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Volkswagen Type 14 Manufacturer Volkswagen Production Germany 1955–1974 445,238 built[1] Coupé: 364,401 Cabriolet: 80,837 Brazil 1962-1975 41,689 built [2] Coupé: 23,393 Cabriolet: 177 TC: 18,119 Assembly Osnabrück, Germany[3] São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil Successor Volkswagen Scirocco Class Sports car Body style(s) 2-door convertible 2-door coupe Layout RR layout Engine(s) 1.5 & 1.6 L F4 Related Volkswagen Beetle Designer Luigi Segre[4] The Volkswagen Karmann Ghia is a 2+2 marketed from 1955 to 1974 by Volkswagen in coupe and convertible bodystyles — combining the chassis and mechanicals of the Type 1, evocative styling by the Italian carrozzeria Ghia, and hand-built bodywork by German coach-builder Karmann. The combination proved instantly successful for VW; production doubled soon after its introduction,[5] and the Type 14 became the most imported car in the U.S.[5] American industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague selected the Type 14 for his list of the world's most beautifully designed products.[6] The Karmann Ghia was internally designated the Type 14. Volkswagen later introduced a variant in 1961, the Type 34 — featuring a less curvacious bodywork and based on the newly introduced Type 3 platform. Over 445,000[3] Karmann Ghias were produced in Germany over the car's production life — not including the Type 34 variant. Karmann Brazil produced 41,600 cars locally for South America between 1962 and 1975. Contents 1 History 2 Type 34 Karmann Ghia 3 Karmann Ghia TC 4 References 5 External links // History The Type 14 debuted at the October 1953 Paris Auto Show as a styling concept created for Ghia by Luigi Segre.[7] In the early 1950s, Volkswagen was producing small, fuel efficient, reliable automobiles (like the Type 1). As the world recovered from World War II, consumers began to demand more stylish and elegant vehicles. Executives at Volkswagen decided to produce an "image" car for post-war buyers. The Type 14, VW's venture into the sports car market, was created in 1956. While it had limited power for a sports car, its stylish looks and reasonable price made sales strong. Volkswagen contracted with German coachbuilder Karmann to build this car. Karmann in turn contracted the Italian firm Ghia for a sports car design. Ghia took an existing, but unused, design (originally intended for Chrysler or Studebaker) and modified it to fit a slightly modified Beetle floorpan which had been widened some 12 in (300 mm). The body and nose of the Type 14 were handcrafted and significantly more expensive to produce than the assembly line-produced Beetle, which was reflected in the Type 14's higher price. Instead of fenders bolted and pre-welded together, as with the Beetle, body panels were butt-welded and hand-shaped and smoothed with English pewter in a time-consuming and expensive process. At the time the Type 14 was built, only the manufacturers of the finest cars used similar methods. The design and prototype were well received by Volkswagen executives, and in August 1955[3] the first Type 14 was manufactured in Osnabrück, Germany. Public reaction to the curvy Type 14 was excellent, and over 10,000 were sold in the first year, exceeding Volkswagen's expectations. Brazilian-built Karmann Ghia in a street of São Paulo Since all Type 14s used the same Volkswagen air cooled engine as the Beetle, the car was not suitable as a true sports car, but the car's styling and "Beetle reliable" parts compensated for this shortfall. The Type 14 also shared engine development with the Beetle as the Type 1 engine grew larger over time, finally arriving at an engine displacement of 1584 cc which produced about 60 hp (45 kW). In August 1957, a cabriolet (convertible) version was introduced. Although often called in USA the "1958 model" by some, the Detroit automakers' trend of calling models manufactured in August of a year as the next year's model was not adopted by Germany until at least 1965. In August 1964, the Vehicle Identification Number on VWs started showing the last digit of the year as the third digit of the VIN. As with other automobiles, multiple changes were made to VW models during the model years, including early Type 14s. Notable exterior changes in 1961 included the car's new wider, finned front grilles, raised headlight relocation, and rear taillight lenses which became taller and more rounded. Cars made from 1955 to 1959 are referred to as "lowlights", due to the lower placement of the headlights. The Italian designer Sergio Sartorelli,[8] designer of Type 34, took part to the various