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c.1875. The role of women in the Philippines is explained based on the context of Filipino culture, standards, and mindsets. The Philippines is described to be a nation of strong women, who directly and indirectly run the family unit, businesses, government agencies and haciendas. Although they generally define themselves in the milieu of a masculine dominated post-colonial Asian Catholic society, Filipino women live in a culture that is focused on the community, with the family as the main unit of society. It is in this framework of Philippine hierarchical structure, class differences, religious justifications, and living in a globally developing nation wherein Filipino women struggle for respect. Compared to other parts of Southeast Asia, women in Philippine society have always enjoyed a greater share of legal equality.[1][2][3][4] Contents 1 Pre-colonial status 2 Hispanic Philippines 3 American influence 4 Contemporary roles 4.1 Urban setting 4.2 Rural and tribal clan setting 4.3 Marriage and relationships 4.4 Change, influences and interventions 4.5 Filipino women and work 4.6 Filipino women and Philippine politics 5 Filipino women in art 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Specific 7.2 General 8 External links Pre-colonial status A Tagalog woman (right) as depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th century. Some pre-colonial social structures of the Philippines gave equal importance to maternal and paternal lineage. This bilateral kinship system accorded Philippine women enormous power within a clan. They were entitled to property, engage in a trade and could exercise their right to divorce her husband. They could also become village chiefs in the absence of a male heir. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, Filipino women could also achieve status as medicine women or high-priestesses and astrologers.[4][5][6][7] In this sense, the Philippines was very similar to Spain, where the highest power was bestowed upon a woman. Both the founder of the Spanish nation (Isabella I of Castile) and the highest ruler of Spain and the Philippines during the last times of the Spanish colonization (Isabella II of Spain) were women and had absolute powers to lead the future of the nation. After Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th century from Malaysia and Indonesia, the role of women in society changed radically in order to adapt to Muslim values, although after the arrival of the Christian colonizers the spreading of Islam was successfully stopped and eradicated in most parts of the archipelago. Hispanic Philippines Filipino Women Washing Beneath a Banana Tree, a painting by C. W. Andrews (1863). Spanish colonization of the Philippines lasted from 1565 to 1898, although until 1821 the islands were governed mostly from Mexico and later directly from Spain. As a result, there is a significant amount of Mexican influences in Philippine customs and traditions. Although Christian values were supposed to be spread through the population, missionaries and priests soon realized that they'd be better off adapting their doctrine as much as possible to the local customs, rather than trying to impose it. As it happened all over Asia, women in the Philippines were expected to become caring and nurturing mothers for their own children and take care of most household chores. Also a trait found all over Asia was the preference of most families to have male children instead of females. During the last part of the colonization of the Philippines, Isabella II introduced the Education Decree of 1863 (10 years before Japan had a compulsory free modern public education and 40 years before the United States government started a free modern public school system in the Philippines) that provided for the establishment of at least two free primary schools, one for boys and another for girls, in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. That put the Philippines way ahead in offering education for women in Asia, even ahead of some European countries. Filipino women were always aware of their importance, their power, and their equality with men. Two heroines made a great contribution to the Philippine liberation during the colonization, Gabriela Silang and Melchora Aquino. American influence When Spain lost the Spanish-American War in 1898, the Philippines was ceded to the United States of America. America introduced a new public education system which retained opportunity to every child regardless of gender. Through the American-patterned school system, Filipino women became professionals[6][8], although most of them and their male counterparts opted for making use of their former education roots and expressed themselves in Spanish or Tagalog. According to the Monroe Commission on Philippine Education: “Upon leaving school, more than 99% of Filipinos will not speak English in their homes. Possibly, only 10% to 15% of the next generation will be able to use this language in their occupations. In fact, it will only be the government employees, and the professionals, who might make use of English.”