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For other places named Salamanca, see Salamanca (disambiguation). Salamanca View of Salamanca Flag Coat of arms Location of Salamanca in Spain Coordinates: 40°58′N 5°40′W / 40.967°N 5.667°W / 40.967; -5.667 Country  Spain Autonomous community  Castile and León Province Salamanca Government  - Mayor Alfonso Fernando Fernández Mañueco (Partido Popular) Area  - Total 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) Elevation 802 m (2,631 ft) Population (2010)  - Total metropolitan:213,399 city:154,462  - Density 4,034/km2 (10,448/sq mi) Time zone CET (UTC+1)  - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) Area code(s) 34 (Spain) + 923 (Salamanca) Website www.salamanca.es Old Cathedral of Salamanca, built in the 12th century. New Cathedral of Salamanca, built in the 16th century. Monterrey Palace (16th century). Tower del Clavero (15th century). Salamanca is a city in western Spain, in the community of Castile and León. Because it is known for its beautiful buildings and urban environment, the Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. It is the most important university city in Spain and is known for its contributions to the teaching of the Spanish language.[1] Salamanca supplies 16% of Spain's market[2] and attracts thousands of international students,[3] generating a diverse multicultural environment. It is situated approximately 200 km (124 mi) west of Madrid and 80 km (50 mi) east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca, which was founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university. With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, the economic engine of the city. Salamanca is the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community of Castile and Leon (Castilla y León). With a metropolitan population around 192,000 it is the second most populated urban area in Castile and Leon, after the capital Valladolid (369,000), and closely followed by Leon (187,000) and Burgos (176,000). Contents 1 History 2 Main sights 2.1 Squares and public spaces 2.2 Religious buildings 2.3 University buildings 2.4 Palaces and palatial houses 2.5 Museums 2.6 Others 3 University 4 Geography 4.1 Climate 5 Economy 5.1 Agriculture and livestock rearing 5.2 Industry 6 Communications 6.1 Railroad 6.2 Road 6.3 Airport 6.4 Public transport 7 Culture and sports 7.1 Twin towns — Sister cities 8 More gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External links History The city was founded in the pre-Ancient Rome period by the Vacceos, a Celtic tribe, as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river. In the 3rd century BC, Hannibal laid siege to the city. With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans, the city of Helmantica, as it was known, began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania due to its favorable location. Salamanca lay on a Roman road, known as the Vía de la Plata, which connected it with Emerita Augusta (present day Mérida) to the south and Asturica Augusta (present-day Astorga) to the north. Its Roman bridge dates from the first century, and was a part of this road. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the Alans established in Lusitania, and Salamanca was part of this region. Later the city was conquered by the Visigoths and included in their territory. The city was a already an episcopal see, and signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo Salamanca surrendered to the Moors, led by Musa bin Nusair, in the year 712 AD. For years this area between the south of Duero River and the north of Tormes River, became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al-Andalus rulers. The constant fighting of the Kingdom of León first, and the Kingdom of Castile and León later against the Caliphate depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement. After the battle of Simancas (939) the Christians resettled this area. After the capture of Toledo by Alfonso VI of Castile in 1085, the definitive resettlement of the city took place. Raymond of Burgundy, instructed by his father-in-law Alfonso VI of León, led a group of settlers of various origins in 1102. One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX of León granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca, while formal teaching had existed at least since 1130. Soon it became one of the most significant and prestigious academic centres in Europe. During the XVI century the city reached its medieval splendor (around 6,500 students and a total population of 24,000). During that period the University of Salamanca hosted the most important intellectuals of the time, these groups of mostly-dominicans scholars were designated the School of Salamanca. The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, and founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts, including rights as a corporeal being (right to life), economic rights (own property) and spiritual rights (freedom of thought and to human dignity). In 1551 the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius, physician and anatomist, was in line with the Catholic doctrine. Vesalius came to Salamanca that same year to appear before the board and was acquitted. Salamanca suffered the general decadency of the Kingdom of Castile during the XVII century, but in the XVIII century it had a new reborn. In this period the new baroque Cathedral and main square (Plaza Mayor) were finished. In the Peninsular War of the Napoleonic campaigns, the Battle of Salamanca, fought July 22, 1812, was a serious setback for the French, and a mighty setback for Salamanca, whose western quarter was seriously damaged. The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history; many thousands of men were slaughtered by cannon fire in the space of only a few short hours. In 1988 the old city was declared UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1998 it was declared European Capital of Culture for year 2002 (shared with Bruges). During 14 and 15 October 2005 it hosted the XV the Ibero-American Summits of Heads of State and Governments. Since 1996 Salamanca has been the designated site of the archive of the Spanish Civil War (Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española). The original documents were assembled by the Francoist regime, selectively obtained from the administrative departments of various institutions and organizations during the Spanish Civil War as a repressive instrument used against opposition groups and individuals. [1]. The socialist government moved the Catalan part of the archive to Barcelona in 2006 despite opposition from the local authorities and popular protests. Main sights The Old City of Salamanca was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988. Code Name Location Coordenates 381-001 Old quarter of the city 381-002 Irish College c/ Fonseca, 2 381-003 Iglesia de San Marcos c/ Zamora - Plaza del Ejército 381-004 Iglesia de Sancti Spiritus Sancti Spiritus, 34 381-005 Convento de las Claras c/ de Santa Clara, 2 y 12; c/ del Lucero 2 y 18 381-006 Casa-Convento de Santa Teresa c/ Crespo Rascón, 19 381-007 Iglesia de San Juan de Barbalos Pl. San Juan Bautista, 2 - c/ Luis Sevillano, 2 381-008 Iglesia de San Cristobal Plaza de San Cristobal, 8 Sightseeing in the city, many of them within the «Old quarter», are: Squares and public spaces The city hall of Salamanca near the terrace of the Café Novelty founded in 1905. Plaza Mayor. Convento de San Esteban (16th century) Facade of the church of La Clerecía. Convento de las Agustinas e Iglesia de la Purísima. Colegio Mayor de Santiago el Zebedeo (old Irish College). Colegio de San Ambrosio, is currently the General Archive of the Spanish Civil War. Palacio de Anaya. Casa de las Conchas (House of the Shells). La Salina Palace. La Plaza Mayor: of Baroque style, designed by architects Alberto and Nicolás Churriguera is the most important of public spaces and the heart of the city. Campo de San Francisco: First public garden in the city on grounds of the former convent of San Francisco Real. Huerto de Calixto y Melibea: Garden near to the cathedrals where, some say, lies the plot of the novel La Celestina by Fernando de Rojas. Besides it are remains of the Roman Walls. Plaza del Corrillo: Small square adjacent to the Plaza Mayor. On the left is the Romanesque church of San Martín and the right a series of houses with porches formed by columns of stone completed in pads representing the days of the week (a moon for the Monday, a Mars for Tuesday, etc.). Religious