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Sedum is a drought tolerant plant whose specific adaptations include succulence and a waxy surface on its leaves and stems. Drought tolerance refers to the degree to which a plant is adapted to arid or drought conditions. Desiccation tolerance is an extreme degree of drought tolerance.[1] Plants naturally adapted to dry conditions are called xerophytes. Contents 1 Adaptations to dry conditions 2 Importance in agriculture 3 Importance in horticulture 4 See also 5 References Adaptations to dry conditions Main article: Xerophyte Drought tolerant plants typically make use of either C4 carbon fixation or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to fix carbon during photosynthesis. Both are improvements over the more common but more basal C3 pathway in that they are more energy efficient. CAM is particularly good for arid conditions because carbon dioxide can be taken up at night, allowing the stomata to stay closed during the heat of day and thus reducing water loss.[2] Many adaptations for dry conditions are structural, including the following: Adaptations of the stomata to reduce water loss, such as reduced numbers or waxy surfaces. Water storage in succulent above-ground parts or water-filled tubers. Adaptations in the root system to increase water absorption. Trichomes (small hairs) on the leaves to absorb atmospheric water. Importance in agriculture Arid conditions can lower the yield of many crops. Plant breeding programs for improved yield during drought conditions have great economic importance, and these programs may be broad in scope. For example, one study on soybeans currently being conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture is scheduled to span several years, with research taking place across that country, and has among its goals the identification of specific mechanism by which soybeans resist wilting and of the specific genes for drought tolerance.[3] Importance in horticulture In landscapes in arid or drought-prone regions, drought tolerance is an important consideration in plant selection. Xeriscaping is an approach to landscaping first developed in Denver, Colorado, a region with hot, dry summers. The use of drought tolerant plants is essential to a successful xeriscape, which ideally requires no supplemental irrigation. See also Climate change mitigation Adaptation to global warming References ^ Ars | Publication Request: Evolutionary Linkage Between Drought And Vegetative Desiccation Tolerance In Plants ^ Botany online: Photosynthesis - C3, C4 and CAM. Regulation of The Activity ^ ARS Project: Drought Stress Tolerance for the Midwest and South; Soybean Variety Improvement (Continuation) (409278) v · d · eGlobal warming and climate change  Temperatures Instrumental record · Satellite record · Past 1,000 years · Since 1880 · Geologic record · Historical climatology · Paleoclimatology  Causes Anthropogenic Attribution of recent climate change  · Aviation · Biofuel · Carbon dioxide · Earth's energy budget · Earth's radiation balance · Fossil fuel · Global dimming · Global warming potential · Greenhouse effect · Greenhouse gases · Land use and forestry · Radiative forcing · Urban heat island Natural Albedo · Bond events · Cloud forcing · Feedbacks · Glaciation · Global cooling · Ocean variability (AMO · ENSO · IOD · PDO) · Orbital variations · Orbital forcing · Solar variation · Volcanism Models Global climate model  History History of climate change science · Svante Arrhenius · Charles David Keeling  Opinion and controversy Scientific opinion on climate change · Scientists opposing the mainstream assessment · Media coverage of climate change · Public opinion on climate change  Politics United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC / FCCC) · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) · Climate change denial  Potential effects and issues General Abrupt climate change · Climate change and agriculture · Climate change and ecosystems · Drought · Economics of global warming · Effects on humans · Effects on marine mammals · Fisheries and climate change · Glacier retreat · Mass extinction · Ozone depletion · Ocean acidification · Plant biodiversity · Poverty · Runaway climate change · Sea level rise · Season creep · Shutdown of thermohaline circulation By country Australia · India · United States  Mitigation Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism · Joint Implementation · Bali roadmap · Copenhagen Summit Governmental G8 Climate Change Roundtable · European Climate Change Programme · United Kingdom Climate Change Programme Emissions reduction Coal phase out · Emissions trading · Carbon tax · Carbon offset · Carbon credit Carbon-free energy Efficient energy use · Renewable energy · Nuclear power · Carbon capture and storage Other Geoengineering · Carbon sink · Individual and political action on climate change · Climate change mitigation scenarios  Proposed adaptations Strategies Damming glacial lakes · Drought tolerance · Irrigation investment · Rainwater storage · Sustainable development · Weather control Programmes Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change · Land Allocation Decision Support System Category:Global warming · Portal:Global warming · Category:Climate change · Glossary of climate change · Index of climate change articles