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For other uses, see Shimron (disambiguation). Coordinates: 32°42′13.15″N 35°12′50.08″E / 32.7036528°N 35.2139111°E / 32.7036528; 35.2139111 Shimron was a major city in the north of the Land of Israel, in antiquity. Shimron is mentioned in the bible by this name, and in other period sources as Shim'on. The city is identified with the tell called Tel Samunia in Arabic.[1] The tel rises 60 meters above its surroundings, north-east of moshav Nahalal, on the border between the Lower Galilee, and the Jezreel Valley. Today the tel in not settled, Timrat was established alongside, to the east. History Shimron was one of the Bronze Age fortified Canaanite cities that controlled the Jezreel Valley, possibly the largest of them. All of these cities were located at an entrance to the valley, and controlled one of the roads leading into it. In the Amarna letters and the Execration texts[2], the city is referred to as Shim'on. In the bible, it is mentioned as one of the cities that were attacked by Joshua (Joshua 12:20), and also as belonging to the Tribe of Zebulun (Joshua 19:15). In the Hellenistic period, there was a large settlement at the foot of the tel, called Shimonia or Samunia. The city was central during First Jewish–Roman War, and in 66 CE a battle occurred here between the Jewish Rebels and the Romans, who besieged the city. The name of the city occurs also elsewhere (Niddah 24b), and in the Middle Ages it is mentioned by Ishtori Haparchi ("Kaftor wa-Feraḥ," ch. xi).[3] In 1867, a group of German Templers attempted to establish a settlement on the site, which failed due to malaria. In 1936, the site became an agricultural training station for the Moshavim Movement. One group that trained here came from Nahalal, and continued on to establish kibbutz Hanita. In 1948, kibbutz Timorim was established on the site. Timorim became a moshav shitufi in 1953 and moved to the south of the country, due to lack of farming lands. When it was vacated, it became a Ma'abara (transit camp) for new immigrants destined for Migdal Ha'Emek and Ramat Yishai. Nature reserve In 1965, a 28-dunam nature reserve was declared,[4] preserving the Apple-ring Acacia trees that grow on the site. This is the northern-most occurrence of these trees in Israel. References ^ "Shimron". The Bible Encyclopedia. http://bibleencyclopedia.com/shimron.htm.  ^ Aharoni, Yohanan (1979). The land of the Bible: a historical geography. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 144–147. ISBN 9780664242664. http://books.google.com/books?id=AMtoyNxWw0UC&pg=PA144. Retrieved 18 October 2010.  ^ "Simonias". The Jewish Encyclopedia. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=804&letter=S&search=shimron.  ^ "List of National Parks and Nature Reserves" (in Hebrew). Israel Nature and Parks Authority. http://parks.org.il/sigalit/muchrazim.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  v · d · e Nature reserves of Israel Northern District Ein Afek · Akhziv Islands · Alonei Yitzhak · Alonei Abba · Amud Stream · Nahal Ayun · Balfouria · Bitan Aharon · Nahal Betzet · Nahal Dishon · Dor Beach and Ma'agan Michael Islands · Ein Avazim · Ein Elah · Ein Nymphit · Ein Te'oh · Ein Yehuda · Nahal Gamal · Gamla nature reserve1 · Snir Stream · Hermon nature reserve1 · Nahal Hermon1 · Hula Valley · Hurshat Tal · Hurshat Zakum · Kerem Ben Zimra · Nahal Kziv · Mount Arbel · Mount Carmel · Mount Gilboa · Mount Meron · Mount Tabor · Pa'ar Cave · Rosh HaNikra · Shamir-Nahal Rachum · Shimron · Nahal Taninim · Tel Anafa · Nahal Tavor · Tel Dan · Tel Shikmona · Nahal Yehiam Central District Adullam · Ashdod Nitzanim Sand Dune Park · Bnei Zion · Avshalom Cave · Ein Hemed · HaMasrek Reserve · Neot Kedumim · Nahal Poleg · Nahal Sorek · Tel Yitzhak · Te'omim Cave · Udim Southern District Ein Gedi · Craters in the Negev · HaMakhtesh HaGadol · HaMakhtesh HaKatan · Makhtesh Ramon Eilat Region Coral Beach Nature Reserve  · Timna valley  · Yotvata Hai-Bar 1 Located in the Israeli-occupied territories