buildings Capilla de la Vera Cruz: Baroque church with Renaissance facade, headquarters of the five hundred year old Brotherhood of the Vera Cruz of Salamanca. It houses countless works of art. Cathedrals: Salamanca has two cathedrals, the Old Cathedral, of the 12th century and of Romanesque style, and the New Cathedral, much larger, built in 16th century of Gothic style and completed in 18th century. The place where it join both is known as Patio Chico and is one of the most charming corners of the city. La Clerecía: currently houses the Pontifical University. Building started in 1617 and was completed 150 years later as the Colegio Real del Espíritu Santo, of the Society of Jesus. The style is Baroque. It difference the school, with an interesting cloister and the church, with an impressive facade of three bodies, two twin towers of 50 meters high and a huge dome. The Clerecía name is because it belonged to the Real Clerecía de San Marcos after the expulsion of the Jesuits. Colegio de Calatrava : Built in 18th century, by initiative of the Order of Calatrava, now houses the Casa de la Iglesia. Convento de las Agustinas e Iglesia de la Purísima: In the church is a painting of the Immaculate Conception painted by Jusepe de Ribera. It is the only construction of totally Italian space and decor in Spain. Convento de las Dueñas (15th century): Highlights the irregular Renaissance cloister. Convento de las Isabeles Convento de San Antonio el Real (1736): de estilo barroco, of Baroque style, its remains were divided between the Lyceum Theatre and a store where it can visit. Convento de San Esteban, of the Dominican fathers (16th century): the plateresque facade, with its shape of arc of triumph, is a jewel of the Salamancan Renaissance. Impressive Baroque altarpiece by José Benito Churrriguera. Also noteworthy is the Cloister of the Kings, Renaissance. Convento de la Anunciación (called de las Úrsulas): Founded by the Archbishop Fonseca in 1512. Stresses the exterior apse of Gothic style. In the inside, the Baroque altarpiece and the tomb of the founder, Renaissance, work by Diego Siloe. Convento de la Trinidad: Former Palacio de Montellano adapted in 16th century to host a Trinitarian convent. Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de la Victoria, of the Order of St. Jerome, completed in 1513, almost destroyed by the French in the early 19th century, the Peninsular War, is now integrated into the manufacturing facilities of the 19th century, of the Grupo Mirat. Ermita de Nuestra Señora de la Misericordia (16th-17th centuries): small Baroque hermitage was begun in 1389 in the Plaza de San Cristobal. Currently very damaged, is a printing, while its bell-gable decorates the church of the Pizarrales neighborhood. Antigua iglesia de las Bernardas work by Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Prototype of the Salamancan churches of the 16th century. Stresses the shell-shaped head. Today it is within the colegio de San José de Calasanz. Iglesia del Carmen de Abajo: Chapel of the Third Order of Caramel integrated in the Convent of San Andrés. It is the only remainder from that referred convent disappeared in 19th century. Iglesia de San Benito: Gothic church built under the patronage of Alonso II de Fonseca, pantheon of the Maldonado family. Iglesia de San Julián: Romanesque church subsequently restored. Iglesia de San Marcos: Romanesque church near the path which ran the North walls of the city. Outside cicular plant has three naves and apses inside. Iglesia de San Martín: Romanesque church with Gothic reforms, Renaissance and Baroque, attached to the Plaza Mayor. Iglesia de San Pablo: Baroque church belonging to the former convent of the Trinitarians, houses the image of Jesus Rescued, much venerated in the city. Parish hosts, governed by the Diocesan Laborer Priests. Iglesia de Santo Tomás Cantuariense: Romanesque church founded in honor of St. Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury in 1175, just five years after his death and two after his canonization. It has three apses and a nave with a wooden roof. Form Parish along with St. Paul, governed by the Diocesan Laborer Priests. University buildings University: Set of buildings that made up the former University of Salamanca, including the Escuelas Mayores, the Escuelas Menores and the Hospital de Estudio (current rectorate). These buildings are situated around the square known as Patio de Escuelas. In this same square is the home of Dr. Álvarez Abarca or of the Doctors of the Queen (15th century), whose facade is Gothic with Renaissance details and is now the Museum of Salamanca. Casa-museo de Unamuno (18th century): former home of the rectors of the university. It preserved as in its time it had Miguel de Unamuno when he took this position. Colegio Mayor de Santiago el Zebedeo, also called "of the Archbishop Fonseca" or "of the Irish" (16th century). Colegio de San Ambrosio (1719): Is currently General Archive of the Spanish Civil War. Houses documents and items seized by the national troops and their allies during and at the end of the Spanish Civil War. While over the entire postwar its basic objective was to preserve the information related to organizations and peoples potentially opposing the Franco regime, and therefore use this information for repressive, since the return of democracy this building would become one of the most important archives that existed in Spain to investigate the historical period of the Second Republic. Many of the documents and objects that still remain in the archive are related to the Freemasonry, including several furniture that has been rebuilt a Masonic Lodge. Colegio Trilingüe: founded in 1554 to the teaching of Latin, Greek and Hebrew. It also preserves part of the original courtyard, remade in 1829, in the Faculty of Physics. Palacio de Anaya was the last headquarters of the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé or Colegio de Anaya founded in 15th century by Don Diego de Anaya, abolished in the early 19th century. Today is the faculty of philology. Next to the building is the iglesia of San Sebastian, former chapel of the college and the Inn, work by Joaquín de Churriguera. Colegio Santa Cruz de Cañizares (16th c.): Music Conservatory. Of it only remains the old chapel, now incorporated into the assembly hall of the conservatory, and the main facade, of plateresque style. Colegio de San Pelayo: founded in the mid 16th century. Since 1990 home to the Faculty of Geography and History. Palaces and palatial houses Casa de las Conchas: built in the late 15th century. of Gothic civil style, its facade is decorated with about 350 shells of scallops, distinctive of the Order of Santiago. Also important are the bars Gothic windows. It currently houses a public library. Casa de Don Diego Maldonado: 16th century Platereque palace. It houses the Hispanic-Brazilian Cultural Foundation and the Centre for Brazilian Studies at the University of Salamanca. Casa de doña María la Brava: 15th century Gothic building, prototype of the noble mansions of the time. Its owner, María Rodríguez de Monroy was the head of one of the two sides in that split the city in the 15th century. Beheaded the murderers of her children. It is located in the Plaza de los Bandos. Casa Lis: Modernist palace of 1905 with iron facade. Built on the walls. It houses the collections of Art Nouveau and Art Deco donated by Manuel Ramos Andrade. . Casa de las Muertes (early 16th century), built by Juan de Álava and named such for the skulls that decorate the facade. Casa del Regidor Ovalle (18th century): in this died Miguel de Unamuno. Casa de Santa Teresa (16th century): The saint Teresa of Ávila stayed here when she visited Salamanca in 1570 to found a convent and here she wrote the poem Vivo sin vivir en mí. Casa de la Tierra (15th century): doorway with arched, Gothic window tracery. Headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Salamanca. Casa de las Viejas (17th century): old workhouse for poors, now the headquarters of the Regional Film Archive of Castile and Leon. Permanent exhibition of equipment related to cinema and its history, owned by Salamancan filmmaker Basilio Martín Patino. Fonda Veracruz : courtyard with wooden galleries in form of dead-end street. Currently catering school. Arias Corvelle Palace (15th century): sgraffito facade very similar to that of San Boal. It houses the School of Fine and Performing Arts of San Eloy. Castellanos Palace (15th-16th centuries): The Palace of the Marquises of Castellanos construction began in the late 15th