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A group of 104 rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) at Fort Bliss, Texas Operation Paperclip was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program used to recruit the scientists of Nazi Germany for employment by the United States in the aftermath of World War II (1939–45). It was executed by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), and in the context of the burgeoning Soviet–American Cold War (1945–91), one purpose of Operation Paperclip was to deny German scientific knowledge and expertise to the USSR[1] and the UK.[2] Although the JIOA’s recruitment of German scientists began after the European Allied victory (8 May 1945), US President Harry Truman did not formally order the execution of Operation Paperclip until August 1945. Truman's order expressly excluded anyone found “to have been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism.” Said restrictions would have rendered ineligible most of the scientists the JIOA had identified for recruitment, among them rocket scientists Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph, and the physician Hubertus Strughold, each earlier classified as a “menace to the security of the Allied Forces”. To circumvent President Truman’s anti-Nazi order, and the Allied Potsdam and Yalta agreements, the JIOA worked independently to create false employment and political biographies for the scientists. The JIOA also expunged from the public record the scientists' Nazi Party memberships and régime affiliations. Once “bleached” of their Nazism, the US Government granted the scientists security clearance to work in the United States. Paperclip, the project’s operational name, derived from the paperclips used to attach the scientists’ new political personae to their “US Government Scientist” JIOA personnel files.[3] Contents 1 The Osenberg List 2 Identification 3 Capture and detention 4 The scientists 5 Key figures 6 Related operations 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References The Osenberg List Having failed to conquer the USSR with Operation Barbarossa (June–December 1941), the Siege of Leningrad (September 1941–January 1944), Operation Nordlicht (August–October 1942), and the Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942–February 1943), Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage. The failed conquest had depleted German resources and its military-industrial complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich) against the Red Army’s westward counterattack. By early 1943, the German government began recalling from combat a number of scientists, engineers, and technicians; they returned to work in research and development to bolster German defense for a protracted war with the USSR. The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in north-east coastal Germany, to wit:[4][5] “ Overnight, Ph.D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers. „ —Dieter K. Huzel, Peenemünde to Canaveral The Nazi government’s recall of their now-useful intellectuals for scientific work first required identifying and locating the scientists, engineers, and technicians, then ascertaining their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft (Military Research Association), recorded the names of the politically-cleared men to the Osenberg List, thus reinstating them to scientific work.[6] In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet; the list subsequently reached MI6, who transmitted it to US Intelligence.[7][8] Then US Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, used the Osenberg List to compile his list of German scientists to be captured and interrogated; Wernher von Braun, Nazi Germany’s premier rocket scientist headed Major Staver’s list.[9] Identification V-2 rocket launching, Peenemünde, on the north-east Baltic German coast. (1943) Operation Overcast — Major Staver’s original intent was only to interview the scientists, but what he learned changed the operation’s purpose. On 22 May 1945, he transmitted to US Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes’s telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists, and their families, as most “important for [the] Pacific war” effort.[8] Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, developing the V-2 rocket; after capturing them, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany. Beginning on 19 July 1945, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) managed the captured ARC rocketeers under a program called Operation Overcast. However, when the “Camp Overcast” name of the scientists’ quarters became locally-known, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip in March 1946. Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press interviewed several of the scientists.