[9] Contemporary roles Modern-day Philippine women play a decisive role in Filipino families. They handle the money, act as religious mentors, and could also arrange the marriages of sons and daughters, striving to improve the family’s dynastic connections. The emergence of Corazon Aquino, Imelda Marcos and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as political figures shows that Filipino society have high regard on Filipino women, in spite of its male chauvinism. Urban setting In the past, firms and businesses generally hire Filipino women for less pay and secretarial functions. But at present, Filipino women are given the same opportunities as their male counterparts in the business realm. Most CEO positions are given to men, but there has been several vice presidents, managers, and other jobs where Filipino women are given equal opportunities with men. In some cases, Filipino women also run successful businesses and become CEO's. In school, boys are often elected to organizational positions such as president and vice-president, while the girls are either members or holding treasurer positions. However, the trend has changed and girls more tend to be or even sometimes the only ones elected or nominated in all positions. This has been due to a change of mindset towards the female gender who are now regarded as more hardworking, well-versed, and dedicated than their male counterparts. Since Filipino wife holds the money in the family, she has the access to the family's finances. Therefore, she has the ability to help her family when the needs arise. In most cases, her own family has a better chance of financial access rather than her husband's family. Generally, the husband do not really care about how his wife spends the money. His obligation is to bring money in the family, and it is the wife's obligation to budget the money. In few cases, the Filipino husbands may also give financial help to his family. Rural and tribal clan setting Imelda Marcos, 2006. In rural areas, the Filipino woman belongs in the home. The children approach her for money and help. She is the family's treasurer. She supports the children’s educational needs. For non-family members who require support, the wife is the person to be approached. However, the wife is neither the person who makes the final decision or the person who hands out the money.[1][10] In contrast, however, Juan Flavier, a physician, an authority on community development, and a former Philippine senator, described in his book, Doctor to the Barrios, that "whether some (Filipino) men are willing to admit it or not"... "rural women in the Philippines wield considerable authority," the housewife in particular. This is especially if the housewife, who is often referred to as the Reyna ng Tahanan (Queen of the Home), is convinced of the benefits that will be gained from a certain practice such as the concept of family planning in the barrios. Flavier also mentioned that "In the Philippine barrio, the one responsible for the home" and its management "is the wife... she holds the key to... household... development."[11] Marriage and relationships Generally, the Filipino wife is the treasurer in the family. She has the power of the purse. She makes crucial decisions that involves her family, her home, and her children. Filipino husband's responsibility is to provide for the family, while the Filipino wife ensures that their home and family are well taken care of. Filipino women takes pleasure in ensuring that her husband and children are well taken care of, not because she is obligated to do so, but because of her selfless love and devotion to her family. Despite the Western influence, courtship and relationship in the Philippines is considered conservative. The man will have to court the woman and prove his love for her before he can win her heart. Sometimes the courtship period would last for years. Parents prefer their daughter to be courted in their home, so they can have a chance to know the man. It is during the courtship period that the man would put his best foot forward to create a good impression on the woman and her family. Generally, the man is being measured on his being a gentleman, ability to respect the woman's family, and servitude (the extent of what he was willing to do to prove his love for the woman). Usually, the woman is courted by several men and will have to chose the best from among her suitors.Courtship and relationship remain the same for rural and urban areas despite the modern western influence.