century, although the facade dates from the late 19th due which combines Gothic and Neoclassical styles. With a powerful Gothic interior courtyard, this building now serves as a hotel. Garci Grande Palace (16th c.): Renaissance doorway and chamfered corner windows unique in the city. Head Office of the Savings Bank (Caja Duero). Monterrey Palace: was built in the 16th century and is of plateresque style. Belongs to the House of Alba and highlight its towers and chimneys. Only it built one of the four parts that composed all designed initially. Orellana Palace (16th c.): building of classical architecture with Mannerist inflence. The courtyard in L shape and the ladder. Rodríguez de Figueroa Palace (1545): has interesting facades at the streets Concejo and Zamora and interior courtyard. Today the Salamanca Casino. La Salina Palace (1546): Renaissance, work by Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Since 1884 is the headquarters of the Provincial Diputation. San Boal Palace (15th c.): facade decorated with sgraffitos. Was School of Commerce and later Faculty of Business. Since 1999 is Hispanic-Japanese Cultural Center of the University of Salamanca. In the same square is the Iglesia de San Boal (17th c.). Solís Palace (15th c.): In this palace were married Philip II of Spain and Maria Manuela of Portugal in 1543. Today it houses the Telefónica. Tower del Aire: is all that remains of the Palace of the dukes of Fermoselle, built in the 15th century. It has beautiful Gothic windows. It is currently a student residence. Tower del Clavero (15th c.): remains of a palace, apparently built by Francisco de Sotomayor, Clavero Staff of the Order of Alcántara, about 1470 . The lower part is quadrangular, while the upper is octagonal adorned with eight cylindrical turrets. Torreón de los Anaya (15th c.): old manor house of Gothic civil style which highlights the mullioned window and the patio de tres lados. For years it was the seat of Institute of Studies of Latin America and Portugal of the University of Salamanca, also known as Palacio de Abrantes. Museums Exterior of the Art Nouveau and Art Deco Museum. Casa Lis. Art Nouveau and Art Deco Museum. Casa Lis Museum of the History of the City Museum of the Trade of Salamanca Casa Museo Unamuno Museum of Automotive History of Salamanca Museum of Salamanca Cathedral Museum Museum of the Convento de San Esteban University Museum - University Library University Collections Bullfighting Museum Collections of the Convento de las Úrsulas Museum of the Convento de Santa Clara Teresian Museum Casa Museo de Zacarías González. House where Zacarías González lived and painted, on the street Alarcón. Permanent Exhibition IERONIMUS. The name of the exhibition: IERONIMUS alludes to Don Jerónimo de Périgueux, famed French-born Spanish bishop by the Diocese of Salamanca in 1102, who was commissioned the construction of the Iglesia de Santa María. This was the event that marked the origin of the 900 Years of Art and History of the Cathedrals of Salamanca. In this tour it can admire amazing places like the one offered by the gazebo next to the Tower del Gallo, the Patio Chico or the Terraza de Anaya. The circuit of the exhibition begins in the Board of Warden, continuing on the Board of the Tower Mocha, the Platform of the Superior Room and the Board of Vault. It accessed from the last tower, next to the gate of Santa Lucía (giving access to the old cathedral). In three of the rooms it can find exposed drawings, documents and religious objects related to the cathedrals, especially with its construction, it can see, both inside and outside the two cathedrals. From the "Sala del Alcaide" enjoy a splendid view of the nave and the altar of the old cathedral, and from the upper platform located on it accurately observe Tower del gallo, as well as views of the tormes and transtormes neighborhoods. It may also enjoy the vaults of the new cathedral, and again on the outside with views of the plaza Anaya, the tower del reloj, the Rua mayor and all the historical centre. Others Theatre Bretón. Now destroyed. Cave of Salamanca. Located on the Carvajal slope, which states that the devil taught black magic. Central Market (1899–1909). Located in the old Plaza de la Verdura. Made of iron. Roman Bridge. Of its arches, fifteen are Roman of the 1st century AC. Nearby are the Mudejar Romanesque church of Santiago (modern reconstruction) and the stone bull quoted in Lazarillo de Tormes. University Plateresque facade of the University of Salamanca. In 1218, Alfonso IX of León founded the University of Salamanca. Under the patronage of the learned Alfonso X, its wealth and reputation greatly increased (1252–1282), and its schools of canon law and civil law attracted students even from the Universities of Paris and Bologna.