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(August 2011) This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (Consider using more specific clean up instructions.) Please improve this article if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (August 2011) Kaibarta (caste) — The Kaibartas are found to be one of the aboriginal ethnic groups that inhabited in Orrisa, Bengal and Assam from unknown past. The most established theory is that the Kaibartas are Dravidians or they belong to Dravidian stalk. They were the makers of civilization in the Indus valley at Harrappa and Mohenjodaro—the developers of Indian writings, township and drainage and central heating system before 2500BC.Other name used for these people are Kewat[[1]], Kewath, Kevath and kevat, Haluwa Keut, Jalua Keut etc. Contents 1 The people 2 Origin 3 Chaiti Ghoda Dance of Orissa 4 'Gangas ,Kaibarttas and tambura clan:' 5 Western Gangas 6 Kaibartas of Midnapur: 7 References The people These people were of a royal tribe. Historians such as Jagabandhu Singh have referenced the Padma Purana and the Brahmavaibarta Purana and have come to the conclusion that Mahishyas and Kaivarttas (Kaibarttas) are the same caste. In general terms, "the child born of a Kshatriya father and Vaisya mother is called a Kaivartta or Mahisya. For whatever reason, the Mahishyas migrated from Ayodhya and entered what is now Midnapore through the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Biharilal Kalye believes that the founder of the Ganga Dynasty of Orissa, Anantavarma belonged to the Mahishya race. The Mahishyas, like the Kaibarttas, were originally fishermen, but today they are engaged in agriculture. There are two sects of Kaibarattas—the Jele Kaibarttas (fishermen) and Hele Kaibarttas (farmers). www.nazi.org.uk/indo-aryans%20pdfs/EthnographyCastesTribes.pdf Origin In Sanskrit, the word 'kaivartta' means one who depends on water, in other words, the community that earns its livelihood from related occupation. Anthropologically, they belong to the Dravidian origin. According to historical documents like "Kalika Puran", the Kaivarttas were living in Kamrup even before the 9th century BC and they rule over the land several centuries. They came to Mjauli in mid-17th century . The Kaivarttas of Majuli have extended valuable contribution to its political, social, economic and cultural life. [2] The people are spread through a geographic location extending from modern-day Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, and Orissa. The Bengali historian Sevananda Bharati is of the opinion that the ancient home of the Mahishya race is near the present day Ratnavati on the bank of the Narmada River, which was then known as Mahishamati. The people having surname GANGI mong Mudiraj seems be descended from professional fishermen background. They could be the people who are some times known as Gangi Makkalu. They seems to be the people descended from Western Gangas who assumed the title of Muttarasa. Some of them still claim to be Mudiraju, to be more specific, they call themselves as Gangi Makkalu Mudiraju. The people having surname Gangireddy could also the people of Western Ganga race. N.N. Basu, who has translated the inscriptions of the imperial Gangas has mentioned that the first Ganga king Ananta-varman and his descendants, who ruled over Gangabada or Gangabadi were also called Rudhi Ganga. 19 It may be mentioned here that the word radhi or rudhi was applied to the Kaivarttas who inhabited the entire east coast region stretching from the mouth of river Ganges to the river Godavari in the South. It has been mentioned earlier that apart from the Ganga dynasty another dynasty called Ganga Vamsa has been living at different places of India. They are identified as kaivarttas, Keutas and Dhivaras. Trying to identify them, E. Thurston has said, the Jallaries are Telugu Fishermen, Palanquin bearers and cultivators. 