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For Imperial Japanese Army (1871–1947), please see that article. For Ministry of the Military (Ritsuryō) (701–1871), please see that article. Japan Ground Self-Defense Force 陸上自衛隊 (Rikujō Jieitai) Command Ground Staff Office Components Northern Army North Eastern Army Eastern Army Middle Army Western Army Central Readiness Force JGSDF Reserve JGSDF Reserve Candidate The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (陸上自衛隊, Rikujō Jieitai?), or JGSDF, is the military ground force (army) of Japan. The largest of the three services of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, the Ground Self-Defense Force operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichigaya, Tokyo. The present chief of ground staff is General Yoshifumi Hibako. The JGSDF numbers around 147,000 soldiers. Contents 1 History 2 Organization 2.1 Tactical organization 2.2 Special Forces 2.3 Reserves 3 Regional organization 4 Training 5 Current equipment 5.1 Tanks 5.2 Infantry fighting vehicles 5.3 Self-propelled artillery 5.4 Towed artillery 5.5 Mortars 5.6 Armored vehicles 5.7 Armored personnel carriers 5.8 Air defense vehicles 5.9 ATGMs and ASMs 5.10 SAMs 5.11 Other vehicles 5.12 Small arms 6 Future equipment 7 Aircraft inventory 8 Past equipment 8.1 Small arms 8.2 Tanks 8.3 Artillery 8.4 Anti-tank guided missiles 8.5 Anti-aircraft guns 8.6 Other armored fighting vehicles 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links // History Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration in 1945, and, based on Potsdam Declaration Article 9, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dismantled. Both were replaced by United States Armed Forces occupation force, which assumed responsibility for the defense of Japan. The National Security Board started in 1952. The National Security Board oversaw police reserve forces, Maritime Guard and Maritime Safety Agency minesweeping corps, and were reorganized by the National Security Force. These changes were influenced by the Korean War. The building of the defense ability advanced, and, on July 1, 1954, the National Security Board was reorganized by the Defense Agency, and the National Security Force and the garrison were reorganized afterwards by the Ground Self-Defense Force, the Marine Self Defense Force, the Air Self-Defense Force. For a long period, the effectiveness of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force to hold off a Soviet invasion of Hokkaido was in doubt, as Zbigniew Brzezinski observed in 1972 that it seemed optimized to fight ‘a Soviet invasion conducted on American patterns of a quarter of a century ago.’[1] While the force is now an efficient army of 148,000,[2] its apparent importance has declined with the end of the Cold War, and attempts to reorient the forces as a whole to new post Cold War missions have been tangled in a series of internal political disputes. Organization JGSDF Middle Army headquarters in Itami, Japan Tactical organization The GSDF consists of the following tactical units: one (the 7th) armored division, nine infantry divisions, reduced from 12, each with three or four battalion-sized infantry regiments, one airborne brigade, two (1st and 2nd) combined brigades, four training brigades, one artillery brigade with two groups, two air defense brigades with three groups, one helicopter brigade with twenty-four squadrons and two anti-tank helicopter platoons. There are two sizes of JGSDF divisions: 9,000 men and 7,000 men. A JGSDF brigade is a combined arms unit with infantry, armored, and artillery units, combat support units and logistical support units. It is a regionally independent and permanent entity. Though its function is similar to a division in that it possesses the capability to engage in operations on one front, it is smaller with only 3,000 to 4,000 personnel. Special Forces Special Forces units consist of the following: CRF: Central Readiness Force (中央即応集団 Chūō Sokuō Shūdan): Nerima, Tokyo Japanese Special Forces Group 1st Airborne Brigade 1st Helicopter Brigade Central Readiness Regiment Western Army Infantry Regiment (西部方面普通科連隊 Seibu Hōmen Futsū-ka Rentai) Rangers Reserves The JGSDF has two reserve components: rapid-reaction reserve component (即応予備自衛官制度) and main reserve component (一般予備自衛官制度). Members of the rapid-reaction component train 30 days a year. Members of the main reserve train five days a year. As of December 2007, there were 8,425 members of the rapid-reaction reserve component and 22,404 members of the main reserve component.