[8][9][9][10] Regarding Operation Alsos, Allied Intelligence described nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, the German nuclear energy project principal, as “ . . . worth more to us than ten divisions of Germans.” In addition to rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also sought chemists, physicians, and naval weaponeers.[11] Meanwhile, the Technical Director of the German Army Rocket Center, Wernher von Braun, was jailed at P.O. Box 1142, a secret military-intelligence prison in Fort Hunt, Virginia in the United States. Since the prison was unknown to the International Red Cross, its operation by the US was in violation of the Geneva Convention. Although Von Braun’s interrogators pressured him, he was not tortured; however in 1944 another PoW, U-boat Captain Werner Henke killed himself at Fort Hunt.[12] Capture and detention The Allied zones of occupation in post-war Germany, highlighting the Soviet zone (red), the inner German border (heavy black line) and the zone from which British and American troops withdrew in July 1945 (purple). The provincial boundaries are those of pre-Nazi Weimar Germany, before the present Länder (federal states) were established. Early on the U.S. created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee (CIOS). This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific, military and industrial installations (and their employees) for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan; finding out what technology had been passed on to Japan; and finally to halt the research. A project to halt the research was codenamed "Project Safehaven", and it was not initially targeted against the Soviet Union; rather the concern was that German scientists might emigrate and continue their research in countries such as Spain, Argentina or Egypt, all of which had sympathized with Nazi Germany. Much U.S. effort was focused on Saxony and Thuringia, which by July 1, 1945 would become part of the Soviet Occupation zone. Many German research facilities and personnel had been evacuated to these states, particularly from the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would limit U.S. ability to exploit German scientific and technical expertise, and not wanting the Soviet Union to benefit from said expertise, the U.S. instigated an "evacuation operation" of scientific personnel from Saxony and Thuringia, issuing orders such as: On orders of Military Government you are to report with your family and baggage as much as you can carry tomorrow noon at 1300 hours (Friday, 22 June 1945) at the town square in Bitterfeld. There is no need to bring winter clothing. Easily carried possessions, such as family documents, jewelry, and the like should be taken along. You will be transported by motor vehicle to the nearest railway station. From there you will travel on to the West. Please tell the bearer of this letter how large your family is. By 1947 this evacuation operation had netted an estimated 1,800 technicians and scientists, along with 3,700 family-members. Those with special skills or knowledge were taken to detention and interrogation centers, such as one code-named DUSTBIN,[13] to be held and interrogated, in some cases for months. A few of the scientists were gathered up in Operation Overcast, but most were transported to villages in the countryside where there were neither research facilities nor work; they were provided stipends and forced to report twice weekly to police headquarters to prevent them from leaving. The Joint Chiefs of Staff directive on research and teaching stated that technicians and scientists should be released "only after all interested agencies were satisfied that all desired intelligence information had been obtained from them". On 5 November 1947, the Office of Military Government of the United States (OMGUS), which had jurisdiction over the western part of occupied Germany, held a conference to consider the status of the evacuees, the monetary claims that the evacuees had filed against the U.S., and the "possible violation by the U.S. of laws of war or Rules of Land Warfare". The OMGUS director of Intelligence R. L. Walsh initiated a program to resettle the evacuees in the Third world, which the Germans referred to as General Walsh's "Urwald-Programm" (jungle program), however this program never matured. In 1948, the evacuees received settlements of 69.5 million Reich Marks from the U.S., a settlement that soon became severely devalued during the currency reform that introduced the Deutsche Mark as the official currency of western Germany. John Gimbel concludes that the U.S. put some of Germany's best minds on ice for three years, therefore depriving the German recovery of their expertise.[14] The scientists German scientists repatriated from Sukhumi in February 1958. (see Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union) In May 1945, the US Navy received Dr. Herbert A. Wagner, the inventor of the Hs 293 missile; for two years, he first worked at the Special Devices Center, at Castle Gould and at Hempstead House, Long Island, New York; in 1947, he moved to the Naval Air Station Point Mugu.