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This article is incomplete and may require expansion or cleanup. Please help to improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (February 2009) Countries with a Muslim majority or plurality. Part of the Politics series on Islamism Basic topics Political aspects of Islam Client state Internationalism Islamic fundamentalism Pan-Islamism Shariah Ummah Antinationalism Postcolonialism Movements All-India Muslim League Muslim Brotherhood · Hamas Hizb-ut-Tahrir Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Manifestations Islamization Islamic economics Sex segregation Resistance movements Concepts Khilafah · Ummah Shariah Key texts The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal) Milestones (Qutb) Islamic Government (Khomeini)   Islam Portal Politics portal v · d · e Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state — often a Caliphate.[1] As a form of religious nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from other pan-nationalistic ideologies, for example Pan-Arabism, by excluding culture and ethnicity as primary factors towards unification. Contents 1 Mujahideen 2 History 3 See also 4 Further reading 5 References 6 External links Mujahideen Main article: Mujahideen Further information: Islamic mujahid movement, Arab Mujahideen in Chechnya, Islamic International Brigade, and 055 Brigade The concept of mujahideen volunteer Islamist fighters is closely related to pan-Islamic thought. Mujahideen may come from all over the Islamic world to assist in a conflict that they deem to be religiously important. History The model pan-Islamism aims for is the early years of Islam — the reign of Muhammad and the early caliphate — when the Muslim world was thought to be strong and uncorrupted in one united state. In the modern era, Pan-Islamism was championed by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani who sought unity among Muslims to resist colonial occupation of Muslim lands. Although sometimes described as "liberal",[2] al-Afghani did not advocate constitutional government but simply envisioned “the overthrow of individual rulers who were lax or subservient to foreigners, and their replacement by strong and patriotic men.”[3] In a review of the theoretical articles of his Paris-base newspaper there was nothing "favoring political democracy or parliamentarianism,” according to his biographer.[3] While Afghani's interest in Islamic law and theology was scant,[4] later Pan-Islamism in the post-colonial world was strongly associated with Islamism. Leading Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb, Abul Ala Maududi, and Ayatollah Khomeini all stressed their belief that a return to traditional Sharia law would make Islam united and strong again. In the period of decolonialism following World War II, Arab nationalism overshadowed Islamism. In the Arab world secular pan-Arab parties — Baath and Nasserist parties - had offshoots in almost every Arab country, and took power in Egypt, Libya, Iraq and Syria. Islamists suffered severe repression; its major thinker Sayyid Qutb, was imprisoned, underwent torture and was later executed. Following the defeat of Arab armies in the Six-Day War, Islamism and Pan-Islam began to reverse their relative position of popularity with nationalism and pan-Arabism. In 1979 the Iranian Revolution ousted Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi from power, and ten years later the Afghan Muslim mujahideen successfully forced the Soviet Union from Afghanistan. These events galvanised Islamists the world over and heightened their popularity with the Muslim public. Throughout the Middle-East, and in particular Egypt, the various branches of the Muslim Brotherhood have significantly challenged the secular nationalist or monarchical Muslim governments. In Pakistan the Jamaat-e-Islami enjoyed popular support especially since the formation of the MMA, and in Algeria the FIS was expected to win the cancelled elections in 1992. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Hizb-ut-Tahrir has emerged as a Pan-Islamist force in Central Asia and in the last five years has developed some support from the Arab world.[5] See also Caliphate Ummah Shi'a–Sunni relations Muslim unity Diaspora Divisions of the world in Islam Organisations: Bosnian mujahideen Muslim Brotherhood Hizb ut-Tahrir History: Khilafat Movement Silk Letter Conspiracy Further reading Azmi Özcan. Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain (1877-1924), Brill Academic Publishers, 1997, ISBN 9-004-10180-2. Nazir Ahmad Khan Chaudri. Commonwealth of Muslim States: a plea for Pan-Islamism, al-Ahibba (Friends of the Muslim World Muhibban-e-Alam-e-Islami), 1972. M. Naeem Qureshi. Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics: A Study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918-1924, Brill Academic Publishers, 1999, ISBN 9-004-10214-0. Malik, S. K. (1986). The Quranic Concept of War. Himalayan Books. ISBN 8170020204.  Swarup, Ram (1982). Understanding Islam through Hadis. Voice of Dharma. ISBN 0-682-49948-X.  Trifkovic, Serge (2006). Defeating Jihad. Regina Orthodox Press, USA. ISBN 192865326X.  Landau, Jacob M. (1990). The Politics of Pan-Islam: Ideology and Organization. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-827709-1.  Phillips, Melanie (2006). Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within. Encounter books. ISBN 1-59403-144-4.  References ^ Ottomanism, Pan-Islamism, and the Caliphate; Discourse at the Turn of the 20th Century, American University in Cairo, The Middle East Studies Program ^ such as by a contemporary English admirer, Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, (see: Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt (London: Unwin, 1907), p. 100.) ^ a b Nikki R. Keddie, Sayyid Jamal ad-Din “al-Afghani”: A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), pp. 225-26. ^ Faith and Power by Edward Mortimer Vintage; Vintage Books, 1982 ^ Hizb-ut-Tahrir's Growing Appeal in the Arab World Jamestown Foundation External links Pan-Islamism in Oxford Islamic Studies Online al-Afghani's Vision of a Pan-Islamic Civilization al-Afghani Bibliography v · d · eIslamism Ideology Islamic fundamentalism · Pan-Islamism · Wahabbism · Salafism  · Deobandi · Qutbism · Al-Qaedaism/Jihadi international · Talibanization Organisations Muslim Brotherhood · Iranian Revolutionary Guards · Jamaat-e-Islami · Hizb ut-Tahrir · al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya · Egyptian Islamic Jihad · Palestinian Islamic Jihad · National Islamic Front · Islamic Salvation Front · Taliban · Abu Sayyaf · al-Qaeda (In the Arabian Peninsula · In Iraq) · Lashkar-e-Taiba · Armed Islamic Group · Islamic Courts Union · Mahdi Army · Fatah al-Islam · Hamas · Hezbollah · Millî Görüş · National Congress (Sudan) Leaders Ibn Taymiyyah · Jamal al-Din al-Afghani · Abul Ala Maududi · Taqiuddin al-Nabhani · Hasan al-Banna · Sayyid Qutb · Omar Abdel-Rahman · Abdullah Yusuf Azzam · Ayman al-Zawahiri · Yusuf al-Qaradawi · Hassan al-Turabi · Safwat al-Shwadify · Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri  · Anwar al-Awlaki  · Ahmad Yassin  · Ruhollah Khomeini · Necmettin Erbakan  · Hassan Nasrallah Events and controversies Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization · Iranian Revolution · Grand Mosque Seizure · Islamization of the Gaza Strip · Islamic terrorism · Islamofascism · Fatwa on Terrorism · Criticism of Islamism Islamic concepts Sex segregation · Jihad · Shari'a · Caliphate · Islamic republic · Jahiliyya · Hadith · Mujahedeen · Ummah · Kafir · Takfiri · Mahdi · Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists · Political aspects of Islam · Fiqh · Islamic studies  · Taqiyya  · Ketman Texts Milestones (Qutb) · The System of Islam (Nabhani) · Islamic Government (Khomeini) · The Quranic Concept of War (Malik)