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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2007) This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. See the talk page for details. WikiProject Pharmacology or the Pharmacology Portal may be able to help recruit an expert. (February 2009) A 0.2 micrometre luer lock syringe filter that is not a "wheel filter" type shape. A syringe filter (sometimes called wheel filter due to its wheel-like shape) is a single-use filter cartridge. It is attached to the end of a syringe for use. Syringe filters may have Luer lock fittings, though not universally so. The use of a needle is optional; where desired it may be fitted to the end of the syringe filter. A syringe filter generally consists of a plastic housing with a membrane which serves as a filter. The fluid to be purified may be cleaned by drawing it up the syringe through the filter, or by forcing the unfiltered fluid out, through the filter. Contents 1 Forms 2 Application 3 Harm reduction in recreational drug use 4 See also 5 References 6 External links // Forms In scientific applications, the most common sizes available are 0.2 or 0.22 µm and 0.45 µm pores. These sizes are sufficient for HPLC use. Membrane diameters of 10 mm, 13 mm, 25 mm are common as well. Some syringe filters for small volumes may be not resemble a wheel at all. The syringe filter body may be made of such materials as polypropylene and nylon. The filter membrane may be of PTFE, nylon, or other treated products for specific purposes. Most manufacturers publish compatibility wallcharts advising users of compatibility between their products and organic solvents or corrosive liquids (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid). Application Syringe filters may be used to remove particles from a sample, prior to analysis by HPLC. Particles easily damage an HPLC due to the narrow bore and high pressures within. Syringe filters are quite suitable for Schlenk line work, which makes extensive use of needles and syringes. (See cannula transfer) Being relatively affordable, they may be used for general purpose filtration, especially of smaller volumes where losses by soaking up filter paper are significant. Syringe filters are also available for the filtration of gases, and for the removal of bacteria from a sample. Harm reduction in recreational drug use See also: harm reduction Syringe filters may be used to filter injectable illegal drugs such as heroin, methadone (Physeptone)*, amphetamines, ecstasy or benzodiazepines. The filter still lets the drug through, but gets rid of many impurities such as fungal spores, bacteria or 'filler' used in the drug. The use of wheel filters is strongly recommended when illicit drug users seek to inject prescription medications such as morphine and benzodiazepines that come in tablet form. Note: Physeptone is methadone in pill form, liquid methadone cannot be injected as it is made particularly to not be injected. Do not attempt trying it, you'll likely be in a hospital the same day. Pills like prescription opiates or benzodiazepines which are often converted by users into crude injectables, have ingredients such as chalk and wax as a 'filler', and illicit drugs are often adulterated with fillers to increase profits. Correctly used, wheel filters greatly reduce these impurities entering the blood stream and will help avoid vein problems such as collapsed veins, abscesses, infections, embolism, 'dirty tastes', disease and septicemia.[citation needed] While wheel filters are the most effective filter available for injecting drug users along with luer lock syringe tip filters, other more common types of filters used include cotton wool, tampons, and cigarette filters. While these can serve as basic filters, they have a greater risk of bacterial infection or contamination from pieces of the filter itself. The condition known as cotton fever is caused by cotton used as a filter. See also Microfiltration Adulteration Drug injection References Loxley, W., International Journal of Drug Policy,11 (6),Doing the possible: harm reduction, injecting drug use and blood borne viral infections in Australia pp. 407-416 External links Information on harm reduction strategies when using illicit drugs, from the Queensland Injectors Health Network Another guide for injecting drug users, from the New Zealand Needle Exchange Programme