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Ultramares Corporation v. Touche, 174 N.E. 441 (1932) is a US tort law case regarding negligent misstatement, decided by Cardozo, C.J. It contained the now famous line on "floodgates" that the law should not admit "to a liability in an indeterminate amount for an indeterminate time to an indeterminate class." Contents 1 Facts 2 Judgment 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 References Facts Some accountants (Touche) knew that the accounts when certified would be used to raise money and for that purpose supplied 32 certified and serially numbered copies: p. 442. On the faith of one of those copies, given to it on its demand, the plaintiff lent the company money. The audit was found to be negligent. Judgment Cardozo, C.J., held that the claim in negligence failed on the ground that the auditors owed the plaintiff no duty of care, there being no sufficiently proximate relationship. He said no, "to a liability in an indeterminate amount for an indeterminate time to an indeterminate class." A requirement of privity, not of contract but of relationship, was laid down. Other uses This rule is still the rule in New York: Credit Alliance Corporation v. Arthur Andersen & Co. (1985) 483 N.E. 2d 110. A much less restrictive rule has been followed elsewhere: see, for example, Rosenblum Inc. v. Adler (1983) 461 A. 2d 138; Citizens State Bank v. Timm, Schmidt & Co. (1983) 335 N.W. 2d 361. In Rhode Island Hospital Trust National Bank v. Swartz, Bresenoff, Yavner & Jacobs (1972) 455 F. 2d 847 , 851, a United States Court of Appeals, applying Rhode Island law, applied the rule that an accountant should be liable in negligence for careless financial misrepresentations relied upon by actually foreseen and limited classes of persons. In Ingram Industries Inc. v. Nowicki (1981) 527 F. Supp. 683 a federal judge applying the law of Kentucky relied on the Restatement, Second, Torts, section 552. Section 552 provides: "Information Negligently Supplied for the Guidance of others "(1) One who, in the course of his business, profession or employment, or in any other transaction in which he has a pecuniary interest, supplies false information for the guidance of others in their business transactions, is subject to liability for pecuniary loss caused to them by their justifiable reliance upon the information, if he fails to exercise reasonable care or competence in obtaining or communicating the information. (2) Except as stated in subsection (3), the liability stated in subsection (1) is limited to loss suffered (a) by the person or one of a limited group of persons for whose benefit and guidance he intends to supply the information or knows that the recipient intends to supply it; and (b) through reliance upon it in a transaction that he intends the information to influence or knows that the recipient so intends or in a substantially similar transaction. (3) The liability of one who is under a public duty to give the information extends to loss suffered by any of the class of persons for whose benefit the duty is created, in any of the transactions in which it is intended to protect them." See also Caparo v. Dickman References