'Jallaries' is derived from Jala, a net. Some are fresh water fishermen, while other fish with a cast-net (Visuru Valalu) from the sea shore or on the open sea. They bear the name Ganga Vamsamu, or people of Ganga, in the same way that a division of the Kabbera fishing caste is called Gangimakkalu. In caste Organisation and ceremonials, the Jalaries coincide with the Milas. They are called Noliyas by the Oriyas of Ganjam. Speaking about the Kabberas mentioned above, Thurston has said elsewhere: Gangimakkalu or Gangaputra meaning children or sons of the Ganga, the Goddess of water is the name a subdivision of Kabbera . The allied Gangavamsamu or people of Ganga is a name for Jalaris. The Kabberas are a caste of Canarees fishermen and cultivators. The Keutas worship especially Dasaraja and Gangadevi. Kalabhras => Kalabras => Kalbaras => Kalberas => Kabberas Kabberas=> Kabbelas =Kabbeligas => Kabbaligas It is widely believed that Mudirajas are the descendants of Kalabhras. It is a well known fact that huge population of Mudirajas are kolis spread into South India. Kabbaligas are also known as kolis in Karnataka. Today Kabbaligas demanding Scheduled Tribe status in Karnataka. Saint Purandara das who migrated from Maharastra to Karnataka during Vijayanagar rule once told that he was a Kabbaliga (Koli Nayak). Kabberas seem to be either Kalabhras or related to Kalabhras, who invaded to South India uprooting the well establish kingdoms of Chola, Chera and Pandyan. In Karnool district, various persons actually belonging to communities such as Maddi (dying ofcloths) , Bestha (fishing), Sunnapollu (lime manufacturing), Gangi Makkalu Mudiraju (agri), Kabbera, which are Telugu Caste group are to be known as "Bariki" are having marital relationships with all other non-Scheduled Caste Communities of various "Telugollu" Caste groups. Tenugus are a subcaste of Mudiraj in Telangana. They were given Barika Inam lands for their services rendering menial services to the officials visiting the villages and in due course they came to be known as Barikas.The Maddi, Kabboar, Gangi Makkalu, Telugu and similar communities also have to be known as Barikas They are neither untouchables nor do they suffer from discrimination in regard to access to public places. The Barikas are not SCs and entirely different from the Community denoted by the term Bariki included in the list. Chaiti Ghoda Dance of Orissa This folk items is connected with the Sakti cult of coastal Orissa confined to the people of Kaibarta caste only. This festival is observed by the Kaibartas in the month of Chaitra from the fool moon day to eight day of Vaisakha in honour of their caste deity Vasuli devi. A horse ridden man with the head of a horse well-dressed and trunk built of bamboo, dances to the tune of Dhola and Mahuri accompanied by songs composed by the local poets. The dancing party consists of two dancers, one male and one female, a drumer and a piper. The Kaibarta song of Achutananda Das, (one of the poets of Pancha Sakha group flourished in the sixteenth century) is believed to be only religious text of the Kaibartas. The origin of this dance goes back to the hoary past. The goddess Vasuli is held very high among the Kaibartas. Here it may be mentioned that the goddess has a wide distribution in Orissa, but is considered to be the oldest in Puri where Raja of Puri provided land grants for regular worship of the deity. Vasuli in many places is taken to be one of the manifestations of the Durga and one of sixty-four Yoginis. The horse dance is very popular and attracts a large audience. The performing group consists of three main characters—Rauta, Rautani and the Horse dancer, besides the drummer and the piper. The songs recited in the performace consists of the episode from mythology. Rautani is Rauta's Co-dancer and Co-singer. 