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Modeled Earth magnetic fields, data created by satellites with sensitive magnetometers Magsat (Magnetic Field Satellite, Explorer 61, Applications Explorer Mission-3 or AEM-3) spacecraft was launched in the fall of 1979 and ended in the spring of 1980.[1] The mission was to map the Earth's magnetic field, the satellite has two magnetometers. The scalar (Cesium vapor) and vector (fluxgate) magnetometers gave Magsat a capability beyond that of any previous spacecraft. Extended by a telescoping boom, the magnetometers were distanced from the magnetic field created by the satellite and its electronics. The satellite carried two magnetometers, a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer for determining the strength and direction of magnetic fields, and an ion-vapor/vector magnetometer for determining the magnetic field caused by the vector magnetometer itself.[2] MAGSAT is considered to be one of the more important Science/Earth orbiting satellites launched; the data it accumulated is still being used, particularly in linking new satellite data to past observations. Illustration of the Magsat satellite After launch the payload was brought to an orbit of 96.8° facing the sun as the earth rotated underneath. It was kept in a close earth orbit, with vector magnetometers capable of sensing magnetic fields closer to Earth's surface. The data collected by this satellite allowed a 3D-mapping of the Earth's magnetic interior as never seen before. In combination with a later satellite, Ørsted, is has been an essential component for explaining the current declining state of the Earth's magnetic field.[3][4] History On October 30, 1979 Magsat was launched from pad SLC-5 at Vandenberg AFB in California on a Scout II (101) rocket bearing 97° in a dusk to dawn orbit.[5][6] The spacecraft was elevated to a height just over 350 km in an elliptical orbit with a maximum distance of 550 km. After reaching orbit, its telescoping boom was extended outward by 6 meters. Two star cameras were used to define the position of the spacecraft relative to Earth. The orbit allowed the satellite to map a majority of the Earth's surfaces except the geographic poles. Because of the close proximity of the orbit to earth it was unstable and the spacecraft's orbit decayed on June 11, 1980. Critique Magsat was not without problems. One of the biggest is that the motion of a metallic object tends to create a magnetic field. One study after the mission found a nonlinear fluxgate response when exposed to fields greater than 5000 mT. The applied field had to be transverse to the axis of the magentometer.[7] The design was improved by creating a feedback relay over a spherical design.[8] This was the design used on later spacecraft [See:Ørsted (satellite)]. References ^ Langel R, Ousley G, Berbert J, Murphy J, and Settle M. The MAGSAT Mission. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 4, PAGES 243–245, 1982 ^ History of Vector Magnetometers in Space ^ Hulot G, Eymin C, Langlais B, Mandea M, Olsen N (April 2002). "Small-scale structure of the geodynamo inferred from Oersted and Magsat satellite data". Nature 416 (6881): 620–3. doi:10.1038/416620a. PMID 11948347.  ^ NASA AND USGS MAGNETIC DATABASE "ROCKS" THE WORLD NASA Web Feature, NASA ^ Mobley F, Eckard L, Fountain G, and Ousley G. MAGSAT--A new satellite to survey the earth's magnetic field. 1980. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 16 (5): 758-760. ^ Vandenberg AFB Launch History. The Space Archive ^ Acuna, M. H., MAGSAT - Vector Magnetometer Absolute Sensor Alignment Determination. September 1981. NASA technical Memorandum 79648. Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA ^ Primdahl, F., H. Luhr and E. K. Lauridsen, The Effect of Large Uncompensated Transverse Fields on the Fluxgate Magnetic Sensor Output, Danish Space Research Institute Report 1-92, 1992. v · d · eScience instruments on satellites and spacecraft Radio science (planetary accultation) Cassini–Huygens · Mariner 2 · Mariner 3 · Mariner 4 · Mariner 5 · Mariner 6 and 7 · Mariner 9 · Mariner 10 · Voyager 1 · Voyager 2 · MESSENGER · Venus Express · Mars Express Radiometer Microwave Near Earth satellite Envisat · MIRAS SMOS · CERES TRMM, TERRA, AQUA · AMSR-E (AQUA) · SMMR SEASAT Nimbus 7 · SSM/I DMSP 5D-2/F13-F15  · SSMIS DMSP 5D-2/F16 Infrared (IR) Near Earth satellite ASTER TERRA · MOPITT (TERRA) · AIRS AQUA Interplanetary Mariner 6 and 7 · Mariner 10 · IRIS (Voyager 1, Voyager 2) Ultraviolet (UV) · Near Earth satellite LYRA (Proba-2) Spectro- photometers Long wavelength Interplanetary ISO Visible-IR (VIRS) Near Earth satellite TRMM Interplanetary Mariner 6 and 7 · MASCS · AKARI · ISO · SPICAM) · SPICAV · IRIS (Voyager 1, Voyager 2) · MERIS Envisat · SCIAMACHY Envisat UV-visible (UVVS) Interplanetary Mariner 6 and 7 · Mariner 10 · Voyager 1 · Voyager 2 · SPICAM · SPICAV · MASCS Magnetometer Near Earth satellite GOES · QuakeSat 1 and 2 · SGVM (Proba-2) Interplanetary Voyager 1 · Voyager 2 Triaxial fluxgate Interplanetary Mariner 2 · Mariner 4 · Mariner 5 · Mariner 10 · Cassini-Huygens · Venus Express · MESSENGER · Magsat Helium vapor1, 2 Interplanetary Cassini-Huygens Particle detectors Ion detectors Near Earth TPMU and DSLP (Proba-2) · DEMETER Interplanetary Ulysses · SPS Mariner 2 · ASPERA-3  · ASPERA-4 Neutral particle detector Interplanetary Ulysses · SPS Mariner 2 · ASPERA-3  · ASPERA-4