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This article is about the river. For the region, see Bagmati Zone. The Bagmati in Kathmandu. The Bagmati River (Nepal Bhasa:बागमती खुसी, Nepali: बागमती नदी) is a river of Nepal and India. It flows through the Kathmandu valley and is the river separating Kathmandu from Lalitpur. It is considered a holy river both by Hindus and Buddhists. A number of Hindu temples are located on the banks of this river. The importance of Bagmati also lies in the fact that Hindus are cremated on the banks of this holy river, and Kirants are buried in the hills by its side. According to the Nepalese Hindu tradition, the dead body must be dipped three times into the Bagmati river before cremation. The chief mourner (usually the first son) who lights the funeral pyre must take a holy river-water bath immediately after cremation. Many relatives who join the funeral procession also take bath in the Bagmati River or sprinkle the holy water on their bodies at the end of cremation. The Bagmati River is considered to purify the people spiritually. Contents 1 Course 2 Geography 3 Pollution 4 Flood 5 Ancient shrines 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 External links // Course The river originates at Bagdwaar (Bag Tiger, dwar gate)[1] on the northern hills of Kathmandu valley about fiften kilometres northeast of Kathmandu (capital of Nepal) where three steams come together.[2] The mountain streams that cascade over boulders become a wide, swiftly flowing river, with a high load of suspended solids, giving the river a grey appearance.[2] The bottom here is coated with the grey silt of glacial flour. The Bagmati flows southwesterly for about ten kilometres along the Kathmandu Valley which is predominately rice-patties in terraces up the slopes.[2] A number of resistant rock strata interrupt the flow down the valley, among these is the outcrop that the Pashupatinath Temple is built upon.[2] Afer passing the temple, the river flows south across the plain where it is joined by the larger Monahara River and turns westward. After entering the city the Bagmati is joined by a number of tributaries, notably the relatively unpolluted[2] Dhobi Khola[3][4] and the sewage-laden Tukucha Khola.[2][5] In Kathmandu the river flows past several important places including the statue of the major communist leader named Shapath and his brother Ashmin,[4] and the Gokarna temple. The river mixes with the Vishnumati (Bishnumati) at Teku Dovan. Leaving the city, the Bagmati turns south and after a number of curves enters the Chobar Gorge. The Dakshinkali temple complex is at the entrance to Chobar gorge, on the south of the valley. This gorge cuts through the Mahabharat Range or Lesser Himalaya. The river also crosses the lower Sivalik Hills before reaching the Terai, crossing into India. In India, it enters through Dheng and crosses three districts Sitamarhi, Sheohar and Muzzafarpur (where the Lakhandei tributary joins it) before joining the Kosi River. Geography The Chobar gorge cuts through the Mahabharat Range, also called the Lesser Himalaya. This 2,000 to 3,000 meter range is the southern limit of the "middle hills" across Nepal, an important cultural boundary between distinctive Nepali and more Indian cultures and languages, as well as a major geological feature. The basin of the Bagmati River, including the Kathmandu Valley, lies between the much larger Gandaki basin to the West and the Kosi Basin to the east. These adjacent basins extend north of the main Himalayan range and cross it in tremendous gorges, in fact the Arun tributary of the Kosi extends far into Tibet. The smaller Bagmati rises some distance south of the Himalaya. Without glacial sources, its flow is more dependent on rainfall, becoming very low during the hot season (April to early June), then peaking during the monsoon season (Mid June-Mid August). In these respects the Bagmati system resembles the (West) Rapti system lying between the Gandaki basin and the Karnali basin in the far west of Nepal. Pollution Even before entering the urban area of Kathmandu, the Bagmati River is polluted by agricultural runoff and human waste. In Kathmandu the river receives a high load of untreated sewage.[6] In particular the Hanumante khola, Dhobi khola, Tukucha khola and Bishnumati khola are the most polluted.