[15] In August 1945, Colonel Holger Toftoy, head of the Rocket Branch of the Research and Development Division of the US Army’s Ordnance Corps, offered initial one-year contracts to the rocket scientists; 127 of them accepted. In September 1945, the first group of seven rocket scientists arrived at Fort Strong, New York: Wernher von Braun, Erich W. Neubert, Theodor A. Poppel, August Schulze, Eberhard Rees, Wilhelm Jungert, and Walter Schwidetzky.[8] Beginning in late 1945, three rocket-scientist groups arrived in the US for duty at Fort Bliss, Texas, and at White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico, as “War Department Special Employees”.[4]:27 In 1946, the United States Bureau of Mines employed seven German synthetic fuel scientists at a Fischer-Tropsch chemical plant in Louisiana, Missouri.[16] In early 1950, legal US residency for some of the Project Paperclip specialists was effected through the US consulate in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico; thus, Nazi scientists legally entered the US from Latin America.[4]:226[9] Eighty-six aeronautical engineers were transferred to Wright Field, where the US had Luftwaffe aircraft and equipment captured under Operation Lusty (Luftwaffe Secret Technology).[17] The United States Army Signal Corps employed 24 specialists — including the physicists Georg Goubau, Gunter Guttwein, Georg Hass, Horst Kedesdy, and Kurt Lehovec; the physical chemists Rudolf Brill, Ernst Baars, and Eberhard Both; the geophysicist Dr. Helmut Weickmann; the optician Gerhard Schwesinger; and the engineers Eduard Gerber, Richard Guenther, and Hans Ziegler.[18] In 1959, ninety-four Operation Paperclip men went to the US, including Friedwardt Winterberg and Friedrich Wigand.[15] Throughout its operations to 1990, Operation Paperclip imported 1,600 men, as part of the intellectual reparations owed to the US and the UK, some $10 billion in patents and industrial processes.[15][19] During the decades after they were included in Operation Paperclip, some scientists were investigated because of their activities during World War II. Arthur Rudolph was deported in 1984, but not prosecuted, and West Germany granted him citizenship.[20] Similarly, Georg Rickhey, who came to the United States under Operation Paperclip in 1946, was returned to Germany to stand trial at the Mittelbau-Dora war crimes trial in 1947, was acquitted, and returned to the United States in 1948, eventually becoming a U.S. citizen.[21] The aeromedical library at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas had been named after Hubertus Strughold in 1977. However, it was later renamed because documents from the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal linked Strughold to medical experiments in which inmates from Dachau were tortured and killed.[22] Key figures Rocketry: Rudi Beichel, Magnus von Braun, Wernher von Braun, Walter Dornberger, Werner Dahm, Konrad Dannenberg, Kurt H. Debus, Ernst R. G. Eckert, Krafft Arnold Ehricke, Otto Hirschler, Hermann H. Kurzweg, Fritz Mueller, Gerhard Reisig, Georg Rickhey, Arthur Rudolph, Ernst Stuhlinger, Werner Rosinski, Eberhard Rees, Ludwig Roth, Georg von Tiesenhausen, and Bernhard Tessmann (see List of German rocket scientists in the US). Aeronautics: Alexander Martin Lippisch, Hans von Ohain, Hans Multhopp, Kurt Tank Medicine: Walter Schreiber, Kurt Blome, Hubertus Strughold, Hans Antmann (Human factors)[17] Electronics: Hans Ziegler, Kurt Lehovec, Hans Hollmann, Johannes Plendl, Heinz Schlicke Intelligence: Reinhard Gehlen Related operations APPLEPIE: Project to capture and interrogate key Wehrmacht, RSHA AMT VI, and General Staff officers knowledgeable of the industry and economy of the USSR.[23] DUSTBIN (counterpart of ASHCAN): An Anglo–American military intelligence operation established first in Paris, then in Kransberg Castle, at Frankfurt.[24][25]:314 ECLIPSE (1944): An unimplemented Air Disarmament Wing plan for post-war operations in Europe for destroying V-1 and V-2 missiles.[25][26]:44 Safehaven: US project within ECLIPSE meant to prevent the escape of Nazi scientists from Allied-occupied Germany.[9] Field Information Agency; Technical (FIAT): US Army agency for securing the “major, and perhaps only, material reward of victory, namely, the advancement of science and the improvement of production and standards of living in the United Nations, by proper exploitation of German methods in these fields”; FIAT ended in 1947, when Operation Paperclip began functioning.[25]:316 On 26 April 1946, the Joint Chiefs of Staff issued JCS Directive 1067/14 to General Eisenhower instructing that he “preserve from destruction and take under your control records, plans, books, documents, papers, files and scientific, industrial and other information and data belonging to . . . German organizations engaged in military research”;[8]:185 and that, excepting war-criminals, German scientists be detained for intelligence purposes as required.