'Gangas ,Kaibarttas and tambura clan:' Dr. Nagaswamy, in his Mutharayar, defines them (Mutharays) as Ganga Kings of Kongani belonging to Tamil Mudhu Velir kudi. After obtaining an easy victory over the Ganga king Muttarasa ruling in Gangavadi, Govinda III, the son and successor of Dhruva led victorious campaigns in Central and Northern India. The Rastrakuta family produced several great conquerors, who boldly invaded north and south India and achieved memorable victories. Dhruva (A.D. 780—793) was the first among them. Kings of Ganga dynasy claimed their descent from solar race kings. The Madalapanji and Korni copperplate inscription of Chodaganga Dev that the Gangas are the descendants of a king or an individual named Gangeya who belonged to the solar dynasty. Gangeya was Bhisma and the son of Ganga. Ganga was born in a Kaivartta hamlet on the Ganges Valley. Ganga devi was a fisher-woman and beloned to Mahishya or a Kaivartta. When her relationship with Santanu was severed, she, along with her eighth child, had returned to the same Kaivartta hamlet and reared him up. Later on this child came to be known as Gangaputra (son of Ganga) or Gangeya. Since Santanu was from solar race, gangeya was recognized as suryavamsi and hence chodaganga claimed descendancy from solar race. The origin of the Ganga royal dynasty and that of the common people of Ganga dynasty were one and the same and all of them belonged to the Kaivartta or Mahishya community. Hence we can say that the Ganga dynasty has originated from the tradition rich, glorious and ancient Dasa-Kaivartta race or community. We find two major dynasties in South India, over the period, known as the Eastern Gangas and the Western Gangas. The empires spread from Karnatak, to Orissa, to Andhra Pradesh. The Southern Gangas histories state that they came south from North India. About 500 CE, led by leader Vishnugupta. They were originally from the land between the Ganga and the Jumna /Yamuna rivers. They are linked to Ahichtra and Ayodhyapur in the Ganga/Jumna basin. In the Andhavaram copperplate inscription of Indravarman III of Ganga dynasty, the Gangas are described as the descendants of the `Tumbura' dynasty. It is mentioned in the Vayu Purana that at the foot hills of the Vindhyas, there was a Janapada (human habitation) named Tumura, Tumbura. The Janapadas such as Tosali, Kosala, Tripura, Vidisha, Tumura, Tumhura, Nishadha, Anupa, Sundhikera, Vitihotra and Abanti are at the foot of the Vindhyas. This implies that all these Janapadas are to the north of the Vindhyas. Mr. Dubey has identified the Tumbura-race with Mashyas. Quoting evidences from the Padma Purana and Brahmavaibarta Purana, the historian Jagabandhu Singh has established that the Mahisyas and the Kaivarttas are virtually the same. In his opinion, the child born of a Kshatriya father and Vaisya mother is called a Kaivartta or Mahisya. According to the Bengali historian Sevananda Bharati, the primary abode of the Mahisya-race was located in the northern bank of river Narmada, which originated from the foot hills of the Vindhyas. The present day Ratnavati on the bank of river Narmada is perhaps another name of the ancient city Mahishimati. It was the old capital of the Mahishyas. Therefore, it had the name Mahishimati Nagari (the city of Mahishimati). Mahishmati was the capital of Chedis (Haihayas) and ancestors of Kalachuris and Kalabhras. Several theories have A few inscriptions state they belogned to Jahnaveya kula and Kanvayana gotra prompting some historians to believe the Gangas were immigrants from the Northern India and descendants of the Kanva dynasty.Others believe they hailed from Kongu Nadu in present day Tamil Nadu since some Tamil inscriptions call them Konganiyarasa[3][4] Other inscriptions state they were descendents of Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty who came to power after the fall of the Satavahana empire during the 3rd century. Hence it is argued they earlier must have ruled in Andhra Pradesh as successors of the Satavahana. Mahishya often also spelled as Mahisya, is a Hindu caste. Members of this caste are traditionally found in the Indian states of West Bengal and Orissa. Mahishyas are one of the predominant castes in West Bengal especially in the southern districts of Howrah. Mahishyas and Kaivarttas (Kaibarttas) are the same caste. the child born of a Kshatriya father and Vaisya mother is called a Kaivartta or Mahisya. Kaivarttas are spread through a geographic location extending from modern-day Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, and Orissa. The ancient home of the Mahishya race is near the present day Ratnavati on the bank of the Narmada River, which was then known as Mahishamati. Biharilal Kalye believes that the founder of the Ganga Dynasty of Orissa, Anantavarma