restyling of Type 14, until he worked for Ghia. VW Karmann Ghia Cabriolet In 1970, larger tail lights integrated the reverse lights and larger wrap-around turn signals in contrast to the earlier "bullet" style lights. VW models of this era have earned the slang nickname fat chicks[9]. Larger and wider taillights in 1972 increased side visibility. For the USA model only, NHTSA mandated 1973 modifications included larger energy-absorbing bumpers. Also, there was the provision of a package shelf in lieu of the modest rear seat. In late 1974, the car was replaced by the Golf ("Rabbit" in USA)-based Volkswagen Scirocco. Type 34 Karmann Ghia 1966 VW Type 34 in Melbourne, Australia 1966 VW Type 34 in Melbourne, Australia In 1961, Volkswagen introduced the VW 1500 Karmann Ghia Coupé,[10] or Type 34, based on its new Type 3 platform, featuring Volkswagen's new 1500 engine, and styling by Italian engineer Sergio Sartorelli[8]. Due to model confusion with the Type 14 1500 introduced in 1967, the Type 34 was known variously as the "Der Große Karmann" ("the big Karmann") in Germany, "Razor's Edge Ghia" in the United Kingdom, or "European Ghia" (or "Type 3 Ghia" among enthusiasts) in the United States.[10] An electrically-operated sliding steel sunroof was optional in 1963. The styling offered more interior and cargo room than the original Karmann Ghia. Until it was replaced by the VW-Porsche 914, it was the most expensive and luxurious passenger car VW manufactured in the 1960s — back then you could have purchased two basic Beetles for the price of one Type 34 in many markets. The comparatively high price meant it never generated high demand, and only 42,505 (plus 17 prototype convertibles [1]) were built over the car's entire production life between 1962 and 1969 (roughly 5,000 a year). Today, the Type 34 is considered a semi-rare collectible. Although the Type 34 was available in most countries, it was not offered officially in the U.S. — VW's largest and most important export market — another reason for its low sales numbers. Many still made their way to the USA (most via Canada), and the USA has the largest number of known Type 34s left in the world (400 of the total 1,500 to 2,000 or so remaining[11]). Like its Type 14 brother, the Type 34 was styled by the Italian design studio Ghia. There are some similar styling influences, but the Type 14 Ghia looks very different from the Type 34. The chassis is also a major difference between the cars: the Type 14 shares its chassis with a Beetle, whereas the Type 34 body is mounted on the Type 3 chassis and drive train (the same as in a Squareback/Notchback/Fastback) — all distinguished by a flattened "pancake" engine that provides a front and rear boot. The Type 34 is consequently mechanically the same as other Type 3s. All bodywork, interior, glass, bumpers, and most of the lenses are unique to the Type 34. The Wilhelm Karmann factory assembly line which assembled the Type 34 also produced the Porsche 914 — the Type 34's replacement. Karmann Ghia TC VW Karmann-Ghia TC This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) As an alternative to the Type 34 Karmann-Ghia coupé, which Volkswagen had introduced to Europe in 1961, Karmann-Ghia do Brasil looked to Ghia in Turin for a reworked version of the Type 14 at the end of the 1960s. At the time Ghia employed Giorgetto Giugiaro, the famous Italian designer and he was set to work on the new Brazilian Karmann Ghia. The result was the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia TC (Touring Coupé), internally known as the Type 145, which was introduced in 1970. This model looked much like an Italian impression of a Porsche 911 and was a roomy 2+2 coupe with a modern and comfortable interior. Underneath it was similar to the Type 14 though actually the platform of the Volkswagen Variant was used rather than that of the Volkswagen Beetle. The main difference was the engine: the Type 145 TC was fitted with the 1584 cc flat-four air-cooled boxer unit from the Type 3 instead of the 1192 cc unit of the Type 14. The car had 65 hp (48 kW) @ 4600 rpm and a top speed of 86 mph (138 km/h), compared to the 34 hp (25 kW) and 72 mph (116 km/h) of the Type 14. 18,119 TC models were produced during its production run from 1970 till 1976. It was only offered in South America and wasn't exported off the continent. There is a prototype which is part of the factory museum collection of Karmann in Osnabrück, Germany. References ^ a b Oswald, Werner (2003). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, Band 3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 39, 53. ISBN 3-613-02116-1.  ^ VW ^ a b c "Classic Cars: Volkswagen Karmann Ghia". independent.co.uk (London). 2007-12-04. http://www.independent.co.uk/living/motoring/features/article3218929.ece. Retrieved 2008-01-22.  ^ "History of Karmann Ghia". members.aol.com. http://members.aol.com/planetghia/history.html. Retrieved 2008-01-22.  ^ a b "Karmann-Ghia Coupe & Convertible, Veloce Publishing". http://www.veloce.co.uk/shop/products/popup.php?prod_id=V319&text=Sample+Text.  ^ "Styled for Success Karmann-Ghia, VW's Carrera for the Common Man and Woman, Cliff Leppke, VWtrends.com". http://www.vwtrendsweb.com/features/0110vwt_volkswagen_karmann_ghia_history/.  ^ "The Karmann Story". by Dieter Knust, published by Verlag Meinders & Elstermann GmbH & Co. 1996. http://www.kabriolett.com/karmann/history/history2.htm.  ^ a b "Karmann Ghia Italia - Karmann Ghia Italy" (in (Italian)). Karmannghia.it. 2008-10-18. http://www.karmannghia.it/Sartorelli.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-25.  ^ "VW Dictionary". Samba.com. http://www.thesamba.com/vw/archives/dic/f.php.  ^ a b Hedges, Lee Thomas. "Type 3 Ghia (Type 34) History". http://www.thesamba.com/vw/archives/info/historyt34.php. Retrieved 2007-04-15.  ^ as per the Type 34 Registry External links      Wikimedia Commons has media  related to (category): Karmann Ghia or Volkswagen Type 34 The Online Karmann Ghia Resource Karmann Ghia at the Open Directory Project Tour of the Type 34 v • d • e Volkswagen Passenger Cars — a marque of the Volkswagen Group Volkswagen Group marques & companies Volkswagen Passenger Cars • Audi • quattro GmbH • SEAT • Škoda • Lamborghini • Bentley • Bugatti • Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles • Scania see also list of Volkswagen Group factories • list of Volkswagen Group platforms • list of Volkswagen Group petrol engines • list of Volkswagen Group diesel engines • discontinued petrol engines • discontinued diesel engines • North American engines • Volkswagen air cooled engine • Wasserboxer • G-Lader • G40 / G60 • 4motion current Volkswagen passenger car range Derby • Eos • Fox (Lupo)/CrossFox/Suran (SpaceFox/SportVan) • Gol (Pointer)/Parati/Saveiro • Golf Mk6 Variant • Golf Mk6 (Rabbit)/GTI/Golf Plus/CrossGolf • Jetta (Bora/Sagitar/Vento) • Lavida • New Beetle • Passat (Magotan) • Santana (2000/3000) • Passat CC • Phaeton • Polo/CrossPolo • Polo GTI • Routan • Scirocco • Sharan • Tiguan • Touareg • Touran discontinued aircooled VW models 181 (Kurierwagen/Trekker/Thing/Safari) • 411/412 (Type 4) • 1500/1600 (Type 3) • Beetle (Type 1) • Brasilia • Country Buggy (Sakbayan) • Hebmüller Cabriolet • Karmann Ghia • Kommandeurwagen • Kübelwagen • Schwimmwagen • SP2 • Type 18A • VW-Porsche 914 discontinued watercooled VW models Apollo • Citi Golf • Corrado • Golf Cabriolet • Golf (Rabbit) Mk1-Mk5 • Iltis • K70 • Lupo • Pointer/Logus • Polo Playa • Polo GT G40 Volkswagen concept vehicles 1-Litre Concept • up! series • GX3 • Iroc • EcoRacer • Concept A • Concept R • New Beetle Ragster • EDAG Biwak (New Beetle estate) • Microbus Concept • W12/Nardo • Stanley • Concept BlueSport future Volkswagen cars New Small Family • New Midsize Sedan VW-based kit-cars / campervans / racing cars Herbie • Formula Vee • Baja Bug • Meyers Manx • EMPI Imp • Westfalia Campervans Related articles: Deutsche Arbeitsfront • Fahrvergnügen • A marque of the Volkswagen Group • Transparent Factory v • d • e Volkswagen Passenger Cars timeline, European market, 1950–1979 — a marque of the Volkswagen Group — next » type / class 1950s 1960s 1970s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 economy car . . . Beetle (Type 1) . . . supermini Polo Mk1 . . . Derby Mk1 . . . small family car Type 3 Golf Mk1 . . . large family car Type 4 K70 (NSU) Passat Mk1 . . . coupé Karmann Ghia Scirocco I . . . Type 34 Karmann Ghia VW-Porsche 914 utility vehicle Type 181 Kurierwagen/Trekker . . . founder: Deutsche Arbeitsfront • Volkswagen corporate website • A marque of the Volkswagen Group v • d • e Volkswagen Passenger Cars timeline, North American market, 1950–1979 — a marque of the Volkswagen Group — next » type / class 1950s 1960s 1970s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 economy Beetle (Type 1) compact Fastback / Squareback (Type 3) Rabbit I Dasher mid-size Type 4 K70 (NSU) coupé Karmann Ghia Scirocco I convertible Beetle Convertible Karmann Ghia Convertible van Microbus (Type 2 - T1) Microbus (Type 2 - T2) utility 181 Thing / Safari founder: Deutsche Arbeitsfront • Volkswagen corporate website • A marque of the Volkswagen Group • Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. • Volkswagen Group of America corporate website • North American Volkswagen engines