[when?] In the 16th century, the city's fortunes depended on those of the university. About the time Christopher Columbus was lecturing there on his discoveries, Hernán Cortés took classes at Salamanca, but returned home in 1501 at age 17, without completing his course of study. (About ten years later the conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca.) It was scholars of the University such as Francisco de Vitoria who, heavily influenced by the Paris-based Scottish philosopher John Mair, helped design in 1512 the Laws of Burgos which established the right to life and liberty of the indigenous peoples of America. Ignatius Loyola, while studying at Salamanca in 1527, was brought before an ecclesiastical commission on a charge of sympathy with the Illuminati, but escaped with an admonition. In the next generation St. John of the Cross studied at Salamanca and so did the poet and writer Mateo Aleman. Miguel de Unamuno was a prominent figure of the university in more modern times. Many people continue to come from all parts of Spain to study at the University, and the students represent a significant percentage of the city's population (the University has 36,000 students, approximately). The support of the student population is one of the most important economic activities in the city. These young people (also consisting of international students studying the Spanish language) provide Salamanca with a highly active night life, specially when school is in session on both weekdays and weekends. Among the American universities that sponsor significant summer semester programs are Wake Forest University, Lamar University of Beaumont,Texas and Lamar State College of Port Arthur,Texas and the University of Georgia. This has led Salamanca to be in the top list of cities with the highest bar per inhabitant ratios in Europe, second to Bilbao[citation needed]. Geography The city lies on several hills by the Tormes River, which is crossed by a bridge 150 m long built on 26 arches, fifteen of which are of Roman origin, while the remainder date from the a 16th century reconstruction after a flood. Climate Salamanca's climate is Continental Mediterranean, with cold winters, and hot summers softened by the altitude and dry throughout the year. Climate data for Salamanca Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 18.0 (64.4) 22.5 (72.5) 24.7 (76.5) 29.8 (85.6) 34.7 (94.5) 37.0 (98.6) 39.8 (103.6) 39.6 (103.3) 37.5 (99.5) 30.6 (87.1) 24.5 (76.1) 18.5 (65.3) Average high °C (°F) 7.9 (46.2) 10.8 (51.4) 14.0 (57.2) 15.7 (60.3) 19.7 (67.5) 25.2 (77.4) 29.3 (84.7) 28.7 (83.7) 24.5 (76.1) 18.2 (64.8) 12.4 (54.3) 8.8 (47.8) 17.9 (64.2) Average low °C (°F) -0.7 (30.7) 0.3 (32.5) 1.4 (34.5) 3.5 (38.3) 7.0 (44.6) 10.5 (50.9) 12.8 (55) 12.4 (54.3) 9.0 (48.2) 6.1 (43) 2.2 (36) 0.7 (33.3) 5.5 (41.9) Record low °C (°F) -13.4 (7.9) -10.5 (13.1) -8.2 (17.2) -5.0 (23) -1.4 (29.5) 3.0 (37.4) 5.8 (42.4) 4.5 (40.1) 1.4 (34.5) -4.8 (23.4) -7.6 (18.3) -9.6 (14.7) Precipitation cm (inches) 3.1 (1.22) 2.7 (1.06) 2.2 (0.87) 3.9 (1.54) 4.8 (1.89) 3.4 (1.34) 1.6 (0.63) 1.1 (0.43) 3.2 (1.26) 3.9 (1.54) 4.2 (1.65) 4.2 (1.65) 43.6 (17.17) Avg. precipitation days 6 6 5 7 8 5 3 2 4 7 7 7 66 Source: Agencia Española de Meteorología (1971-2000 climatology) [4] Economy Founded in 1812, S.A. Mirat, is claimed to be the city's oldest industrial business. The city's economy is dominated by the university and tourism, but other sectors including agriculture and livestock rearing along with construction and manufacturing are also significant. Not surprisingly, in December 2007 82.7% of the working population, equivlant to 55,838, were employed in the service sector.