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File:Burma 3 150.jpg Aung San Suu Kyi was an Amnesty International-recognized prisoner of conscience from 1989-1995, from 2000-2002, and from 2003-2010.[1] Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term defined in Peter Benenson's 1961 article "The Forgotten Prisoners" often used by the human rights group Amnesty International. It can refer to anyone imprisoned because of their race, religion, color, language, sexual orientation, belief, or lifestyle so long as they have not used or advocated violence. It also refers to those who have been imprisoned and/or persecuted for the non-violent expression of their conscientiously-held beliefs. Contents 1 Definition 2 Current prisoners of conscience 3 References 4 External links Definition The article "The Forgotten Prisoners" by Peter Benenson, published in The Observer 28 May 1961, launched the campaign "Appeal for Amnesty 1961" and first defined a "prisoner of conscience".[2] “ Any person who is physically restrained (by imprisonment or otherwise) from expressing (in any form of words or symbols) any opinion which he honestly holds and which does not advocate or condone personal violence. We also exclude those people who have conspired with a foreign government to overthrow their own. ” The primary goal for this year-long campaign, founded by the English lawyer Peter Benenson and a small group of writers, academics and lawyers including Quaker peace activist Eric Baker, was to identify individual prisoners of conscience around the world and then campaign for their release. In early 1962, the campaign had received enough public support to become a permanent organization and was renamed "Amnesty International". Under British law, Amnesty International was classed as a political organisation and therefore excluded from tax-free charity status.[3] To work around this, the "Fund for the Persecuted" was established in 1962 to receive donations to support prisoners and their families. The name was later changed to the "Prisoners of Conscience Appeal Fund" and is now a separate and independent charity which provides relief and rehabilitation grants to prisoners of conscience in the UK and around the world.[4] Amnesty International has, since its founding, pressured governments to release those persons it considers to be prisoners of conscience.[5] Governments, conversely, tend to deny that the specific prisoners identified by Amnesty International are, in fact, being held on the grounds Amnesty claims; they allege that these prisoners pose genuine threats to the security of their countries.[6] The phrase is now widely used in political discussions to describe a political prisoner, whether or not Amnesty International has specifically adopted the case, although the phrase has a different scope and definition than that of political prisoner.[7] Current prisoners of conscience Below is an incomplete list of individuals that Amnesty International currently considers to be prisoners of conscience, organized by country. Azerbaijan - Jabbar Savalan[8] Bahrain - Ibrahim Sharif;[9] Mohammed al-Tajer[10] Belarus - Alyaksandr Atroshchankau;[11] Zmitser Dashkevich;[11] Iryna Khalip;[11] Mikita Likhavid;[11] Eduard Lobau;[11] Uladzimir Niaklajeu;[11] Andrzej Poczobut;[12] Mikola Statkevich;[11] Andrei Sannikov[11] Burma - Aye Aung;[13] Khun Bedu;[13] Khun Dee De;[13] U Gambira;[13] Htay Kywe;[13] Khun Htun Oo;[13] Ko Jimmy;[14] Khun Kawrio;[13] Mie Mie;[13] Min Ko Naing;[15] Myo Min Zaw;[13] Nilar Thein;[16] Ohn Than;[13] Su Su Nway;[17] Zarganar;[13] Zayar Thaw;[13] Zaw Htet Ko Ko[13] Cameroon - Jean-Claude Roger Mbede[18] Eritrea - Dawit Isaak[19] The Gambia - Ebrima Manneh[20] India - Kartam Joga;[21] Binayak Sen[22] Indonesia - Filep Karma;[23] Buchtar Tabuni[24] Iran - Emadeddin Baghi;[25] Kouhyar Goudarzi;[26] Abdollah Momeni;[27] Mansour Osanlou;[28] Jafar Panahi;[29] Nasrin Sotoudeh;[30] Majid Tavakoli;[23] Heshmat Tabarzadi;[31] Ashkan Zahabian[32] Kyrgyzstan - Azimzhan Askarov[33] People's Republic of China - Dhondup Wangchen;[34] Guo Xiaojun;[35] Jigme Gyatso;[36] Liu Xiaobo;[37] Mao Hengfeng;[38] Shi Tao[23] Russian Federation - Mikhail Khodorkovsky;[39] Platon Lebedev[39] Rwanda - Charles Ntakirutinka[23] Saudi Arabia - Manal