doctor (must hold a PhD) Teaching Assistant (Profesor Ayudante) (does not have to hold a PhD) Other positions: Teaching positions Profesor Asociado (a part-time instructor who keeps a parallel job) Visiting Professor (Profesor Visitante) Professor Emeritus (Profesor Emérito) Research-only positions Senior Technical Officer (Técnico Superior de Investigación) Techincal Officer (Técnico Medio de Investigación) Administrative ranks (University) Rector (necessarily a Chair Professor) Vicerectors General Secretary Manager, Faculties, University Schools and Technical Schools Dean (Faculty) or Head (University or Technical School) Vicedeans or Deputy Heads Secretary Research Institutes Head of Research Institute Deputy Head of Research Institute Secretary of Research Institute Departaments Head of Department Deputy Head of Department Secretary of department Honorary Positions (Only in Catholic Universities) Grand Chancellor Vicechancellor Sri Lanka Academic ranks Professor Emeritus (on retirement) Senior Professor Professor Associate Professor (rare) Senior Lecturer Lecturer Assistant Lecturer Instructor/ Demonstrator Student Instructor (undergrad) Administrative ranks Chancellor (titular) Vice-Chancellor/President Registrar Deans of Faculties Heads of Departments/Schools Sweden Main article: Academic rank in Sweden Academic ranks Professor (full professor) Tillförordnad professor / Adjungerad professor / Gästprofessor (Acting professor, adjoint professor, visiting professor, non-tenured ranks) Docent ("associate professor", normally appointed after reaching scientfic production corresponding to the requirements of a Ph.D.) Lektor (lecturer, "associate professor", with Ph.D. Usually tenured (Sw. "tillsvidareanställning")) Adjunkt (instructor, without Ph.D. Usually tenured (Sw. "tillsvidareanställning") Forskningsingenjör / PostDoc / Forskare / Forskarassistent (scientific staff ranks) Doktorand (Ph.D. student with a grant, 4 years full time employment) Forskarstuderande (Employed adjunkt studying towards Ph.D.) Amanuens / Lektionsassistent (teaching assistant) Administrative ranks Rektor (President of University) Prorektor Vicerektor (assists the rektor within a particular area of responsibility, e.g. PhD training, teaching excellence, innovation, equal opportunity etc.) Dekan, Dekanus (Dean, head of faculty, e.g. humanities, medicine etc.) Prodekan, Prodekanus (Vice-Dean) Prefekt (head of department, e.g. computer science, mathematics etc.) Proprefekt (Deputy department head) Serbia Academic ranks Asistent (grade VII/1 or VII/2, BSc/MSc) Docent (grade VIII,PhD-Reader) Vanredni profesor (Associate Professor) Profesor (Full professor) Profesor Emeritus Administrative ranks Rektor/Rector Dekan fakulteta/Dean of the faculty Sef katedre/Head of department Switzerland German-language universities of Switzerland Hilfassistent/innen: Undergraduate Research Assistant / Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Assistent/innen: Research Assistant (typically a PhD student) Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter/innen: Scientific Staff (Note: typically synonymous with "Assistent/innen") Postdoc: Postdoc (i.e., after PhD) Oberassistent/innen: Senior Researcher/Lecturer (typically after 1-2 years as a Postdoc) Lehrbeauftragte: Lecturer Gastdozent/innen: Visiting Lecturer Assistent professor: Assistant Professor (requires PhD) Privatdozent/innen: Senior Lecturer (has the Habilitation but not professorship) Professor: Full Professor (ordinary and extraordinary) Note: The title of "Oberassistent" is comparable to the German "Akademischer Rat" (see http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akademischer_Rat for a German language article on the topic), a postdoctoral position that today has mostly been replaced by the position of "Juniorprofessor" (see http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juniorprofessur for a German language article on the topic). It is typically non-tenured and does not imply faculty rank (i.e., one would not participate in faculty meetings of professors). French-language universities of Switzerland Professeur ordinaire (full professor) Professeur extraordinaire Professeur invité Professeur associé (associate professor) Professeur assistant (assistant professor) Maître-Assistant (Assistant professor or Senior lecturer) Assistant (Lecturer, usually a graduate student) Moniteur (Undergraduate student) Taiwan Academic ranks Professor Emeritus Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor (Assistant Professor and above are mainly for people who hold a PhD degree. Some are promoted to this rank by distinctive industrial performance.) Lecturer Thailand Academic