[12][13][14][15] Culturally in the Philippines, divorce is viewed as negative and destructive, because of a tradition that emphasizes that the family is the core social unit, especially for the Filipino wife. Divorce is not perceived as a solution to any matrimonial-related problem because it hinders the development or progress of the basic community unit. Therefore, husband and wife are obligated to fix any problems within the boundaries of the marriage.[1] It should always be noted, though, that pre-colonial women in the Philippines enjoyed equal status with men. Prior to colonization, both men and women could get a divorce for the following reasons: failure to meet family obligations, childlessness, and infidelity. Children, regardless of gender, and properties were equally divided in a divorce. Since a man needed to pay a dowry to the woman's family, she was required to give it back should she be found at fault. If the man was at fault, he then lost the right to get back his dowry. In the Philippines, society valued offspring regardless of gender. Female children were as valuable as male ones, mainly because they recognized that women are as important as men. Parents provide equal opportunities to their children. Filipino daughters can also go to school like Filipino sons, Filipino daughters can also inherit property like Filipino sons, and Filipino daughters can also become village chiefs like Filipino sons. In 1994, the John and Lorena Bobbitt case, in which a wife cut off the penis of her sleeping husband, seized the attention of media in the Philippines, which reported that a similar incident had occurred in Cebu the previous November. The Bobbitt case was reported at a time when Filipino feminist groups were protesting against prostitution, the practice of mail-order brides, and marital rape.[16] In 2003 in Shihlin, Taipei, Taiwan, a woman, Virginia Chun, aged 46, cut off the penis of her Chinese husband while he was asleep in their house. After flushing his penis down the toilet, she fled back to the Philippines. After being stitched up at a hospital, Tsai was left with a 2.5 cm stump of a penis and is unable to have sex. The government of Taiwan requested that Virginia Chun be extradited to Taiwan to be put on trial but, due to the lack of an extradition treaty, it was unclear whether the Filipino police would agree to extradite her.[17][18] In 2008, a similar case in Pasig City was reported.[19] Change, influences and interventions In urban areas, single Filipinas have become liberal due to western influences. Although it is still culturally unacceptable for a single Filipino woman to ask a man on a date or to show interest in a man, Filipinas have learned to use body language to show their interest and openness to a relationship. In rural communities, Filipinas are still not allowed to be too liberal. They are required to stifle their personality and sexuality, and should show a total lack of interest in intimacy with men to maintain reputation and self-respect. Filipino women and work Traditionally, rural and tribal women do all the household related chores, but the heavy works that require more strength is done by the husband. The scope of their functions include cooking, cleaning, teaching the children, washing clothes, repairs, budgeting, and helping in the farm. The husband is the one who makes sure the farm would yield quality crops, so he does all the maintenance works. In some cases, where the husband needs help from other men, the wife would make sure that the men are fed, so she cooks food and bring it to the farm. The Filipino women, ensures that everyone is well fed, and this characteristics extends to the workers, relatives, or visitors. In general, Filipino women find pride in their work. They do not find themselves alienated from their chores because they work with, around, and for their families. This family-oriented mindset gives them a sense of dignity and responsibility. The family and the children are the primary priority in a Filipina's life.[1] Filipino women and Philippine politics Corazon C. Aquino, 1992. Compared to other countries, Filipino women have gained and enjoyed equal rights with men. They have became presidents, senators, congresswomen, mayors. They have served in government offices, and have held cabinet positions for presidents. Filipino women have proven that they are capable of carrying out responsibilities and tasks as well as their male counterparts. However, the number of women who engage in politics are smaller compare to their male counterparts. This was primarily because engagement in politics is considered "dirty." A recent study revealed that there is a re-emergence of the empowerment of Filipino women through the political process, just as they were prior to the arrival of the ancient conquerors from Spain. Philippine women are rediscovering their strengths. Filipino women had been successful in implementing policies by becoming executive staff members, advisers to politicians, and as advocates within non-governmental organizations.