belonged to the Mahishya race. Western Gangas A 10th century Pallava inscription calls them descendents of two princess from Ayodhya who founded a kingdom in Cuddapah with Perur as their capital before the 4th century later moving their capital to Kolar and finally in 466 to Talakad in present day Karnataka. Talakkad was patronized by the Western Gangas in the first millennium CE. The history of the ancient temple city of Talakad, a pilgrimage site, has become lost in time. The illustrious and powerful Western Gangas ruled from 350 to 1050 AD until they were overthrown by the Cholas in the 11th century. The area they controlled was called Gangavadi and primarily included the present day districts of Mysore, Chamrajanagar, Tumkur, Kolar, Mandya and Bangalore. At times they also controlled small areas in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. In their early years they were feudatory to Pallavas and directly ruled Kolar and the Kongu Nadu on their behalf and at other times independently. Hence the region was also known as Nollambavadi. They continued to rule until the 10th century as feudatories of Rashtrakuta and Chalukyas. It is known from the Vizagpattanam & Korni copperplate inscriptions of Chodaganga Dev that by 5th century A.D., eighty kings of the Ganga dynasty had ruled over Gangabadi of Kolahalpur. In this context we may mention that historians have agreed that the Mahabharata war was fought in 9th century B.C. This means the Ganga dynasty had appeared and achieved renown much before the events described in the epic Mahabharata. It has been noted above that Sevananda Bharati has established ancient Tamralipta or Modern Tamluk as the primary abode of the Ganga dynasty or ancient Ganga Nations which also called Gangaridai. The inscriptions of the imperial Gangas has mentioned that the first Ganga king Ananta-varman and his descendants, who ruled over Gangabada or Gangabadi were also called Rudhi Ganga. It may be mentioned here that the word radhi or rudhi was applied to the Kaivarttas who inhabited the entire east coast region stretching from the mouth of river Ganges to the river Godavari in the South. Rudhi => Radhi => Redhi => Reddi => Reddy The Jallaries are Telugu Fishermen, Palanquin bearers and cultivators. 'Jallaries' is derived from Jala, a net. Some are fresh water fishermen, while other fish with a cast-net (Visuru Valalu) from the sea shore or on the open sea. They bear the name Ganga Vamsamu, or people of Ganga, in the same way that a division of the Kabbera fishing caste is called Gangimakkalu. In caste Organisation and ceremonials, the Jalaries coincide with the Milas. They are called Noliyas by the Oriyas of Ganjam. Gangimakkalu or Gangaputra meaning children or sons of the Ganga, the Goddess of water is the name a subdivision of Kabbera. The allied Gangavamsamu or people of Ganga is a name for Jalaris. The Kabberas are a caste of Canarees fishermen and cultivators. The Keutas worship especially Dasaraja and Gangadevi. First, the Kaivarttas were divided in to two parts. Those who resorted to cultivation were called Halias (cultivators). Those who earned their livelihood with nets were called Jalia or Jalua (fishermen). Kabberas => Kabbelas => Kabbalas => Kabbaligas Kabbaligas are fishermen of Karnataka in the region that falls under erstwhile ganga dynasty. They claim to be the Mudiraj or equivalents of Mudiraj. Mother Ganga, the water Goddess, is their chief deity and they claim that they are the descendants of Ganga. They think that the famous Ganga kings of Kalinga belonged to the different branches of their race. Kaivarttas belonging to Ganga dynasty and living in the coastal areas call themselves Jajari. They are seen in the entire east coast region starting from Midnapur to Rameswar in the south. The Jalari fishermen living in Ganjam (Orissa) and Andhra Pradesh have different names like Jalari, Nolia, Barakotia, Satakoshia, Panerundu kotala, Edukotala, Jona, Buguri, Bauri, Behera, etc. The Jalaris of Ganga dynasty claim that they had built the famous ports of kalinga namely Peddapatna, Visakhapatna, Revalpatna and Vimilipatna. They invite the people of their own caste living in these