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Japanese Buddhism Schools Hosso • Kegon • Ritsu • Tendai • Shingon • Pure Land • Zen • Nichiren Founders Saichō • Kūkai • Hōnen • Shinran • Dōgen • Eisai • Ingen • Nichiren Sacred Texts Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra Infinite Life Sutra Mahavairocana Tantra Vajrasekhara Sutra Glossary of Japanese Buddhism v · d · e Adhiṣṭhāna (Romanised Sanskrit with diacritics; Devanagari: अधिष्ठान; Tibetan: jin lab, contraction of jin gyi lab pa; Wylie:byin rlabs; Japanese: 加持 kaji; Thai: อธิษฐาน) are initiations or blessings in the Vajrayana Buddhist schools such as Tibetan Buddhism and Shingon. Contents 1 Nomenclature, orthography and etymology 2 Tantra 2.1 Vajrayana 3 Stream of blessings 4 Sadhana 5 Honzon Kaji 6 Sarira 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Nomenclature, orthography and etymology Adhishthana(m) is a term with multiple meanings which can mean: seat; basis; substratum; ground; support; and abode.[1] Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary Online holds the following semantic field for 'Adhishthana': [noun] standing by, being at hand, approach standing or resting upon a basis, base the standing-place of the warrior upon the car a position, site, residence, abode, seat a settlement, town, standing over government, authority, power a precedent, rule a benediction (Buddhism)[2] Fremantle (2001: p. 48) gives an etymology of the Sanskrit "Adhishthana" and Tibetan "jinlab" thus: The Sanskrit word literally means "standing over" and conveys ideas of taking possession, dwelling within, presence, protection, and sovereignty. The Tibetan literally means "an engulfing wave or flood of splendor and power." [3] Martin (1994: p.274) in his work on 'sarira' (Sanskrit) opines that 'byin-rlabs' the Tibetan term for 'adhishthana' (Sanskrit) was influenced from the Chinese word for the term: Byin-rlabs is commonly glossed as 'gift wave', but it more properly goes back to a literal translation of a Chinese word which was almost certainly made during the earliest introduction of Buddhism into Tibet in the seventh or eighth centuries. It is not a literal translation of the Sanskrit Buddhists term adhisthana. Its actual, or rather its philologically correct, meaning is 'received by (way of) giving'.[4] Tantra Vajrayana Tsultrim Allione points out that in Tibetan Buddhism adhistana blessings are an important part of the esoteric transmission received from the guru and lineage.[5] Receiving these blessings is dependent on the student having proper motivation, aspiration and intentionality (refer: Bodhichitta) and sufficient 'devotion' (Sanskrit: bhakti). These blessings may be received from the student's guru during initiation, from the yidam during deity yoga or simply from being in the presence of holy objects such as stupa. Kiyota (1978: p.70) in a study of the theory and practice of Shingon, an extant non-Himalayan Vajrayana Buddhist school, identifies three kinds of adhisthana: mudra, the finger sign; dharani, secret verses ; and yoga, through meditation practices.[6] The term adhisthana is also used to describe the transformative power of the Buddha. According to D. T. Suzuki: The Buddha is creative life itself, he creates himself in innumerable forms with all the means native to him. This is called his adhisthana, as it were, emanating from his personality. The idea of Adhisthana is one of the Mahayana landmarks in the history of Indian Buddhism and it is at the same time the beginning of the 'other-power' (tariki in Japanese) school as distinguished from the 'self-power' (jiriki).[7] Stream of blessings In the Indo-Himalayan lineages of Mantrayana where traditions of Tantra were introduced in the first wave of translations of Sanskrit texts into the Tibetan language, from the 8th century onwards, the term chosen by the community of 'translators' (Tibetan: lotsawa) which importantly is one of the most concerted translation efforts in documented history, chose to render "Adhiṣṭhāna" as "Tibetan: བྱིན་རླབས; Wylie: byin rlabs". This metaphorical usage of the 'stream', 'wave', 'thread', 'continuum' is reinforced in philosophy with the mindstream doctrine and its relationship to tantric sadhana where it is used in visualizations and invocations, particularly in relation to the Three Vajra of Padmasambhava and depicted in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist and Bon iconography such as representations of the Adi Buddha and Tapihritsa. Mills (2003: p.160) in a modern political and power-relations dissection of "chinlabs" in relation to hierarchical structures of the Gelugpa, a school of the 'second wave of translations' (Tibetan: sarma), holds that: "The acceptance of offerings by worldly deities and spirits was felt very strongly to oblige the recipient to act in favour of the donor, and particularly to act as their protector (strungma), a term widely used by householders to describe the various numina that inhabited their houses. This protection was seen as being a blessing (chinlabs) which descended upon the offerer from above in the manner of a stream. This metaphor of the stream and its pure source is an important one, and is a central idiom by which hierarchical relations, either in hospitality gatherings, offering practices, or religious teachings, were conceived and spoken about, emphasising once again the salience of height as designating relations with social superiors and preceptors." [8] Sadhana The Prayer of Inspiration known as "The Falling Rain of Blessings" (gsol 'debs byin rlabs char 'bebs) (from the Yang Zab Nyingpo)[9] Honzon Kaji In Shingon Buddhism, mantra, mudra and visualization practices aim at achieving Honzon Kaji, or union with the deity. According to Shingon priest Eijun Eidson: Honzon simply refers to the main deity in any given ritual. Kaji refers to the enhancement of a sentient being’s power through the Buddha’s power (Nyorai-kaji-riki), and it translates the Sanskrit word adhisthana.