[6] Modern-day Filipinas are making strides in electoral politics by initiating more female-oriented programs. They are performing well as leaders, although generally, Filipino women still often earn political seats by having fathers and husbands who are politically connected, a "dynasty system" that hinders other Filipino women from joining the electoral process. Other factors that prevent full-engagement of other well-qualified Filipinas from the Philippine political scene are the expense in politics and the importance of the family name.[6] Participation of Filipino women in Philippine politics was encouraged during the Beijing Declaration in 1995 at the United Nations' Fourth World Conference on Women. In February 2005, however, a United Nations review on the progress of Philippine women and their role in politics revealed that despite "an increase in the quality of female politicians, there was not enough increase in" the number of women participants in government activities. From 1992 to 2001, Filipino women had been elected as local chief executives, functioning as mayors, governors, and captains of villages. One influential factor contributing to the increasing number of female politicians, is the elevation of Corazon Aquino and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as Philippine women Presidents.[6][8] Filipino women in art In his paintings of Filipino women, the Philippine National Artist Fernando Amorsolo rejected Western ideals of beauty in favor of Filipino ideals[20] He said that the women he painted have "a rounded face, not of the oval type often presented to us in newspapers and magazine illustrations. The eyes should be exceptionally lively, not the dreamy, sleepy type that characterizes the Mongolian. The nose should be of the blunt form but firm and strongly marked. ... So the ideal Filipina beauty should not necessarily be white complexioned, nor of the dark brown color of the typical Malayan, but of the clear skin or fresh colored type which we often witness when we met a blushing girl."[20] See also Philippines portal Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Women of the Philippines Filipino women writers National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women Filipino people Culture of the Philippines History of the Philippines (pre-1521) Ninotchka Rosca Maria Rosa Luna Henson Angela Manalang-Gloria Lualhati Bautista Men in the Philippines Courtship in the Philippines References Specific ^ a b c d Clamonte, Nitz. Women in the Philippines, Compiled from Gender Awareness Seminars, developed and facilitated by Nitz Clamonte, Ozamiz.com (undated), archived from the original on 2007-09-28. ^ The Role and Status of Women, U.S. Library of Congress, CountryStudies.us (undated), retrieved on: 11 July 2007 ^ Laya, Jaime C. and Michael Van D. Yonzon, Through the Years, Brightly: The Tadtarin; and Joaquin, Nick. The Summer Solstice, PIA.gov (undated), ^ a b Vartti, Riitta (editor), “Women writers through the ages; The Spanish era”, The History of Filipino Women's Writings, an article from Firefly - Filipino Short Stories (Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja), 2001 / 2007, retrieved on: April 12, 2008, "...Filipinas (i.e. Philippine women) enjoy a reputation of power and equality compared to most of their Asian neighbors..."; "...The Spaniards of the 1500s were horrified by the revolting liberty and too high social status of the woman, mujer indigena, in the islands just conquered by them. Women could own property and rule the people, act as leaders of rites and ceremonies of the society, and divorce their husbands..."; "The Conquistadors and the friars quickly changed this with the European model, where women's place was at home and not in prominent positions. As a consequence, during hundreds of years, education was given only to upper class girls, who were trained to become beautiful, submissive, capable to stitch embroidery, and suitable to marriage. The nun institution offered the only possibility for a career and teaching was the only educated occupation allowed to them..." ^ Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines, Ballantine Books, Random House, Inc., March 3, 1990, 536 pages, ISBN 0-345-32816-7 ^ a b c d e Shah, Angilee. Women's Political Role on Rise in Philippines. UCLA International Institute. http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=31539. Retrieved 2007-07-12.  (based on a lecture and election studies by Prosperina D. Tapales, professor of public administration at the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines) ^ Proserpina D. Tapales (2005). "Women in Contemporary Philippine Local Politics" (pdf). UCLA International Institute: UCLA Center for Southeast Asian Studies. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=international/uclacseas. Retrieved 2007-07-12.  ^ a b Vartti, Riitta (editor), “Women writers through the ages; The U.S. Period”, The History of Filipino Women's Writings, an article from Firefly - Filipino Short Stories (Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja), 2001 / 2007, retrieved on: April 12, 2008, "...They (i.e. Filipino women) were now, for the first time equally with men, accepted to study..."; "...Their problem was the resistance of the patriarchal society..."; "...The first woman president Corazon Aquino was elected to power..."; "Many women writers, especially those from the capital area, participated in the development of the media since the 1930s..."; "...In the turn of the 1970s began a period of cultural revolution, student movements and new rise of nationalism. For the women writers it meant social awakening, commitment and protest..."; "...The Filipinas now wanted to create their own images by themselves..." ^ "A Survey of the Educational System of the Philippine Islands", Monroe, Paul, 1925, pp. 24-25 ^ "Philippines: The Role and Status of the Filipina". Encyclopedia of the Nations. June 1991. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-10424.html. Retrieved 2007-07-12.  ^ Flavier, Juan Martin. Doctor to the Barrios, Experiences with the Philippine Reconstruction Movement, Chapter 10: Family Planning in the Barrios, New Day Publishers (1970/2007), p. 157, ISBN 9711006634. ^ Courtship in the Philippines ^ [1][dead link] ^ Introduction to Philippine Culture ^ Filipino Wedding Traditions and Spanish Influence, muslim-marriage-guide.com.. ^ AP (January 24, 1994). "Bobbitts' Case Gains Infamy In Philippines". Cavalier Daily. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=a6McAAAAIBAJ&sjid=q28EAAAAIBAJ&pg=4340,3951594&dq=philippines+cut+penis+wife&hl=en. Retrieved January 4, 2011.  ^ DPA, TAIPEI (Thu, Apr 10, 2003). "Wife fled country after cutting man". Taipei Times: p. 4. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2003/04/10/201528. Retrieved December 26, 2010.  ^ Taipei Times (Sun, Apr 13, 2003). "Taiwan quick take". Taipei Times: p. 3. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/print/2003/04/13/201978. Retrieved December 26, 2010.  ^ Kristine L. Alave (23:17:00 04/10/2008). "Jealous wife cuts off husband's penis in Pasig City". Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/metro/view/20080410-129618/Jealous-wife-cuts-off-husbands-penis-in-Pasig-City. Retrieved January 4, 2011.  ^ a b Paras-Perez, Rodriguez. Amorsolo Drawings (excerpt available online) (1992), ISBN 9491386742. General "A Celebration of Herstory: Filipino Women in Legislation and Politics, Perspective, About Culture and Arts", NCCA.gov.ph, October 27, 2003 (Taken from the Historical Framework for the Centennial Celebration of Women in Politics and Legislation, sponsored by Ugnayan ng Kababaihan sa Pulitika, National Centennial Commission - Women Sector and Committee on Women, House of Representatives, BayView Hotel, Manila, June 25, 1998), retrieved on: July 16, 2007 (archived from the original on 2008-02-23) Conlu, Prudencia V., "Role of Filipino women in fisheries community", Development of Fisheries in the Region: The Role of Filipino Women in Fishing Communities (presented by Professor Prudencia V. Conlu, Dean, College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Miag-as, Iloilo. Philippines), FAO Corporate Document Repository, FAO.org, 1994, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 Creating a National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, Presidential Decree No. 633, Malacañang Palace, Manila, LawPhil.net, January 7, 1975, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century", Statement by Dr. Amelou Benitez Reyes, Chairperson, National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, Head of Delegation, Twenty-third Special Session of the General Assembly, New York, UN.org, June 5 to 9 2000, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 Rivera PC (1979). "Women in development: the road toward liberation". Initiatives Popul 5 (3): 2–7. PMID 12338131.  Philippine Legislators' Committee on Population and Development Foundation (Feb 1992). "Philippine laws and policies on the status of women". People Count 2 (1): 1–3. PMID 12179238.  "Executive Order No. 348 of 17 February 1989 approving and adopting the Philippine Development Plan for Women for 1989 to 1992, 17 February 1989". Annu Rev Popul Law 16: 132, 551–4. 