[5] Attempts are being made to monitor the Bagmati River system and restore its cleanliness. These include "pollution loads modification, flow augmentation and placement of weirs at critical locations".[7] Flood It has caused widespread sufferings to the people in Terai and northern districts of Bihar. In 1993, people have seen the worst destruction by this river. Poor water management, lack of proper weather forecasting and awareness among people were the main cause of mass destruction.[8]. Ancient shrines The Temple of Pashupatinath, dedicated to Shiva, stands on an outcrop above the river north of Kathmandu.[2] It is considered to be one of the holy places of Hinduism.[2] Public baths have been built supplied by a small hot spring.Where? Nearby are two small structure that over the last many centuries were shrines, first to Buddha and then to Hinduism. There a many sculptures along the walls. One sculpture fragment shows the remnant of a Buddha triptych, a Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas.[9] See also Bagmati Zone Bihar train disaster Footnotes ^ The water flows out through a gargoyle shaped like a tiger's mouth. Fisher, James F. with Acharya, Tanka Prasad and Acharya, Rewanta Kumari (1997) Living martyrs: individuals and revolution in Nepal Oxford University Press, New York, page 220, ISBN 0-19-564000-4 ^ a b c d e f g h Davis, John A. (1977) "Water Quality Standards for the Bagmati River" Journal: Water Pollution Control Federation 49(2): pp. 227-234, page 227 ^ Khola means small river in Nepalese. Kannel, Prakash Raj et al. (10 April 2007) "Application of automated QUAL2Kw for water quality modeling and management in the Bagmati River, Nepal" Ecological Modelling 202(3-4): pp. 503-517, page 505, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.12.033 ^ a b "Map of Kathmandu" United States Department of State, 1985 ^ a b Kannel, Prakash Raj et al. (10 April 2007) "Application of automated QUAL2Kw for water quality modeling and management in the Bagmati River, Nepal" Ecological Modelling 202(3-4): pp. 503-517, page 509, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.12.033 ^ Davis, John A. (1977) "Water Quality Standards for the Bagmati River" Journal: Water Pollution Control Federation 49(2): pp. 227-234, page page 229 ^ Kannel, Prakash Raj et al. (10 April 2007) "Application of automated QUAL2Kw for water quality modeling and management in the Bagmati River, Nepal" Ecological Modelling 202(3-4): pp. 503-517, page 513, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.12.033 ^ Bhusal, Jagat K. (May 2002) "Lessons from the Extreme Floods in South Central Nepal in 1993" International Network of Basin Organizations ^ Thomas J. Pritzker (1995). "An Early Fragment from Central Nepal". asianart. http://www.asianart.com/pritzker/pritzker.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10.  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bagmati Friends of the Bagmati illegal capture of bagmati river banks v • d • e Hydrology of Nepal Rivers Mahananda basin Mechi • Kankai • Ratua Khola Sapta Koshi basin Arun or Bum-chu • Barun • Bhote Koshi or Rongshar Tsangpo • Dudh Kosi • Hongu • Imja Khola • Indravati • Kosi or Sapta Koshi • Sabha • Sangkhuwa • Siswa • Sun Kosi or Matsang Tsangpo • Tamur Bagmati basin Bagmati • Bisnumati • Kamala • Lakhandei Narayani basin East Rapti River • Myagdi Khola • Narayani or Gandak • Rahughat Khola • Trishuli or Kyirong Tsangpo Karnali basin Bheri • Karnali or Ghagra • Kalapani • Kali • Panjang • Rohini • Sarda or Mahakali • Seti • Thuli Bheri • West Rapti River Lakes Gokyo • Gosaikunda • Phewa • Phoksundo • Rara • Tilicho • Imja Tsho Glaciers Hunku • Imja • Khumbu • Nguzumpa Icefalls Khumbu Related topics Gorakshep • Inner Terai Valleys of Nepal  • Kali Gandaki Gorge  • Western Cwm  • Barun Valley v • d • e Hydrology of Bihar Rivers North Bihar Bagmati • Burhi Gandak • Gandaki • Ganges • Kamala • Kankai • Kosi or Sapta Koshi • Lakhandei • Mahananda • Mechi • Ratua Khola South Bihar Ajay • Durgavati • Falgu • Karmanasa • Kiul • Lilajan/Niranjana • Mohana • Punpun • Son Waterfalls Kakolat Bridges Koilwar • Mahatma Gandhi • Vikramshila Related topics Floods in Bihar Hydrology of surrounding areas Uttar Pradesh  • Nepal  • Bengal • Jharkhand Coordinates: 27°39′09″N 85°17′23″E / 27.6525°N 85.28972°E / 27.6525; 85.28972