places to their marriage ceremonies. The chief occupations of these Kaivarttas were cultivation, fishing and maritime trade and expedition. The maritime trade of ancient Kalinga for which the Oriyas are proud was virtually controlled by the Kaivarttas. The adventurous Kaivartta sailors were sailing in the sea in their boats for months together and were carrying on trade in the distant islands in the sea. Kaivaratta people were acting as Dalapati (leader) of the Navy of the Gajapati kings of Ganga dynasty. From this it appears that they had relationship with Ganga dynasty. From ancient times Bashuli (Basheli), the tutelary deity of the Kaivarttas continues to be worshipped in the palace of the Gajapati king of Puri with pomp & ceremony. t appears that in the ancient days these Kaivarttas and their tradition had close relationship with the kings of Ganga dynasty. Twelve kalinga coins of the time of king Anantavarma Chodaganga Dev have been discovered from Kalingapatna, a place near Mukhalinga, which was once upon a time the capital of Kalinga. On one side of the fifth coin, there is the impression of a boat. The Life Style of the Fisherman of the Chilika Region, has mentioned that the fishermen or the Kaivarttas of Chilika region worship Goddess Ganga. These Kaivarttas are identified as Vaisyas from the point of view of their nature, activities and occupation. The Dasas (Dasa) belong to the class of Dhibaras or Keutas (fishermen). The Ganga dynasty is the part of a great ancient Kaivartta or Dasa dynasty. Their original abode was located in the basins of rivers such as Sindhu, Saraswati, Saraju, Yamuna, and the sacred Ganga flowing in the north western frontiers of India. The mouth of river Ganga identified as Gangaridai was included in the above regions. For this reason, even after the rise and fall of a long historical period, they feel proud today by identifying themselves with Ganga dynasty or by calling themselves sons of Ganga. They have been worshipping mother Ganga as the primordial mother. Mount Kailash was the prime place of worship of the Linga worshippers or the devotees of Lord Shiva. The Hindus believe that the river Ganga had emerged from the matted hair of Shiva. Therefore, Ganga is treated as the most sacred river of India. Possibly for this reason the people of Ganga dynasty have thought it proper to identify Ganga as the primordial mother even though they lived in the basins of different rivers in the past. The Gola caste is an important branch of Go-oda or Gauda caste. Like the Keutas or Kaivarttas they claim that they belong to Ganga dynasty and that mother Ganga or Gangamma is their mother (Goddess). The icon of Gangamma is carved in the walls of their houses. The face and eyes of this icon are round and it has neither limbs nor body. They think one of their branches had conceived the image of Lord Jagannath. One of their branches is called Gangaudu or Gangidu. From the above description it is obvious that apart from the Ganga dynasty, a community called Gangavamsa lived in different parts of India. They are identified as Kaivartta, Keutas or Dhibara. It will be reasonable to say that the Ganga Dynasty had originated from the Kaivarttas belonging to the Ganga race. It is known from history that these Kaivarttas have been living in large numbers in areas stretching from the mouth of river Ganges, the Gangaridai region through the entire eastern coast of Kalinga up to Rameswaram in Tamilnadu. Besides they are also living in large numbers in the basins of the rivers namely, Ganga, Yamuna and Saraju of Northern India. They also live in Maharashtra, Mysore and the Vindhya regions. The people of Madras originated from the ancient Tamralipta race. The Kaivartta-race and the Mahishya-race are basically one and the same. The Gangas were an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka. They are also known as Western Ganga dynasty to distinguish them from the Eastern Ganga dynasty. They ruled as a sovereign power during 350–550 period initially from Kolar later moving their capital to Talakad on the banks of the Kaveri River in modern Mysore district. Relationship with the Chalukyas and later the Rashtrakutas. Their