ranks Professor Emeritus Professor ("Named Chair") Professor ("Full Professor") Associate Professor Assistant Professor Lecturer There are also Clinical Professor, Adjunct Professor and Adjunct Lecturer positions. Administrative ranks President or Rector Dean or Director Department Head Turkey Academic ranks Ordinaryüs Profesör Profesör Doçent, equivalent to Associate Professor Yardımcı Doçent, equivalent to Assistant Professor Öğretim Görevlisi, equivalent to Lecturer Okutman, equivalent to Instructor Araştırma Görevlisi, equivalent to Research Assistant Administrative ranks Rektör, Rector or President (Professors) Rektör Yardımcısı, Vice-Rector or Vice-President (Professors) Fakulte Dekanı, Dean of the Faculty (Professors) Dekan Yardımcısı, Vice-Dean or Associate Dean (often also Professors) Bölüm Başkanı, Head of Department (often also Professors) Ana Bilim Dalı Başkanı, Chair of Academic Programs (often also Professors) United Kingdom Academic ranks Teaching, research, and scholarship career pathway Professor Reader Senior Lecturer or Senior Teaching Fellow (or Principal Lecturer in post-1992 institutions) Lecturer, or Teaching Fellow (or Senior Lecturer in post-1992 institutions) Pre-/non-career grade Assistant Lecturer, Demonstrator, Seminar Leader, Associate Lecturer, Graduate Teaching Assistant, Visiting Professor Usually unpaid; distinguished individual with formal input into education and/or research, allowed to use the title 'Visiting Professor' (but not 'Professor) for the duration of formal arrangement. Research career pathway Professor or Professorial Fellow Senior Research Fellow Research fellow Pre-/non-career grade Research Associate Research Officer Research Assistant Emeritus ranks Professor : Emeritus Professor Reader : Emeritus Reader Senior Lecturer : Senior Fellow Lecturer : Fellow Administrative ranks There are two systems of administrative ranks - one for England, Wales and Northern Ireland and one for Scotland. England, Wales, and Northern Ireland Chancellor (titular) Pro-Chancellor (titular) Vice-Chancellor (also known as Rector or Provost at some universities, and President at Manchester) Deputy Vice-Chancellor Pro-Vice-Chancellor Deans of Faculties Heads of Departments/Schools Department/School Directors of Studies Scotland Chancellor (titular) Rector (Ancient Universities only) Principal (who is also Vice-Chancellor) Deputy Principal Vice-Principals Deans of Faculties Heads of Departments/Schools Department/School Directors of Studies United States Main article: Academic rank in the United States Academic ranks Tenure-track and tenured faculty typically pursue both teaching as well as research. The balance between the two depends on the primary focus of the institution. The following ranks are found at American colleges and universities: Professor Emeritus (male) or Professor Emerita (female) (a title conferred at retirement upon professors who have made significant contributions to their field and/or institution) University Professor or Institute Professor or Regents Professor (a special title not used by all universities) Distinguished Professor (usually a "Named Chair"; not used by all universities) Professor ("Named Chair"; that is, the title 'Professor' is preceded by the name of a person who has endowed a chair, such as "Sterling Professor of Playwriting"; not used by all universities; may be a tenured or visiting professorial rank) Professor ("Full Professor", a tenured rank; this title is used by all institutions) Associate Professor (generally a tenured rank; some institutions award tenure only to Full Professors.) Assistant Professor (usually tenure-track; always the lowest rank of tenure-track faculty) Assistant Researcher or Assistant Research Professor (usually non tenure-track; given to exceptional Postdocs with their own research grants) Assistant Professor in Residence or Faculty in Residence (non tenure-track; teaching-track faculty, considered a permanent position in an institution, and most likely has potential for promotion, to Associate or Professor in Residence. These individuals hold a PhD or terminal degree) Adjunct Professor (an individual hired by an institution, on a temporary or limited-term basis, in order to teach a specific class or subject, for a specific term. These individuals may hold a Ph.D., though not always, and are typically current practitioners in their field. A second form of adjunct professorship is one in which the individual may be employed in another department or institution and given the title as a form of courtesy or prestige appointment, generally with no obligations or pay, but possibly some benefits, such as access to departmental