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Contents 1 Africa 1.1 Democratic Republic of Congo 1.2 Ethiopia 1.3 Madagascar 1.4 Nigeria 2 Asia 2.1 Russia 2.1.1 Southeast Asia 2.1.2 Cambodia 2.1.3 Indonesia 2.1.4 Malaysia 2.1.5 Sri Lanka 2.1.6 Thailand 2.1.7 Vietnam 3 Europe 3.1 Iceland 4 North America 4.1 Haiti 4.2 Canada 4.3 United States 5 Central America 6 Oceania 6.1 Australia 6.2 New Zealand 7 South America 7.1 Amazon Rainforest 7.1.1 Brazil 7.2 Chile 7.3 Colombia 7.4 Peru 8 See also 9 References 10 External links // Rates and causes of deforestation vary from region to region around the world. Africa Africa is suffering deforestation at twice the world rate, according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).[1][2][3] Some sources claim that deforestation has already wiped out roughly 90% of West Africa's original forests.[4][5] Deforestation is accelerating in Central Africa.[6] According to the FAO, Africa lost the highest percentage of tropical forests of any continent during the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s.[7] According to the figures from the FAO (1997), only 22.8% of West Africa's moist forests remain, much of this degraded.[8] Nigeria has lost 81% of its old-growth forests in just 15 years (1990–2005).[9] Massive deforestation threatens food security in some African countries.[10] One factor contributing to the continent's high rates of deforestation is the dependence of 90% of its population on wood as fuel for heating and cooking.[11] Research carried out by WWF International in 2002 shows that in Africa, rates of illegal logging vary from 50% in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea to 70% in Gabon and 80% in Liberia[12] – where timber revenues played a major role in financing the Sierra Leone Civil War[13] and other regional armed conflicts until the UN Security Council imposed a ban on all Liberian timber in 2003.[14] Democratic Republic of Congo Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been caused partly by unregulated logging and mining, but mostly by the demands made by the subsistence activities of a poor population. In the east of the country, for example, more than 3 million people live less than a day's walk from Virunga National Park. Wood from the park's forests is used by many of those people as firewood, as lumber for construction, and in the production of charcoal. Deforestation caused by subsistence living is an acute threat to the park in general, and to the habitat of the critically endangered mountain gorilla in particular.[15] Ethiopia Main article: Deforestation in Ethiopia The main cause of deforestation in the East African country of Ethiopia is a growing population and subsequent higher demand for agriculture, livestock production and fuel wood.[16] Other reasons include low education and inactivity from the government,[17] although the current government has taken some steps to tackle deforestation.[18] Organizations such as Farm Africa are working with the federal and local governments to create a system of forest management.[19] Ethiopia, the third largest country in Africa by population, has been hit by famine many times because of shortages of rain and a depletion of natural resources. Deforestation has lowered the chance of getting rain, which is already low, and thus causes erosion. Bercele Bayisa, an Ethiopian farmer, offers one example why deforestation occurs. He said that his district was forested and full of wildlife, but that overpopulation caused people to come to that land and clear it to plant crops, cutting all trees to sell as firewood.[20] Ethiopia has lost 98% of its forested regions in the last 50 years.[19] At the beginning of the 20th century, around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia's land was covered with forests. Recent reports indicate that forests cover less than 14.2%[19] or even only 11.9% as of 2005[update].[21] Between 1990 and 2005, the country lost 14% of its forests or 21,000 km². Madagascar Main article: Deforestation in Madagascar Deforestation[22] with resulting desertification, water resource degradation and soil loss has affected approximately 94% of Madagascar's previously biologically productive lands. Since the arrival of humans 2000 years ago, Madagascar has lost more than 90% of its original forest.[23] Most of this loss has occurred since independence from the French, and is the result of local people using slash-and-burn agricultural practices as they try to subsist.[24] Largely due to deforestation, the country is currently unable to provide adequate food, fresh water and sanitation for its fast growing population.[25][26] Nigeria Main article: Deforestation in Nigeria According to the FAO, Nigeria has the world's highest deforestation rate of primary forests. It has lost more than half of its primary forest in the last five years. Causes cited are logging, subsistence agriculture, and the collection of fuel wood. Almost 90% of West Africa's rainforest has been destroyed.