rule over Southern Karnataka resulted in the construction of fine monuments in Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. They patronised fine arts due to which literature in Sanskrit and Kannada flourished. According to one inscription the Ganga dynasties of Karnataka and Kalinga had come from Northern India. In the opinion of Dr. N. K. Sahu, both the western and eastern Ganga dynasty belong to one and the same dynasty and they came from North India in 5th century A.D. and established new kingdoms in Kalinga and Karnataka respectively. The Western Gangas ruled in Mysore state (Gangavadi) from about AD 250 to about 1004. The Eastern Gangas ruled Kalinga from 1028 to 1434–35. These two dynasties were distinct but remotely related. The first ruler of the Western Ganga, Konganivarman, carved out a kingdom by conquest, but his successors, Madhava I and Harivarman, expanded their influence by marital and military alliances. They encouraged scholarly work, built some remarkable temples, and encouraged cross-peninsular trade. The Western Gangas and the Kadambas of Banavasi founded, almost coevally, in the middle or second half of the 4th century A.D., the first two sovereign kingdoms of Karnatkaka, by virtues of their location in between the Tamilian and Karnataka powers, the Gangas served as an effective buffer state and their inscriptions provide enough data on the close contacts they had established with the powers, people and cultures both to the north and the south. Kaibartas of Midnapur: The early history of Midnapur centres round the ancient town of Tamluk, which was in the beginning of the 5th century an important Buddhist settlement and maritime harbour. In the middle of the 7th century, Hiuen Tsiang, the celebrated pilgrim from China, describes Tamliik as a great port, with ten Buddhist monasteries, a thousand monks, and a pillar by King Asoka 200 feet high. According to the earliest Hindu legend, it was distant from the coast about 8 miles; and so steadily has the process of land-making at the mouth of the Hiigli gone on, that at present it is fully 60 miles from the sea. The earliest kings of Tamluk belonged to the Peacock dynasty, and were Kshattriyas by caste. The last of this line, Nisankha Narayan, died childless; and at his death the throne was usurped by a powerful aboriginal chief named Kalu Bhuiya, who was the founder of the line of Kaibartta or fisher-kings of Tamluk. The Kaibarttas are generally considered to be descendants of the aboriginal Bhuiyas, who have embraced Hinduism. The present Kaibartta Raja is the twenty-fifth in descent from the founder. www.mandirnet.org/toi/bengal/m7.htm orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Journal/Journal2/pdf/ohrj-03.pdf [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] References ^ Gaude Brahmana-Mahima Ch. Mazumdar ^ Tribes and castes of Bengal-Sir Harbert Risley ^ Imperial Gazetteers of India, Vol. 1 ^ Utkalre Bauddha yugara Itihasa O’ Anyanya Prabandha-Birupaksha Kar ^ Wilson’s World History ^ The Kaibarttas in Assam-Ms. Dibya Das & P. Hazarika ^ Ethnography (castes and tribes) 1912—Sir Athelstane Baines ^ Change in Bengal agrarian society, c1760-1850 ^ Historical archaeology of central Assam-Niśipada Caudhurī ^ A cultural history of Assam, Volume 1-Birinchi Kumar Barua, Banikanta Kakati ^ The fall of the Pāla Empire-Akshaẏakumāra Maitreẏa ^ Social conflict and political unrest in Bengal, 1875-1927-Rajat Kanta Ray ^ A history of India By Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund v · d · eBengali Hindu people Castes Baishya Kapali · Bagdi · Bauri · Vaidya · Brahmin · Gandhabanik · Kaibartya · Kayastha · Hari · Karmakar · Mahishya · Namasudra(Namassej) · Pirali Brahmin · Sadgop Sects Shakta · Vaishnava · Shaiva · Brahmo · Kartabhaja · Matua Mahasangha Religious Bodies Ananda Marga · Ramakrishna Mission · Bharat Sevashram Sangha Festivals Poila Baisakh · Rathayatra · Janmashtami · Bhadu · Vishwakarma Puja · Durga Puja · Lakshmi Puja · Kali Puja · Bhai Phonta · Nabanna · Jagaddhatri Puja · Makar Sankranti · Saraswati Puja · Gajan Folk Arts Dhokra · Sholapith Folk Dances Raibenshe · Chhau · Paika Folk Songs Alkap · Kavigan