[10] Sarira 'Sarira' (Sanskrit; Devanagari: शरीर) are held to emanate or incite 'blessings' and 'grace' (Sanskrit: adhishthana) within the mindstream and experience of those connected to them.[11] See also Shaktipat References ^ http://www.atmajyoti.org/sw_glossary.asp ^ Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary Online (April, 2009). 'adhiShThAna'. Source: [1] (accessed: Sunday January 3, 2009) NB: change input to Itrans and place "adhiShThAna" (अधिष्ठान) as cited. ^ Fremantle, Francesca (2001). Luminous Emptiness: Understanding the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Boston: Shambala Publications. ISBN 1-57062-450-X, p. 48 ^ Martin, Dan (1994). 'Pearls from Bones: Relics, Chortens, Tertons and the Signs of Saintly Death in Tibet'. Numen, Vol. 41, No. 3. (Sep., 1994), p.274. ^ Allione, Tsultrim (1986). Women of Wisdom. London: Arkana. pp. xxxiv. ISBN 1-85063-044-5.  ^ Kiyota, Minoru (1978). Shingon Buddhism: Theory and practice. Buddhist Books international. p. 70. ISBN 0914910094.  ^ Suzuki, Daisetz T.. "The Shin Sect of Buddhism". Journal of Shin Buddhism. http://www.nembutsu.info/suzuki1.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-03.  ^ Mills, Martin A. (2003). Identity, ritual and state in Tibetan Buddhism: the foundations of authority in Gelukpa monasticism. RoutledgeCurzon studies in tantric traditions. ISBN 9780700714704. Source: [2] (accessed: Saturday January 2, 2010) ^ Source: [3] (accessed: Sunday January 3, 2010) ^ Eidson, Eijun. "Kaji". Buddhadharma:The Practitioner's Quarterly. http://www.thebuddhadharma.com/issues/2004/spring/dharma_dictionary.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-03.  ^ Martin, Dan (1994). 'Pearls from Bones: Relics, Chortens, Tertons and the Signs of Saintly Death in Tibet'. Numen, Vol. 41, No. 3. (Sep., 1994), p.274. External links Kaji v · d · eTibetan Buddhism Traditions: Vajrayana  • Bön  • Nyingma  • Kagyu  • Gelug  • Sakya  • Jonang  • Kadampa  • Rimé  • Chöd Key figures: Padmasambhava  • Dalai Lama • Panchen Lama  • Karmapa Lama  • Sakya Trizin  • Je Tsongkhapa  • Trisong Detsen  • Milarepa  • Thang Tong Gyalpo  • Shabkar Tsodruk Rangdrol  • Sakya Pandita  • Chogyal Phagpa  • Vairotsana  • Padampa Sangye  • Drukpa Kunley  • Chogyal Namkhai Norbu  • Godrakpa  • Gorampa Sonam Sengye  • Dudjom Rinpoche  • Shamarpa  • Dilgo Khyentse  • Jamgon Kongtrul  • Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo  • Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi Lodro  • Dolpopa  • Longchenpa  • Jigme Lingpa  • Patrul Rinpoche  • Gampopa  • Marpa  • Chögyam Trungpa  • Penor Rinpoche  • Ratna Lingpa  • Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche  • Chokyi Nyima Rinpoche  • Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche  • Shakya Shri  • Thinley Norbu  • Chogye Trichen  • Tenzin Osel  • Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche  • Taranatha  • Mikyo Dorje  • Minling Terton  • Rendawa  • Rongtong Shenrab Kunrig  • Chokgyur Lingpa  • Pema Lingpa  • Tai Situpa  • Lama Yeshe  • Mipham Rinpoche  • Tenzin Palmo  • Shakya Chogden  • Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche  • Tsele Natsok Rangdrol  • Ganden Tripa  • Lama Jampa Thaye  • Rangjung Dorje  • Lama Zopa Rinpoche  • Nyoshul Khenpo  • Tarthang Tulku  • Dodrupchen Rinpoche  • Lama Anagarika Govinda  • Alexandra David-Neel  • Vimalamitra  • Atisha  • Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo  • Tsang Nyon Heruka  • Go Lotsawa Shonnu Pal  • Sogyal Rinpoche  • Beru Khyentse Rinpoche  • Alexander Berzin (scholar)  • Chatral Rinpoche  • Dezhung Rinpoche  • Tulku Thondup  • Traleg Rinpoche  • Akong Rinpoche  • Khenpo Abbey Rinpoche  • Kangyur Rinpoche  • Dudjom Yangsi  • Dzigar Kongtrul  • Orgyen Tobgyal  • Kathok Ontrul Rinpoche  • Zurmang Tenpa Rinpoche  • Adzom Drukpa  • Yudra Nyingpo  • Ratna Vajra Sakya  • Gyana Vajra Sakya  • Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche  • Dawa Chodrak Rinpoche  • Kalu Rinpoche  • Steven Seagal  • Tenga Rinpoche  • Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche  • Thrangu Rinpoche  • Chetsang Rinpoche  • John Myrdhin Reynolds  • Trijang Rinpoche  • Pabongka Rinpoche  • Reting Rinpoche  • Zong Rinpoche  • Ling Rinpoche  • Khandro Rinpoche  • Trulshik Rinpoche  • Karma Thinley Rinpoche  • Khamtrul Rinpoche  • Gyalwa Drukpa  • Luding Khenchen Rinpoche  • Rechungpa  • Phagmo Drupa  • Arija Rinpoche Monasteries: Jokhang Temple  • Ganden Monastery  • Sera Monastery  • Ramoche Temple  • Sanga Monastery  • Zhefeng Temple  • Drepung Monastery  • Tashilhunpo  • Dzongsar Monastery  • Sakya Monastery Key Concepts: Ngöndro  • Dzogchen  • Mahamudra  • Kalacakra  • Lama • Tulku  • Terton  • Terma  • Rinpoche  • Ngagpa  • Lhasa  • Thangka  • Shambhala  • Chorten  • Yidam