al-Sharif[40] Sudan - Mudawi Ibrahim Adam[41] Syria - Kamal al-Labwani;[42] Tuhama Mahmoud Ma’rouf;[43] Riad Seif[42] Thailand - Wipas Raksakul[44] Turkey - İnan Süver[45][46] Turkmenistan - Annakurban Amanklychev;[23] Sapardurdy Khadzhiev[23] United Arab Emirates - Fahad Salim Dalk;[47] Nasser bin Ghaith;[48] Ahmed Abdul Khale;[47] Hassan Ali al-Khamis;[47] Ahmad Mansoor[48] Uzbekistan - Azam Farmonov;[23] Alisher Karamatov[23] Vietnam - Cù Huy Hà Vũ;[49] Doan Van Dien;[29] Doan Huy Chong;[29] Nguyen Dan Que;[50] Nguyen Van Ly;[51] Tran Quoc Hien[29] References ^ "Burma releases pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi". BBC News. 13 November 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-11749661. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ Peter Berenson (28 May 1961). "The Forgotten Prisoners". The Observer. http://www.amnestyusa.org/about-us/amnesty-50-years/peter-benenson-remembered/the-forgotten-prisoners-by-peter-benenson. Retrieved 28 May 2011.  ^ Hopgood, Steven (2006). Keepers of the Flame: The Understanding Amnesty International. Cornell University Press. p. 70.  ^ "About Us". Prisoners of Conscience Appeal Fund. http://www.prisonersofconscience.org/about_poc/default.aspx. Retrieved 22 April 2011.  ^ "History of Organization". The Nobel Foundation. 1977. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1977/amnesty-history.html. Retrieved 22 April 2011.  ^ "Human Rights and the Dirty War in Mexico by Kate Doyle". National Security Archive. 11 May 2003. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Mexico/Dirty_War_Mexico.html. Retrieved 22 September 2009.  ^ "Freed China prisoner reaches US". BBC News. 18 March 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4360193.stm. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ "AZERBAIJAN ACTIVIST CONVICTED ON 'TRUMPED UP' DRUGS CHARGE". Amnesty International. 4 May 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/azerbaijan-activist-convicted-trumped-drugs-charge-2011-05-04. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Further Information on UA 79/11 (18 March 2011) and follow-ups (23 March 2011; 12 April 2011) – Prisoners of conscience/ Risk of Torture". Amnesty International. 20 April 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa07911.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "UA 116/11 Prisoner of Conscience/ Risk of Torture/Risk of Ill-Treatment". Amnesty International. 18 April 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa11611.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Further information on UA 264/10 (21 December 2010) and follow-ups (23 December 2010, 12 January 2011, 31 January 2011, 7 March 2011)". Amnesty International. 14 April 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa26410.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Andrzej Poczobut więźniem sumienia Amnesty International". Amnesty International. 15 April 2011. http://amnesty.org.pl/no_cache/archiwum/aktualnosci-strona-artykulu/article/7316/564.html. Retrieved 25 April 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Myanmar, Unlock the Prison Doors!". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/pdf/POC%20List.pdf. Retrieved 17 April 2011. [dead link] ^ "Harsh sentences for Myanmar dissidents". Amnesty International. 13 November 2008. http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=ENGNAU200811138092&%3Blang=e. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "MYANMAR: Pro-Democracy Group Founder Receives 65 Year Sentence". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/iar/pdf/MinKoNaingCaseSheet.pdf. Retrieved 17 April 2011. [dead link] ^ Amnesty International (16 September 2008). "Myanmar Activist at Risk of Torture". http://www-secure.amnesty.org/fr/node/5954. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "SU SU NWAY: LABOR ACTIVIST". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/individuals-at-risk/priority-cases/myanmar-su-su-nway/page.do?id=1510040. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "Cameroonian man jailed for homosexuality". Amnesty International. 3 June 2011.  ^ "Annual Report 2011". Amnesty International. 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/eritrea/report-2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.  ^ "Ebrima Manneh". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/individuals-at-risk/priority-cases/gambia-ebrima-manneh/page.do?id=1361052. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "INDIA: CHHATTISGARH AUTHORITIES MUST IMMEDIATELY RELEASE PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE KARTAM JOGA". Amnesty International. 1 November 2010. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA20/031/2010/en/d7b90262-946e-4fb2-9b1e-4974cc01bc16/asa200312010en.html. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "Indian human rights activist Binayak Sen to be released on bail". Amnesty International. 15 April 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=ENGNAU2011041523091&lang=e. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Prisoners of Conscience". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/individuals-at-risk/prisoners-of-conscience/page.do?id=1011626. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "INDONESIA: PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE AT RISK OF TORTURE: BUCHTAR TABUNI". Amnesty International. 12 January 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA21/001/2011/en/25845977-cc75-4098-846a-0ec8018fbd0a/asa210012011en.html. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "UA 05/10 Prisoner of conscience". Amnesty International. 7 January 2010. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa00510.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011. [dead link] ^ "Success Stories!". Amnesty International. 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/urgent-action-network/successes/page.do?id=YIS0066032000E. Retrieved 18 April 2011. [dead link] ^ "Abdollah Momeni, prisoner of conscience". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/all-countries/iran/abdollah-momeni-prisoner-of-conscience/page.do?id=1221014. Retrieved 18 April 2011. [dead link] ^ "MANSOUR OSSANLU, PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/individuals-at-risk/priority-cases/iran-mansour-ossanlu/page.do?id=1181052. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ a b c d "About the Prometheus Project". American Repertory Theater. 15 February 2011. http://www.americanrepertorytheater.org/inside/articles/prometheus-bound-program-program-notes-prometheus-project-about-prometheus-project. Retrieved 16 May 2011.  ^ "Further information on UA 197/10 (9 September 2010)". Amnesty International. 19 January 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa19710.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011. [dead link] ^ "Heshmatollah Tabarzadi (m), aged 53, journalist". Amnesty International. 6 April 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa06610.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Detained Iranian Student Activist 'Prevented From Meeting Mother'". Radio Free Europe. 26 May 2011. http://www.rferl.org/content/detained_iranian_student_activist_prevented_from_meeting_mother/24205533.html. Retrieved 26 May 2011.  ^ "KYRGYZSTAN: FURTHER INFORMATION: PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE ON BRINK OF DEATH: AZIMZHAN ASKAROV". Amnesty International. 12 November 2010. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR58/021/2010/en/1e047da0-0125-4487-a844-98705bdb4f3d/eur580212010en.html. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "CHINA: TIBETAN FILM-MAKER MAY FACE UNFAIR TRIAL, DHONDUP WANGCHEN". Amnesty International. 17 July 2009. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA17/033/2009/en. Retrieved 22 May 2011.  ^ "Further Information on UA 257/10 (15 December 2010) - Prisoner of Conscience/ Risk of Torture". Amnesty International. 31 March 201. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa25710.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "CHINA: TORTURE FEARS FOR TIBETAN PRISONER: JIGME GYATSO". Amnesty International. 10 January 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA17/002/2011/en/da5ea42f-337c-4bb3-a41b-e33c74ea4635/asa170022011en.html. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "FREE PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER LIU XIAOBO". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/iar/pdf/LiuXiaoboPetition.pdf. Retrieved 18 April 2011. [dead link] ^ "MAO HENGFENG: HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDER". Amnesty International. http://www.amnestyusa.org/individuals-at-risk/priority-cases/china-mao-hengfeng/page.do?id=1510036. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ a b "Russian businessmen declared prisoners of conscience after convictions are upheld". Amnesty International. 24 May 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/russian-businessmen-declared-prisoners-conscience-after-convictions-are-upheld-2011.  ^ "Saudi Arabia urged to release woman arrested following driving campaign". Amnesty International. 2011-05-24. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/saudi-arabia-urged-release-woman-arrested-following-driving-campaign-2011-05-24. Retrieved 2011-05-25.  ^ "Further information on UA 266/10 (23 December 2010) – Prisoner of conscience/Unfair trial". Amnesty International. 27 January 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa26610.pdf. Retrieved 17 April 2011. [dead link] ^ a b "Syria: activists forced into hiding by threats". Amnesty International. 6 May 2011. http://www.amnesty.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=19444. Retrieved 7 May 2011.  ^ "Tuhama Mahmoud Ma’rouf (f)". Amnesty International. 4 March 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa06011.pdf. Retrieved 17 April 2011. [dead link] ^ Pravit Rojanaphruk (14 May 2011). "Amnesty International names Thailand's first 'prisoner of conscience'". The Nation. http://www.nationmultimedia.com/home/Amnesty-International-names-Thailands-first-prison-30155366.html. Retrieved 14 May 2011.  ^ "TURKEY: FURTHER INFORMATION: PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE ESCAPES AND IS REARRESTED". Amnesty International. 28 April 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR44/003/2011/en/f9644fa3-b9aa-4bfd-abf7-7494d30f4889/eur440032011en.html. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "TURKEY: Conscientious objector İnan Suver arrested". War Resisters' International. 6 August 2010. http://www.wri-irg.org/node/10685. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ a b c "Further Information on UA 111/11 (13 April 2011 and 20 April 2011) – Prisoners of Conscience/Risk of torture/Legal concern". Amnesty international. 28 April 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa11111.pdf. Retrieved 9 May 2011.  ^ a b "Further Information on UA 111/11 (13 April 2011) – Prisoners of Conscience/Risk of torture/Legal concern". Amnesty International. 20 April 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/actioncenter/actions/uaa11111.pdf. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "Prominent Vietnamese activist jailed over democracy calls". Amnesty International. 5 April 2011. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:HlPoQPCr4wIJ:www.amnestyusa.org/document.php%3Fid%3DENGPRE201104052283%26lang%3De%26rss%3Drecentnews+Site:Amnestyusa.org+%22Cu+Huy+Ha+Vu%22+conscience&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&source=www.google.com. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "VIETNAMESE AUTHORITIES MUST RELEASE DR. NGUYEN DAN QUE". Amnesty International. 28 February 2011. http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=ENGPRE010892011&rss=iar. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "VIET NAM: FURTHER INFORMATION: CATHOLIC PRIEST RISKS BEING RETURNED TO PRISON: FATHER NGUYEN VAN LY". Amnesty International. 9 February 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA41/001/2011/en/b92b576a-52b0-42c1-9461-3b927e61aeb1/asa410012011en.html%EF%BF%BD%7Ctitle=URGENT. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  External links Amnesty International resource about prisoners of conscience Prisoners of Conscience Appeal Fund Foundation for the Defense of Prisoners of Conscience v · d · eIncarceration Sciences Criminology  • Penology Prisons List of prisons  • Federal prison  • Supermax  • Maximum security prison  • Administrative detention  • Youth detention center  • Military prison  • Penal colony  • Solitary confinement  • Death row Prisoners Criminal  • Detainee  • Prisoner of war  • Political prisoner  • Prisoner of conscience  • Hostage  • Slave Countries List of countries by incarceration rate See also Punishment  • Rehabilitation