[3] Regional organization A Japan Ground Self Defense Force officer candidate tries on a AN/PVS-14 Aug. 29 during the Japanese Observer Exchange Program on Camp Schwab Type 88 Helmet Members of the JGSDF. White Mitsubishi Type 73 jeeps used by JGSDF Military Police units. The Northern Army, the largest, is headquartered on Sapporo, Hokkaidō, where population and geographic constraints are less limiting than elsewhere. 2nd Division 7th Division(Armored) 5th Brigade 11th Brigade 1st Artillery Brigade 1st Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade 3rd Engineer Brigade Hokkaido Depot(Northern) The North Eastern Army is headquartered in Sendai, Miyagi 6th Division 9th Division 2nd Engineer Brigade North Eastern Army Combined Brigade Tohoku Depot(North Eastern) The Eastern Army is headquartered in Nerima, Tokyo 1st Division 12th Brigade 1st Engineer Brigade 1st Training Brigade Kanto Depot(Eastern) The Middle Army, headquartered in Itami, Hyōgo 3rd Division 10th Division 13th Brigade 14th Brigade 4th Engineer Brigade 2nd Training Brigade Kansai Depot(Middle) The Western Army, is headquartered at Kengun, Kumamoto 4th Division 8th Division 15th Brigade 2nd Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade 5th Engineer Brigade 3rd Training Brigade Kyusyu Depot(Western) JGSDF uniform. Other Units and Organizations Materiel Control Command Ground Research & Development Command Signal Brigade Military Police Military Intelligence Command Intelligence Security Command Ground Staff College Ground Officer Candidate School Others Training Japan Ground Self Defense Force officer candidates Japan Ground Self Defense Force In 1989, basic training for lower-secondary and upper-secondary academy graduates began in the training brigade and lasted approximately three months. Specialized enlisted and non-commissioned officer (NCO) candidate courses were available in branch schools and qualified NCOs could enter an eight-to-twelve-week second lieutenant candidate program. Senior NCOs and graduates of an eighty-week NCO pilot course were eligible to enter officer candidate schools, as were graduates of the National Defense Academy at Yokosuka and graduates of four-year all universities. Advanced technical, flight, medical and command and staff officer courses were also run by the GSDF. Like the maritime and air forces, the GSDF ran a youth cadet program offering technical training to lower-secondary school graduates below military age in return for a promise of enlistment. Because of population density on the Japanese islands, only limited areas were available for large-scale training, and, even in these areas, noise restrictions were a problem. The GSDF tried to adapt to these conditions by conducting command post exercises and map maneuvers and by using simulators and other training devices, as well as conducting training exercises overseas (see Yakima Washington). Current equipment Tank Type 10 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force Tank Type 90 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force Tank Type 74 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force Infantry Fighting Vehicle Type 89 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force Armored Personnel Carrier Type 96 of Japan Self Defense Force Komatsu LAV of Japan Ground Self Defense Force Self Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun Type 89 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force Tanks Type 90 (341)  Japan Type 74 (561)  Japan Infantry fighting vehicles Type 89 Fighting Vehicle (69)  Japan Self-propelled artillery Type 75 155 mm Self-propelled howitzer (140)  Japan M110 howitzer (90)  United States MLRS (90)  United States Type 99 155 mm Self-propelled howitzer (87)  Japan Towed artillery FH-70 (480)  Italy /  Germany /  United Kingdom Mortars M2 107mm Mortar  United States Type 64 81mm Mortar  Japan L16 81mm Mortar  United Kingdom RT 120mm Mortar  France Type 96 120mm Self-Propelled Mortar  Japan Armored vehicles Type 82 Command and Communication Vehicle (250)  Japan Type 87 Reconnaissance and Warning Vehicle (100)  Japan Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle  Japan Light Armored Vehicle (1524)  Japan Armored personnel carriers Type 73 Armored Personnel Carrier (340)  Japan Type 96 Wheeled Armored Personnel Carrier (322)  Japan [1] Air defense vehicles Type 87 Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun (41)  Japan ATGMs and ASMs Type 01 Light Anti-Tank Missile (1073)  Japan Type 79 Anti-Landing craft and Anti-Tank Missile  Japan Type 87 Anti-Tank Missile  Japan Type 88 Surface-to-Ship Missile  Japan Type 96 Multi-Purpose Missile System  Japan SAMs Improved-HAWK  United States FIM-92A Stinger (80)  United States Type 81 Short-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (57)  