[27] Asia Russia Russia has the largest area of forests of any state on Earth, with around 12 million km2 of boreal forest, larger than the Amazon rainforest. Russia's forests contain 55% of the world's conifers are represent 11% of biomass on Earth. It is estimated that 20,000 km2 are deforested each year.[28] The present scale of deforestation in Russia is most easily seen using Google Earth. Areas nearer to China are most affected, as it is the main market for the timber.[29] Deforestation in Russia is particularly damaging as the forests have a short growing season due to extremely cold winters and therefore will take longer to recover. Southeast Asia Forest loss is acute in Southeast Asia,[30] the second of the world's great biodiversity hot spots.[31] According to 2005 report conducted by the FAO, Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world second to only Nigeria.[32] More than 90% of the old-growth rainforests of the Philippine Archipelago have been cut.[33] Other Southeast Asian countries where major deforestation is ongoing are Cambodia and Laos. According to a documentary by TelePool, the deforestation is being directed by corrupt military personnel and government (forestry services).[34][35] Cambodia Main article: Deforestation in Cambodia Indonesia Main article: Deforestation in Indonesia As of 2008[update], at present rates, tropical rainforests in Indonesia would be logged out in 10 years, Papua New Guinea in 13 to 16 years.[36] Malaysia Main article: Deforestation in Malaysia Sri Lanka Main article: Deforestation in Sri Lanka Thailand Main article: Deforestation in Thailand Vietnam Main article: Deforestation in Vietnam Europe Please help improve this article by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (June 2010) Iceland Iceland has undergone extensive deforestation since Vikings settled in the ninth century. As a result, vast areas of vegetation and land has degraded, and soil erosion and desertification has occurred. As much as half of the original vegetative cover has been destroyed, caused in part by overexploitation, logging and overgrazing under harsh natural conditions. About 95% of the forests and woodlands once covering at least 25% of the area of Iceland may have been lost. Afforestation and revegetation has restored small areas of land.[37] North America Haiti Main article: Deforestation in Haiti Canada In 2005, an estimated 56,000 hectares were deforested in Canada. Deforestation affected less than 0.02% of Canada’s forests in 2005. The agricultultural sector accounted for just over half of the deforestation in 2005, the result of forests having been cleared for pasture or crops. The remainder was caused by urban development, transportation corridos, and recreation (19%); hydroelectric development (10%); the forest sector (10%); and other natural resource extraction industries (8%). About two-thirds of this deforestation occurred in Canada’s boreal forest, mainly in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba where the forest borders the Prairies. [38] In Canada, prior to 2000, less than 8% of the boreal forest was protected from development and more than 50% has been allocated to logging companies for cutting.[39] United States Main article: Deforestation in the United States Prior to the arrival of European-Americans, roughly half of the land area of the present-day United States was forest—about 4 million square kilometers (1 billion acres) in 1600. For the next 300 years land was cleared, mostly for agriculture, at a rate that matched the rate of population growth. For every person added to the population, one to two hectares of land was cultivated. This trend continued until the 1920s when the amount of crop land stabilized in spite of continued population growth. As abandoned farmland reverted to forest, the amount of forestland increased from 1952, reaching a peak in 1963 of 3,080,000 km² (762 million acres). Since 1963 there has been a steady decrease of forest area with the exception of some gains from 1997. Central America Main article: Deforestation in Central America The history of most Central American countries involves cycles of deforestation and reforestation. By the fifteenth century, intensive Mayan agriculture had significantly thinned the forests. Before Europeans arrived, forests covered 500,000 square kilometers – approximately 90% of the region. Eventually, the forcing of "Europe's money economy on Latin America" created the demand for the exportation of primary products, which introduced the need for large amounts of cleared agricultural land to produce those products.