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For other uses, see Addiction (disambiguation). Look up addiction or -holism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. See also: Substance dependence (drug addiction) and Behavioral addiction Historically, addiction has been defined as physical and psychological dependence on psychoactive substances (for example alcohol, tobacco, heroin and other drugs) which cross the blood-brain barrier once ingested, temporarily altering the chemical milieu of the brain. Addiction can also be viewed as a continued involvement with a substance or activity despite the negative consequences associated with it. Pleasure and enjoyment would have originally been sought; however, over a period of time involvement with the substance or activity is needed to feel normal.[1] Some psychology professionals and many laymen now mean 'addiction' to include abnormal psychological dependency on such things as gambling, food, sex, pornography, computers, internet, work, exercise, idolizing, watching TV or certain types of non-pornographic videos, spiritual obsession, self-injury and shopping.[2][3][4][5] The American Society of Addiction Medicine has this definition for Addiction: Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in the individual pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors. The addiction is characterized by impairment in behavioral control, craving, inability to consistently abstain, and diminished recognition of significant problems with one’s behaviors and interpersonal relationships. Like other chronic diseases, addiction can involve cycles of relapse and remission. Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or premature death. [citation needed] Contents 1 Drug addiction 2 Substance dependence 3 Behavioral addiction 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading Drug addiction Main articles: Substance dependence and Substance use disorder Drug addiction can simply be defined as a "chronic relapsing disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviours".[6] Substance dependence Main article: Substance dependence The American Psychiatric Association's current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) defines substance dependence as: "When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped. This, along with Substance Abuse are considered Substance Use Disorders...." [7] Substance dependence can be diagnosed with physiological dependence, evidence of tolerance or withdrawal, or without physiological dependence. DSM-IV substance dependencies: 303.90 Alcohol dependence 304.00 Opioid dependence 304.10 Sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic dependence (including benzodiazepine dependence and barbiturate dependence) 304.20 Cocaine dependence 304.30 Cannabis dependence 304.40 Amphetamine dependence (or amphetamine-like) 304.50 Hallucinogen dependence 304.60 Inhalant dependence 304.80 Polysubstance dependence 304.90 Phencyclidine (or phencyclidine-like) dependence 304.90 Other (or unknown) substance dependence 305.10 Nicotine dependence Behavioral addiction Main articles: Behavioral addiction and Addictive behavior The term addiction is also sometimes applied to compulsions that are not substance-related, such as compulsive shopping, sex addiction/compulsive sex, overeating, problem gambling and computer addiction. In these kinds of common usages, the term addiction is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences, as deemed by the user himself to his individual health, mental state, or social life. See also Soft addiction Look up -holism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. References ^ Jean Morrissey; Jenm; Brian Keogh; Louise Doyle (2008). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. Dekker. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-7171-4459-4.  ^ Taylor, C.Z. (March 2002). "Religious Addiction: Obsession with Spirituality". Pastoral Psychology (Springer Netherlands) 50 (4): 291–315. doi:10.1023/A:1014074130084. Retrieved 2008-03-24.  ^ "Depression". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-24.  ^ Nowack, W.J. (2006-08-29). "Psychiatric Disorders Associated With Epilepsy". eMedicine Specialities. WebMD. Retrieved 2008-03-24.  ^ Beck, D.A. (2007). "Psychiatric Disorders due to General Medical Conditions" (PDF). Department of Psychiatry, University of Missouri-Columbia. Archived from the original on 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2008-03-24.  ^ Feltenstein MW, See RE (2008 May). "The neurocircuitry of addiction: an overview.". Br J Pharmacol 154 (2): 261–74. PMC 2442446. PMID 18311189.  ^ DSM-IV & DSM-IV-TR:Substance Dependence Further reading Lemonick, Michael D (July 16, 2007). "How We Get Addicted". Time 170 (3).,9171,1640436,00.html. Retrieved 7 September 2010  Cover July 16, 2007 (note: cover provided to clarify date discrepancy from article link) Martin, Paul (2008). Sex, Drugs & Chocolate: The Science of Pleasure. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-0-00-712708-5.  Nash-Alice, Madeleine J (May 5, 1997). "Addicted: Why do people get hooked?". Time (18): 52–58.,9171,986282,00.html. [dubious – discuss] Weill, Andrew & Rosen, Winifred (2004). From Chocolate to Morphine: Everything you need to know about mind-altering drugs. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-48379-9. Retrieved 07 September 2010. [dubious – discuss] Addiction, Rehabilitation and Recovery Article Topics. Addiction Search. 2011.  v · d · eAddiction Drugs Alcohol · Nicotine Food Chocolate · Sugar Behavioral Gambling · Pornography · Sex · Shopping · Tanning · Work Electronic Computer · Internet · Television · Video games