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This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2007) This article is about the family of Portuguese and Brazilian dishes called Bacalhau. For the fish product that is the main ingredient in these dishes, see dried and salted cod. For the semi-legendary island of Bacalhau, see Bacalao. Salted and dried cod, produced in Norway. From the production of salted codfish Bacalhau (Portuguese pronunciation: [bɐkɐˈʎaw]) is the Portuguese word for dried and salted codfish. Fresh (unsalted) cod is referred to as bacalhau fresco. Contents 1 Use 2 Main ingredient 3 History of bacalhau dishes 4 Bacalhau dishes 5 See also 6 References // Use Bacalhau dishes are common in Portugal and Galicia, in the northwest of Spain, and to a lesser extent in its former colonies like Angola, Macau, and Brazil. There are said to be over 1000 recipes in Portugal alone and it can be considered the iconic ingredient of Portuguese cuisine (but curiously the only fish that is not consumed fresh in this fish-loving nation). Similar recipes can be found from Portugal to Greece (Bakaliaros). It is also found in the cuisines of other territories and regions like Puerto Rico and Scandinavia. Main ingredient The essential ingredient, salted dried codfish, usually comes from Norway (bacalhau da Noruega), Iceland (bacalhau da Islândia) or Newfoundland (bacalhau da Terra Nova). It used to be very affordable, but with the collapse of the cod stocks and dismantling of Portuguese bacalhoeiro fleet, it became more expensive, especially near Christmas time, since it's a part of many traditional dishes of the holiday season. History of bacalhau dishes Salt cod has been produced for at least 500 years, since the time of the European discoveries of the New World. Before refrigeration, there was a need to preserve the codfish; drying and salting are ancient techniques to preserve nutrients and the process makes the codfish tastier. The Portuguese tried to use this method of drying and salting on several varieties of fish from their waters, but the ideal fish came from much further north. With the "discovery" of Newfoundland in 1497, long after the Basque whalers arrived in Channel-Port aux Basques, they started fishing its cod-rich Grand Banks. Thus, bacalhau became a staple of the Portuguese cuisine, nicknamed Fiel amigo (faithful friend). From the 18th century, the town of Kristiansund in Norway became an important place of producing bacalhau or klippfish. This dish was popular in Portugal and other Roman Catholic countries, because of the many days (Fridays, Lent, and other festivals) on which the Church forbade the eating of meat. Bacalhau dishes were eaten instead.[1] Bacalhau is also popular in Sfax where this dish is eaten in the first day of Eid ul-Fitr with charmoula. Bacalhau dishes There are numerous bacalhau recipe variations, depending on region and tradition. It is said there are more than 365 ways to cook bacalhau, one for every day of the year; others say there are 1,001 ways. There are several notable main bacalhau recipes which have even gained fame in Southeast Asia. Many Asian tourists head to Macau just to eat bacalhau, an area where fresh seafood is also very popular. Bacalhau is often served with potatoes. Green (Vinho Verde) or mature wines (Alentejo Wine, Dão Wine, or Douro Wine) are served alongside. Traditional bacalhau dish Some Bacalhau dishes: Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá (some varieties: Original, Porto) Bacalhau à Brás Bacalhau da Consoada (some varieties: Minhota and Beirã), eaten on Christmas Eve. "Farrapo Velho" or "Roupa Velha", the leftovers of Bacalhau da Consoada and after the spirits have "eaten" their share overnight, is often served for Christmas Lunch. Bacalhau à Zé do Pipo Bacalhau à Zé do Telhado Bacalhau Espiritual Bacalhau Gratinado Bacalhau com Migas e Broa Bacalhau no Forno (some varieties: Algarve, Beiras, Antiga, Queijo, Salsa e Louro) Bacalhau-Lagosta (Lobster Bacalhau) Bacalhau com natas (Bacalhau with cream) Bacalhau ao Vinho do Porto (Port Wine Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Cerveja (Beer Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Queijo (Cheese Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Leite (Milk Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Alhos e Pimentão (Garlic and Pepper Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Pimento e Chouriço (Pepper and Sausage Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Tomate (Tomato Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Piri-piri (Piri-piri is a very hot chilli pepper used in Portuguese and Lusophone-African cuisine) Bacalhau com Molho de Ervas Picadas (Herbs Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Molho de Azeite (Olive Oil Sauce Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Molho de Camarão (Shrimp Sauce Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Molho de Caril (Curry Sauce Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Molho de Tomate (Tomato Sauce Bacalhau) Bacalhau com Molho Picante (Spicy Sauce Bacalhau) Bacalhau à Rosa do Adro Bacalhau Escondido (Hidden Bacalhau) a.k.a. Bacalhau à Enterro (Burial-style Bacalhau) Bacalhau Dourado (Golden Bacalhau) Bacalhau Cozido com Batatas a Murro (Boiled Bacalhau with Punched Potatoes) Some Regional Bacalhau dishes include: Bacalhau à Minhota (Minho region) Bacalhau Recheado à Narcisa (Minho region) Bacalhau à Lagareiro (Minho region) Bacalhau à Margarida da Praça (Minho region) Bacalhau à Novainho (Minho region) Bacalhau à São Lourenço da Montaria (Minho region) Bacalhau Assado na Brasa (Minho region) Bacalhau com Salpicão e Pão de Milho (Minho region) Bacalhau de Tiborna (Beiras) Bacalhau à Moda de Caminha Bacalhau à Moda de Viana do Castelo Bacalhau à Moda do Porto Bacalhau à Moda do Douro Bacalhau Frito (Beiras) Bacalhau Frito à Açoriana (Azores) Bacalhau Podre (literally, "Rotten Bacalhau", Trás-os-Montes) Bacalhau à Romeu (Trás-os-Montes) Bacalhau à Moda de Ervedosa (Beira Alta) Bacalhau à Assis (Beira Baixa) Bacalhau à Madre Paula (Estremadura) Bacalhau à Lisbonense (Lisbon) Bacalhau à Algarvia (Algarve) Bacalhau que Nunca Chega (Alentejo) Poejada de Bacalhau (Alentejo) Arroz de Bacalhau no Forno (Alentejo) Besides the dishes listed above, there are the bolinhos de bacalhau (term used in the north of Portugal and in Brazil) or pastéis de bacalhau (term in the south of Portugal): literally "Codfish cakes", made up of potatoes, eggs, parsley, and some minor ingredients with dry salted codfish. The bolinhos or pastéis de bacalhau are fried and served cold before meals. Similar delicacies are the "pataniscas de bacalhau" and the "iscas de bacalhau", which are often only served in traditional tabernas (taverns) in Northern Portugal and often preferred by older people. "Bolinhos de bacalhau" in Brazil are usually served in bars as an appetizer consumed with beer. See also Dried and salted cod Fishing in Portugal Portuguese cuisine References ^ História do Bacalhau v • d • e   Macanese cuisine Almond biscuit · Bacalhau · Bakkwa · Cabidela · Dried shredded squid · Galinha à Africana · Galinha à Portuguesa · Mango pudding · Pastel de nata · Pork chop bun · Portuguese sauce · Rousong Cuisine of Hong Kong  · Cuisine of Macao  · Chinese cuisine  · History of Chinese cuisine v • d • e Dried fish Bacalhau • Baccalà • Balyk • Boknafisk • Dried and salted cod • Dried shredded squid • Fesikh • Gwamegi • Katsuobushi • Kipper • Kusaya • Maldive fish • Meshawah • Mojama • Piracuí • Sanyaa • Stockfish • Tatami Iwashi • Vobla