[40] Since the 1960s, cattle ranching has become the primary reason for land clearing. The lean grass-fed cattle produced by Central American ranches (as opposed to grain-fed cattle raised elsewhere) was perfectly suited for American fast-food restaurants and this seemingly bottomless market has created the so-called "hamburger connection" which links "consumer lifestyles in North America with deforestation in Central America".[40] Oceania Australia Main article: Land clearing in Australia Due to relatively recent colonisation, Australia has had high rates of deforestation, primarily due to clearing for agricultural purposes. In recent years much of the clearing has occurred in Tasmania and Queensland,[41] but rates are expected to decrease with the implementation of new legislation.[42][43] In 1998, deforestation is thought to have been responsible for around 12% of Australia's total carbon emissions. An additional factor currently causing the loss of forest cover is the expansion of urban areas. Littoral rainforest growing along coastal areas of eastern Australia is now rare due to ribbon development to accommodate the demand for seachange lifestyles.[44] New Zealand Main article: Deforestation in New Zealand In the 800 years of human occupation of New Zealand 75% of the forests were lost. Initially it was by wholesale burning by Maori and Europeans but remaining forests were logged for lumber for the burgeoning population. By 2000 all logging of native trees on public land was stopped. Logging on private land is controlled with a permit system and with the Resource Management Act. South America Amazon Rainforest Main article: Deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest Brazil Main article: Deforestation in Brazil There is no agreement on what drives deforestation in Brazil, though a broad consensus exists that expansion of croplands and pastures is important. Increases in commodity prices may increase the rate of deforestation.[45][46] Recent development of a new variety of soybean has led to the displacement of beef ranches and farms of other crops, which, in turn, move farther into the forest.[47] Certain areas such as the Atlantic Rainforest have been diminished to just 7% of their original size.[48] Although much conservation work has been done, few national parks or reserves are efficiently enforced.[49] Some 80% of logging in the Amazon is illegal.[50] In 2008, Brazil's Government has announced a record rate of deforestation in the Amazon.[51][52] Deforestation jumped by 69% in 2008 compared to 2007's twelve months, according to official government data.[53] Deforestation could wipe out or severely damage nearly 60% of the Amazon rainforest by 2030, says a new report from WWF.[54] Deforestation in Mato Grosso, Brazil 1992 2006 Chile Main article: Deforestation in Chile Colombia Main article: Deforestation in Colombia Peru Main article: Deforestation in Peru See also List of conservation issues List of environmental issues References ^ Nature laid waste: The destruction of Africa, The Independent, June 11, 2008 ^ Africa's deforestation twice world rate, says atlas, Reuters, June 10, 2008 ^ Deforestation reaches worrying level - UN. AfricaNews. ^ Forests and deforestation in Africa - the wasting of an immense resource, afrol News ^ African Rainforest, Steve Nix ^ Deforestation accelerating in Central Africa, June 8, 2007 ^ Africa's deforestation rate may be underestimated. mongabay.com. June 22, 2006. ^ Tropical Deforestation Rates in Africa. mongabay.com. Retrieved on May 31, 2009. ^ "Nigeria: Environmental Profile". Rainforests.mongabay.com. http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20nigeria.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ Raphael Mweninguwe. "Massive deforestation threatens food security". Newsfromafrica.org. http://www.newsfromafrica.org/newsfromafrica/articles/art_9607.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ Agyei, Yvonne. Deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Technology Forum, Volume 8, Number 1. Retrieved on May 31, 2009. ^ Paul Toyne, Cliona O’Brien and Rod Nelson. "The Timber Footprint of the G8 and China". WWF International. June 2002. pp. 35-36. ^ Blondel, Alice. "The Logs of War". Monde Diplomatique. January 2004. ^ Black, Richard. "New Dawn for Liberia's 'Blood Forests'". BBC News. October 12, 2006. ^ These deforesting activities have been amply documented by numerous authors (Accion contra el Hambre, 1999; Biswas & Tortajada-Quiroz, 1996; Fuelwood Crisis Consortium, 1994; Henquin & Blondel, 1996; Lodhi et al., 1998; Blondel, 1997; Leusch, 1995; and Languy, 1995). ^ Sucoff, E. (2003). Deforestation. In Environmental Encyclopedia. (P.g.358-359). Detroit: Gale. ^ Mccann, J.C. (1999).Green land, Brown land, Black land: An environmental history of Africa 1800-1990. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann ^ Maddox, G.H. (2006). Sub-Saharan Africa: An environmental history. Santabarbara, CA: ABC-CLIO ^ a b c Parry, J. (2003). ^ Haileselassie, A. Ethiopia's struggle over land reform. World press Review 51.4 (April 2004):32(2). Expanded Academic ASAP ^ "Statistics: Ethiopia". Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com. no date. http://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/2000/Ethiopia.htm. Retrieved June 4, 2007.  ^ Saving the Wildlife of Madagascar, TIME, September 25, 2008 ^ Terrestrial Ecoregions -- Madagascar subhumid forests (AT0118), National Geographic ^ "Deforestation causes species extinction in Madagascar". News.mongabay.com. http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0307-madagascar.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ "What are rainforests?". Kids.mongabay.com. http://kids.mongabay.com/lesson_plans/lisa_algee/deforestation.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ "Deforestation in Madagascar". American.edu. http://www.american.edu/TED/projects/tedcross/xdefor21.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ "Rainforests & Agriculture". Csupomona.edu. http://www.csupomona.edu/~admckettrick/projects/ag101_project/html/size.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ Russia’s Boreal Forests WWF November 2007 ^ China: Exporting deforestation and promoting tree monocultures http://www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/45/China.html ^ CHINA: China is black hole of Asia's deforestation, Asia News, March 24, 2006 ^ SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate, BBC News ^ "News.monabay.com". News.mongabay.com. http://news.mongabay.com/2005/1117-forests.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ "The Lost Forest". Fieldmuseum.org. http://www.fieldmuseum.org/Vanishing_Treasures/Deforestation_1.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ “” (2008-11-08). "Die Tropenholz-Mafia – Kriminelle Geschäfte mit dem Regenwald – Telepool, 2008". Youtube.com. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ckK-tN7JtOM. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ "Alternative site for Die Tropenholz-Mafia documentary". Video.aol.com. http://video.aol.com/video-detail/die-tropenholz-mafia-kriminelle-geschfte-im-regenwald/2213197567. Retrieved 2010-09-10. [dead link] ^ China is black hole of Asia's deforestation, Asia News, 24 March 2008. ^ "LandUse: Why Iceland". Landbunadur.is. 2008-05-09. http://landbunadur.is/landbunadur/wgrala.nsf/key2/hhjn7etf6x.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ "Deforestation in Canada - What Are the Facts?". Cfs.nrcan.gc.ca. http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/news/588. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ Global Forest Watch Canada 2000. Canada's Forests At A Crossroads — An Assessment in the Year 2000 ^ a b Myers, Norman, and Richard Tucker. "Deforestation in Central America: Spanish Legacy and North American Consumers." Environmental Review: ER 11, no. 1 (1987): 55-71. ^ [1] Australian Greenhouse Office 2000, Land Clearing: A Social History, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. ^ [2] Forest Practices Authority. (2007) Information on land clearing controls in Tasmania. ^ [3] WWF-Australia. World class legislation - new land clearing policy for Queensland ^ "Littoral Rainforest—Why is it threatened?". Pittwater.nsw.gov.au. http://www.pittwater.nsw.gov.au/environment/plants__and__animals/threatened_species/endangered_ecological_communities/littoral_rainforest. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ "U.S. ethanol may drive Amazon deforestation". News.mongabay.com. 2007-05-17. http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0516-ethanol_amazon.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ Amazon rainforest threatened by new wave of oil and gas exploration, guardian.co.uk, August 13, 2008 ^ "Booming Soybean Business Means Continued Deforestation in the Amazon". Mongabay.com. http://www.mongabay.com/external/soybeans2003.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ WWF - Atlantic Forests - A Global Ecoregion ^ Brazil national parks mismanaged and raided-govt, Reuters ^ WWF International (2002) The Timber Footprint of the G8 and China ^ "Record Amazon deforestation in Brazil". Irishtimes.com. 2008-01-24. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2008/0124/breaking22.html. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ Brazil Amazon deforestation soars, BBC ^ Amazon Destruction Jumps 69 Percent in Brazil, FOXNews.com, 30 August 2008 ^ More than half of Amazon will be lost by 2030, report warns, guardian.co.uk, December 6, 2007 External links Encyclopedia of Earth: Deforestation in Amazonia Amazon deforestation (Google maps) v • d • e Deforestation by region Argentina · Australia · Bangladesh · Bolivia · Borneo · Brazil · Cambodia  · China · Colombia · Costa Rica · Cote d'lvoire · Ethiopia · Ghana · Guatemala · Guinea · Haiti · Indonesia · Laos · Liberia · Madagascar · Malawi · Malaysia · Mexico · Nepal · New Zealand  · Nigeria · Panama · Philippines · Sri Lanka · Sudan · Thailand · Venezuela  · United States  · Vietnam