[27] National Interest/Project 63: Job placement assistance for Nazi engineers at Lockheed, Martin Marietta, North American Aviation, and other aeroplane companies, whilst American aerospace engineers were being laid off work.[15] Operation Alsos, Operation Big, Russian Alsos: Soviet and American efforts to capture German nuclear secrets, equipment, and personnel. Operation Backfire: A British effort at capturing rocket and aerospace technology from Cuxhaven. Operation Lusty: US efforts to capture German aeronautical equipment, technology, and personnel. Operation Osoaviakhim (sometimes transliterated as "Operation Ossavakim"), a Soviet counterpart of Operation Paperclip, involving German technicians, managers, skilled workers and their respective families.[28] Operation Surgeon: British operation for denying German aeronautical expertise to the USSR, and for exploiting German scientists in furthering British research.[29] Special Mission V-2: US operation, by Maj. William Bromley, meant to recover V-2 rocket parts and equipment. Maj. James P. Hamill co-ordinated the rail transport of said equipment with the 144th Motor Vehicle Assembly Company, from Nordhausen to Erfurt.[9][1] (see also Operation Blossom, Broomstick Scientists, Hermes project, Operations Sandy and Pushover) Target Intelligence Committee: US project to exploit German cryptographers. See also Allen Welsh Dulles Carmel Offie Ex-Nazis Fort Bliss Gernot Zippe ODESSA Nazi human experimentation Upper Atmosphere Research Panel Locations in Germany: Peenemünde, Mittelwerk, Mittelbau-Dora, Landshut Locations in the US: Fort Bliss, White Sands Missile Range, Fort Monmouth, Camp Evans, Fort Strong Notes ^ "Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/iwg/declassified-records/rg-330-defense-secretary/. Retrieved 9-Oct-2008.  ^ The Secret War, 1978, Brian Johnson, p184 ^ Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the Cold War, 1975, Clarence G. Lasby et al. ^ a b c Huzel, Dieter K (1960). Peenemünde to Canaveral. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 27,226.  ^ Braun, Wernher von (Estate of); Ordway III, Frederick I (1985). Space Travel: A History. & David Dooling, Jr.. New York: Harper & Row. p. 218. ISBN 0-06-181898-4.  ^ Forman, Paul; Sánchez-Ron, José Manuel (1996). National Military Establishments and the Advancement of Science and Technology. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 308. http://books.google.com/books?id=6pN_j7PctKYC&pg=PA308&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=0_1.  ^ MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty’s Secret Intelligence Service (2000), by Steven Dorril, p. 138. ^ a b c d e McGovern, James (1964). Crossbow and Overcast. New York: W. Morrow. pp. 100, 104, 173, 207, 210, 242.  ^ a b c d e f Ordway, Frederick I, III; Sharpe, Mitchell R (1979). The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. pp. 310, 313, 314, 316, 325, 330, 406. ISBN 1894959000.  ^ Boyne, Walter J. (June 2007). "Project Paperclip". Air Force (Air Force Association). http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2007/June%202007/0607paperclip.aspx. Retrieved 2008-10-17.  ^ Naimark, Norman M (1979). The Russians in Germany; A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949. Harvard University Press. pp. 207. ISBN 0-674-78406-5.  ^ Dvorak, Petula (2007-10-06). "Fort Hunt's Quiet Men Break Silence on WWII". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/05/AR2007100502492.html. Retrieved 2008-01-11.  ^ Note: Located first in Paris and then moved to Kransberg Castle outside Frankfurt. ^ "U.S. Policy and German Scientists: The Early Cold War", Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 101, No. 3, (1986), pp. 433-451 ^ a b c d Hunt, Linda (1991). Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990. New York: St.Martin's Press. pp. 6,21,31,176,204,259. ISBN 0312055102.  ^ Fischer-Tropsch.org ^ a b "The End of World War II". (television show, Original Air Date: 2-17-05). A&E. http://www.historyinternational.com/global/listings/listings.jsp?fromYear=2007&fromMonth=5&fromDate=3&NetwCode=HCI&timezone=1&View=Prime&. Retrieved 2007-06-04.  ^ Operation Paperclip and Camp Evans ^ Naimark. 206 (Naimark cites Gimbel, John Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany) The $10 billion compare to the 1948 US GDP $258 billion, and to the total Marshall plan (1948–52) expenditure of $13 billion, of which Germany received $1.4 billion (partly as loans). ^ Hunt, Linda (May 23, 1987). "NASA's Nazis". Nation. http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/nasa-nazis.html.  ^ Michael J. Neufeld (2008). Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War Vintage Series. Random House, Inc.. ISBN 9780307389374. http://books.google.com/books?id=07hgJbzQrt0C&pg=PA235&lpg=PA235&dq=Georg+Rickhey&source=bl&ots=z8HXZ34o_K&sig=21rIxbEu2hirVwQCt4Onihz_QrI&hl=en&ei=LdF6TNfLB8OEnQfHgamdCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&sqi=2&ved=0CCQQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Georg%20Rickhey&f=false.  ^ Walker, Andres (2005-11-21). "Project Paperclip: Dark side of the Moon". BBC news. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4443934.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-18.  ^ "List Of Terms, Code Names, Operations, and Other Search Terminology To Assist Review and Identification Activities Required by the Act". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/iwg/finding-aids/list-of-terms-code.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19.  ^ Buchholz, Dr. Annemarie (2003). "The New Form of Government: Bombocracy". Current Concerns. Switzerland. http://www.currentconcerns.ch/archive/2003/02/20030203.php. Retrieved 2008-10-18.  ^ a b c Ziemke, Earl F (1990) [1975]. "Chapter XI:Getting Ready for "The Day"". The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany 1944-1946. Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History. pp. 163. CMH Pub 30-6. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/Occ-GY/ch11.htm.  ^ Cooksley, Peter G (1979). Flying Bomb. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. pp. 44.  ^ Beyerchen, Alan. "German Scientists and Research Institutions in Allied Occupation Policy". History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 3, Special Issue: Educational Policy and Reform in Modern Germany. (Autumn, 1982), pp. 289-299. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2680%28198223%2922%3A3%3C289%3AGSARII%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D.  NOTE: Much of the FIAT information was adapted commercially, to the degree that the office of the Assistant Secretary of State for Occupied Areas requested that the peace treaty with Germany be redacted to protect US industry from lawsuits. ^ Pennacchio, Charles F. (Fall, 1995). "The East German Communists and the Origins of the Berlin Blockade Crisis" (DOC). East European Quarterly 29 (3). http://www.daniellazar.com/wp-content/uploads/the-east-german-communists-and-the-origins-of-the-berlin-blockade-crisis.doc. Retrieved 2010-06-29. "[...] October 21, 1946, marked the initiation of "Operation Ossavakim," which forcibly transferred to Soviet soil thousands of German technicians, managers and skilled personnel, along with their family members and the industrial tools they would operate.".  ^ "UK 'fears' over German scientists" BBC NewsUK 31 March 2006 References Yves Beon, Planet Dora. Westview Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8133-3272-9 Giuseppe Ciampaglia: "Come ebbe effettivo inizio a Roma l'Operazione Paperclip." Roma 2005. In: Strenna dei Romanisti 2005. Edit. Roma Amor Henry Stevens, Hitler's Suppressed and Still-Secret Weapons, Science and Technology. Adventures Unlimited Press, 2007. ISBN 1-931882-73-8 John Gimbel, "Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany" Stanford University Press, 1990 ISBN 0-8047-1761-3 Linda Hunt, Arthur Rudolph of Dora and NASA, Moment 4, 1987 (Yorkshire Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) Linda Hunt, Secret Agenda:The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990. St Martin's Press - Thomas Dunne Books, 1991. ISBN 0-312-05510-2 Linda Hunt, U.S. Coverup of Nazi Scientists The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. April, 1985. Matthias Judt; Burghard Ciesla, "Technology Transfer Out of Germany After 1945" Harwood Academic Publishers, 1996. ISBN 3-7186-5822-4 Michael C. Carroll, Lab 257: The Disturbing Story of the Government's Secret Germ Laboratory. Harper Paperbacks, 2005. ISBN 0-06-078184-X John Gimbel "U.S. Policy and German Scientists: The Early Cold War", Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 101, No. 3 (1986), pp. 433–51 Clarence G., Lasby "Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the Cold War" Scribner (February 1975) ISBN 0-689-70524-7 Christopher Simpson, Blowback: America’s Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects on the Cold War (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988) Wolfgang W. E. Samuel American Raiders: The Race to Capture the Luftwaffe’s Secrets (University Press of Mississippi, 2004) Koerner, Steven T. "Technology Transfer from Germany to Canada after 1945: A Study in Failure?". Comparative Technology Transfer and Society, Volume 2, Number 1, April 2004, pp. 99–124 C. Lester Walker "Secrets By The Thousands", Harper's Magazine. October 1946 John Farquharson "Governed or Exploited? The British Acquisition of German Technology, 1945–48" Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Jan., 1997), pp. 23–42 1995 Human Radiation Experiments Memorandum: Post-World War II Reccruitment of German Scientists—Project Paperclip Operation Paperclip Casefile Employment of German scientists and technicians: denial policy UK National archives releases March 2006. "Objective List of German and Austrian Scientists" (Microsoft Word). Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency. http://www.scientistsandfriends.com. Retrieved 2007-04-10.  v · d · eWorld War II Western Europe · Eastern Europe · Africa · Mediterranean · Asia and the Pacific · Atlantic Casualties · Military engagements · Topics · Conferences · Commanders Participants Allies (Leaders) Ethiopia · China · Czechoslovakia · Poland · United Kingdom · India · France · Australia · New Zealand · South Africa · Canada · Norway · Belgium · Netherlands · Greece · Yugoslavia · Soviet Union · United States · Philippines · Mexico · Brazil Axis and Axis-aligned (Leaders) Bulgaria · Reorganized National Government of China · Croatia · Finland · Germany · Hungary · Iraq · Italy · Italian Social Republic · Japan · Manchukuo · Romania · Slovakia · Thailand · Vichy France Resistance Austria · Baltic States · Belgium · Czech lands · Denmark · Estonia · Ethiopia · France · Germany · Greece · Hong Kong · India · Italy · Jewish · Korea · Latvia · Luxembourg · Netherlands · Norway · Philippines · Poland (Anti-communist) · Romania · Thailand · Soviet Union · Slovakia · Western Ukraine · Vietnam · Yugoslavia Timeline  Prelude Africa · Asia · Europe 1939 Invasion of Poland · Phoney War · Winter War · Battle of the Atlantic · Battle of Changsha (1939) · Winter Offensive in China 1940 Denmark and Norway · Battle of the Netherlands · Battle of Belgium · Battle of France · Battle of Britain · Libya and Egypt · British Somaliland · Baltic states · Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina · Invasion of French Indochina · Invasion of Greece  · Operation Compass 1941 East Africa Campaign · Invasion of Yugoslavia · Yugoslav Front · Battle of Greece · Battle of Crete · Invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) · Continuation War · June Uprising · Middle East Campaign  · Battle of Kiev  · Siege of Leningrad · Battle of Moscow · Siege of Sevastopol · Attack on Pearl Harbor · Battle of Hong Kong · Battle of the Philippines · Battle of Changsha (1941) · Battle of Malaya · Battle of Borneo 1942 Japanese Conquest of Burma · Battle of Changsha (1942) · Battle of the Coral Sea · Battle of Gazala · Battle of Midway · Case Blue · Battle of Stalingrad · Dieppe Raid · Second Battle of El Alamein · Operation Torch · Guadalcanal Campaign 1943 End in Africa · Battle of Kursk · Battle of Smolensk · Solomon Islands · Invasion of Sicily · Lower Dnieper Offensive · Invasion of Italy · Gilbert and Marshall Islands · Battle of Changde 1944 Cassino and Anzio · Narva · Korsun–Shevchenkovsky Offensive  · Operation Tempest · Operation Ichi-Go · Invasion of Normandy · Mariana and Palau Islands · Operation Bagration · Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive · Tannenberg Line · Warsaw Uprising · Jassy–Kishinev Offensive · Belgrade Offensive · Liberation of Paris · Gothic Line · Operation Market Garden · Tallinn Offensive · Operation Crossbow · Operation Pointblank · Lapland War · Budapest Offensive · Battle of Leyte Gulf · Battle of the Bulge · Burma Campaign 1945 Vistula–Oder Offensive · Battle of Iwo Jima · Battle of Okinawa · Final offensive in Italy · Battle of Berlin · Prague Offensive · Siege of Budapest · Battle of West Hunan · Surrender of Germany · Soviet invasion of Manchuria · Philippine liberation  · Borneo Campaign · Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki · Surrender of Japan Aspects General Air warfare of World War II · Attacks on North America · Blitzkrieg · Comparative military ranks · Cryptography · Home front · Military awards · Military equipment · Military production · Nazi plunder · Technology · Total war · Strategic bombing · Bengal famine of 1943 Aftermath Effects · Expulsion of Germans · Operation Paperclip · Operation Keelhaul · Occupation of Germany · Morgenthau Plan · Territorial changes · Soviet occupations (Romania, Poland, Hungary, Baltic States) · Occupation of Japan · First Indochina War · Indonesian National Revolution · Cold War · Decolonization · Contemporary culture  War crimes German and Wehrmacht war crimes · The Holocaust · Italian war crimes · Japanese war crimes · Allied war crimes · Soviet war crimes · United States war crimes War rape Rape during the occupation of Japan · Comfort women  · Rape of Nanking  · Rape during the occupation of Germany Prisoners Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs  · Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union · Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union · Japanese prisoners of war in World War II · German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Category · Portal  definition ·  textbooks ·  quotes ·  source texts ·  media ·  news stories