1989. PMID 12344104.  Blake, Matthew. "The Role and Status of the Filipina, A Country Study: Philippines", The Library of Congress, Bansa.org, March 30, 2006, retrieved on: January 4, 2010 Philippines: Specific Commitments Made at Beijing, Beyond Beijing: Taking Root and Gaining Ground Asia Pacific Development Centre - Gender and Development Programme (GAD-APDC), (This report is based on the proceedings of the Legislative Symposium on the government's implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action held on September 29, 1997, Philippines. The Committee on Women, House of Representatives and the Philippine NGO Beijing Score Board co-organized the symposium. The Committee on Women has the mandate to conduct congressional oversight on the implementation of laws and international instruments affecting the conditions of the Filipino women. The Philippine NGO Beijing Score Board is the main NGO network working with the government to monitor the implementation of the Platform for Action. During the Legislative Symposium, the report of the government was presented by Aurora Javate de Dios of the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women who is also the Philippine representative to CEDAW), 1998, 260 pp., AWORC.org, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 Caoile, Gloria T., "In Celebration of Filipino Women", Tambuli Magazine, IMDiversity.com, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 Former President Fidel V. Ramos (FVR), Cites Role of Women in Nation's History and Development,The Manila Bulletin Online, MB.com, 2001, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 (archived from the original on 2008-02-25) The History of Filipino Women's Writings, an article from Firefly - Filipino Short Stories (Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja), 2001 / 2007, retrieved on: April 12, 2008 External links National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, retrieved on: April 9, 2008 National Commission on the Role of Women, LawPhil.net, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 Name of Organization: National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, UNESCAP.org, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 Philippines, Women's Studies, Bibliography, LIB.Berkeley.edu, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW), International Labour Organization, ILO.org, February 6, 2004, retrieved on: July 16, 2007 v · d · e Philippines topics History Prehistory · Spanish colonial period · Battle of Mactan · Manila Galleon · Spanish East Indies · Philippine revolts against Spain · Philippine Revolution · Philippine Declaration of Independence · First Republic  · Philippine-American War · American colonial period · Tydings-McDuffie Act  · Commonwealth of the Philippines  · World War II · Second Republic · Third Republic · Marcos era · 1986 People Power Revolution · 2001 EDSA Revolution · EDSA III  · Fifth Republic Geography Island groups  · Administrative divisions · Regions · Provinces · Cities · Municipalities · Barangays · Bays · Islands · Lakes · Mountains · Peninsulas · Rivers · Volcanoes · Environmental issues · Water supply and sanitation · Tourism · Landmarks Governance Constitution · President (Cabinet) · Vice President · Congress (Senate · House) · Supreme Court · Military · Law enforcement · Foreign relations Politics Political parties · Elections · Liberalism · Human rights Economy Companies · Central Bank · Philippine peso · Stock Exchange · Transportation · Communications · Fiscal policy Society Demographics · Filipino people · Education · Ethnic groups · Languages · Religion · Immigration Culture Art · Cinema · Cuisine · Literature · Music · Public holidays · Sports · Traditional beliefs · Martial arts · Olympics Symbols Coat of Arms · Flag · Name · National anthem Portal v · d · eWomen in Asia Sovereign states Afghanistan · Armenia · Azerbaijan · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Bhutan · Brunei · Burma (Myanmar) · Cambodia · People's Republic of China · Cyprus · East Timor (Timor-Leste) · Egypt · Georgia · India · Indonesia · Iran · Iraq · Israel · Japan · Jordan · Kazakhstan · North Korea · South Korea · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Laos · Lebanon · Malaysia · Maldives · Mongolia · Nepal · Oman · Pakistan · Philippines · Qatar · Russia · Saudi Arabia · Singapore · Sri Lanka · Syria · Tajikistan · Thailand · Turkey · Turkmenistan · United Arab Emirates · Uzbekistan · Vietnam · Yemen States with limited recognition Abkhazia · Nagorno-Karabakh · Northern Cyprus · Palestine · Republic of China (Taiwan) · South Ossetia Dependencies and other territories Christmas Island · Cocos (Keeling) Islands · Hong Kong · Macau