Japan Type 91 Portable Surface-to-Air Missile (210)  Japan Type 93 Short-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (90)  Japan Type 03 Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile  Japan Other vehicles Hitachi Type 73  Japan Mitsubishi Type 73 Light Truck  Japan Toyota Type 73 Medium Truck  Japan Isuzu Type 73 Heavy Truck  Japan Toyota High Mobility Vehicle  Japan Small arms Howa Type 89 (100000)  Japan Howa Type 64 (230000)  Japan Type 06 rifle grenade  Japan Minebea 9mm Machine Pistol  Japan Sumitomo MINIMI 5.56mm Machine Gun (4244)  Belgium Sumitomo M2 12.7mm Heavy Machine Gun  United States Howa Type 96  Japan M4 carbine  United States (Only Japanese Special Forces Group.) NTK/Sumitomo Type 62 machine gun  Japan SCK/Minebea 9mm Pistol  Switzerland M24 Sniper Weapon System (1027)  United States Howa 84RR  Sweden Nissan/IHI Aerospace 110mm LAM  Germany Flamethrower(携帯放射器)  Japan Future equipment Type 10 tank - Production to start in 2010–2011 NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle - Successor to the Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle and the Biological Reconnaissance Vehicle.[4] Aircraft inventory The JGSDF operates 469 aircraft, including 458 helicopters[5]. JGSDF AH-64 Apache JGSDF AH-1S Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes Beechcraft Super King Air  United States Utility transport LR-2 6 Bell 205  United States Utility helicopter UH-1H UH-1J 146 Built by Fuji(118 UH-1J in service by April 2010) Bell AH-1 Cobra  United States Attack helicopter AH-1S 84 Built by Fuji Boeing AH-64 Apache  United States Attack helicopter AH-64DJP 10 Built by Fuji, 62 planned, further procurement cancelled Boeing CH-47 Chinook  United States Transport helicopter CH-47J CH-47JA 54 Built by Kawasaki Eurocopter EC 225  European Union VIP helicopter EC 225LP 3 Replacing the AS332L[6][7] Kawasaki OH-1  Japan Scout helicopter 30 Under delivery MD Helicopters MD 500  Japan Scout helicopter OH-6D 111 Built by Kawasaki.Being slowly phased out Mitsubishi MU-2  Japan liaison LR-1 5 UH-60 Black Hawk  United States transport helicopter UH-60JA 29 Built by Mitsubishi Past equipment Small arms M1 Garand semi automatic rifle  United States[8] M1 Carbine  United States only M2 has Selective fire[8] M3 submachine gun  United States[9] M1903 Springfield rifle  United States M1919 Browning machine gun  United States Minebea SCK 65/66 submachine gun  Sweden Colt M1911 Pistol  United States Tanks M4 Sherman  United States M24 Chaffee  United States M41 Walker Bulldog  United States Type 61  Japan Artillery M1 155 mm Howitzer  United States M2A1 105 mm Howitzer  United States M2 203 mm Howitzer  United States M59 155 mm Cannon  United States Type 74 105 mm Self-propelled howitzer  Japan Type 75 130 mm Multiple Surface-to-Surface Rocket  Japan Anti-tank guided missiles Type 64 Anti-Tank Missile  Japan Anti-aircraft guns M51 75 mm Anti-Aircraft Gun  United States M42 40 mm Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun  United States L-90 35mm Anti-Aircraft Twin Cannon  Switzerland Bofors 40 mm gun  Sweden Other armored fighting vehicles Type 60 Armored Personnel Carrier  Japan Type 60 Self-propelled 106 mm Recoilless Rifle  Japan See also Japan Self-Defense Forces Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group Military ranks and insignia of the Japan Self-Defense Forces Notes ^ Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Fragile Blossom (Harper, 1972) p.95, in James H. Buck, ‘The Japanese Military in the 1980s,’ in James H. Buck (ed.), The Modern Japanese Military System, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills/London, 1975, p.220 ^ IISS Military Balance 2008, Routledge, London, 2008, p.384 ^ http://www.mod.go.jp/j/defense/mod-sdf/kousei/index.html ^ TRDI Department of Guided Weapon Systems Development ^ http://www.clearing.mod.go.jp/hakusho_data/2009/2009/html/ls229000.html ^ Eurocopter Canada - News 04/07/06 ^ EADS Press Release - Japan Defense Agency Received First EC225 In VIP Configuration For The Japanese Emperor’s Royal Flight Service ^ a b Licensed by Howa. ^ Small number of M3s are held in reserve by various JGSDF special forces units. References Japan Globalsecurity.org JGSDF section Number of Tanks and Major Artillery and Performance Specifications Number of Major Aircraft and Performance Specifications Guided Missile Specifications [2] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Japanese) v • d • e Japan Self-Defense Forces     Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army) Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy) Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force)