or university resources...this usage is also called "courtesy" or "affiliate" or "dry" appointment.) Visiting Professor (as the name suggests, a professor visiting from another institution to teach for a limited term.) Professor of Practice (also Associate Professor of Practice, and Assistant Professor of Practice; non-tenure positions for professionals without traditional academic credentials and/or career paths, but instead recruited for their practical experience and expertise) Lecturer (Generally have a doctoral (or a terminal master's) degree; non-tenured, focused solely on teaching and sometimes administration, but generally not research. Some institutions may use "Lecturer" and "Instructor" interchangeably.) Instructor (These individuals are on a non-tenured track, may not possess a Ph.D., and are generally not assigned any research. Their primary function is to teach, whether part or full-time. Generally, they are limited to teaching undergraduate students. Sometimes, this rank is used as a place-holder for a "pre" tenure-track person who has not yet completed a doctorate but is slated to become an Assistant Professor upon doing so.) Postdoctoral Fellow Postdoctoral Associate Fellow, Scholar, Teaching Fellow, or Visiting Fellow (Generally function as an instructor while working toward a Ph.D., or as postdoctoral research experience; usually funded by an endowment or scholarship.) Research Associate (Graduate students who are sponsored by a professor or institution and tasked with conducting specific research for said professor or institution.) Research Assistant (Usually are undergraduate students doing an internship, or graduate students working under an assistantship at an institution.) Teaching Assistant (This rank usually describes students who are assisting educators with administrative tasks. More commonly, this rank is given to graduate students who are teaching a course on a professor's behalf, or providing supplemental instruction/tutoring for a specific class. This rank is sometimes used interchangeably with "Teaching Fellow", and some universities distinguish Teaching Assistants from Teaching Fellows, with the latter being a higher rank.) Administrative ranks Officers of the corporation President or Chancellor Provost (sometimes called 'Chancellor', or 'President' or 'Warden') Associate Provost (rare) Assistant Provost (assists the Provost, as do any associates; not superior to vice presidents) Vice-Chancellors or Vice Presidents (of Academic Affairs, Student Affairs, Finance, etc.) Associate Vice-Chancellor or Associate Vice President Assistant Vice-Chancellor or Assistant Vice President Academic administrators Deans (often also Full Professors) Associate Deans (often also Full Professors) Assistant Deans Directors of Administrative Departments Associate/Assistant Directors of Administrative Departments Chairs or Heads of Academic Departments Venezuela Academic Ranks Titular Professor (Profesor Titular) Associated Professor (Profesor Asociado) Aggregate Professor (Profesor Agregado) Assistant Professor (Profesor Asistente) Instructor (Instructor) Dedication Rank Exclusive Dedication Professor (Profesor a Dedicación Exclusiva) Full Time Professor (Profesor a Tiempo Completo) Contracted Professor (Porfesor a Tiempo Convencional - Academic Rank is usually optional) Administrative Ranks (Public National) University Council (Concejo Universitario - Órgano Colegiado) Rector or Chairman (Rector) University Secretary or Registar (Secretario) Academic Vicerector (Vicerrector Académico) Administrative Vicerector (Vicerrector Administrativo) Faculty Council (Concejo de Facultad - Órgano Colegiado) Dean (Decano - One per Faculty) Vice-Dean (vicedecano - One per Faculty - It's optional) Academic Council (Concejo Académico - Órgano Colegiado) Dean's Council (Concejo Decanal - Órgano Colegiado) School Council (Concejo de Escuela - Órgano Colegiado) Principal (Director - One per School) Vice-principal (Subdirector - One per School - It's optional) Chief of Departament (Jefe de Departamento) Chief of Chair (Jefe de Cátedra) Other Professors Professor-Researcher (Profesor Investigador) Researcher (Investigador) Retired Professor (Profesor Retirado) Ad Honorem Professor (Profesor Ad Honorem) Consultant Professor (Profesor Consultante) Visiting Professor (Profesor Visitante) Emergency Teacher (Emergancia Docente) Auxiliary and Lab Assistants Auxiliary Teacher I (Auxiliar Docente I) Auxiliary Teacher II (Auxiliar Docente II) Auxiliary Teacher III (Auxiliar Docente III) Auxiliary Teacher IV (Auxiliar Docente IV) Auxiliary Teacher V (Auxiliar Docente V) References ^ http://www.hkbu.edu.hk/~cstafrep/wnews/wisenews7.html