[5] Agriculture and livestock rearing The 125 agricultural sector businesses accounted for 839 workers in 2007, or just 1.24% of the working population. Industry Industrial activity accounted for 5% of the working population, or 3,340 workers employed over 360 businesses.[5] Two of the largest businesses, both of them numbered among the largest 100 enterprises in the region, are the veterinary vaccine manufacturer "Laboratorios Intervet", and the fertilizer specialist manufacturers S.A. Mirat, which is the city's oldest industrial company, having been established originally as a starch factory in 1812.[6] Another noteworthy manufacturing business is Luchina - Lizetta, a manufacturer of lingerie and swimwear founded in 1952.[5] Communications A street of the old city of Salamanca. Railroad Renfe has trains to national destinations like Madrid, Barcelona, Valladolid, Zaragoza, while international destinations are Paris (via Irun), Porto and Lisbon Road Highways A50: Autovía de la Cultura: Ávila - Salamanca A62: Autovía de Castilla: Burgos - Valladolid - Salamanca - Ciudad Rodrigo. A66: Autovía Ruta de la Plata: Gijón - Oviedo - Mieres - Puerto de Pajares - León - Benavente - Zamora - Salamanca - Béjar - Plasencia - Mérida - Sevilla. SA-11: North access to Salamanca. SA-20: South access to Salamanca. Old Roman Bridge (1st century BC). Other roads N-501: Ávila - Peñaranda de Bracamonte - Salamanca. N-620: Burgos - Venta de Baños - Valladolid - Tordesillas - Salamanca - Ciudad Rodrigo - Portugal. Airport The airport, located in the military base of Matacán, is located about 14 km east from the city. Thera are regular flights to Barcelona, Paris, and charter flights to Palma de Mallorca and the Canary Islands. In the summer there are also regular flights to Palma de Mallorca, Menorca, Gran Canaria, Málaga and Ibiza. Public transport There are 13 bus lines during the day and one night line. Also, a tram line has been projected.[7] Culture and sports Old City of Salamanca* UNESCO World Heritage Site Country  Spain Type Cultural Criteria i, ii, iv Reference 381 Region** Europe and North America Inscription history Inscription 1988  (12th Session) * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. ** Region as classified by UNESCO. In 2002 Salamanca shared the title of European Capital of Culture with Bruges. Salamanca is a popular tourist destination, especially in the summer. Tourism is the primary economic activity in the city. Salamanca offers the amenities of a larger city while retaining an intimate small town atmosphere. Since 1923, "Los Charros", formally the Union Deportiva Salamanca, have been the Salamanca football team. Salamanca was the setting for the 2008 political thriller Vantage Point, although the movie was almost exclusively filmed in Mexico. The classic dish of the Salamancan, known as Charreria ("peasant lands"), is a cocido, a slow-cooked casserole including chickpeas. A traditional Salmantinian celebration is the Lunes de Aguas, "Water Monday", the Monday after the Sunday following Easter. Originally this served to celebrate the official allowance of the authorities for the prostitutes to return to the city after Lent and Easter. All the shops close and Salmantinos picnic in the countryside to eat a kind of pie called "hornazo". Twin towns — Sister cities See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain Salamanca is twinned with: Bruges, Belgium Buenos Aires, Argentina Coimbra, Portugal Gijón, Asturies, Spain Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain Nîmes, France Würzburg, Germany More gallery Plateresque facade of the University of Salamanca Salamanca viewed from the Old Cathedral New Cathedral of Salamanca Back facade of the Monterrey Palace Plaza Mayor Casa de las Muertes (House of the Deaths) Cloister of Convento de las Dueñas Banco de España Walls of Salamanca The Roman bridge of Salamanca Statue of D. Gonzalo Torrente Ballester located at the literary café: Café Novelty. The oldest of the cafes of Salamanca, which opened in 1905 in the Plaza Mayor of Salamanca. See also Salmanticenses Plaza Mayor, Salamanca References ^ http://www.espanolensalamanca.com Spanish in Salamanca ^ http://www.elcastellano.org/noticia.php?id=972 ^ http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/07/02/castillayleon/1215017453.html ^ "Monthly Averages for Salamanca, Spain". Agencia Española de Meteorología. http://www.aemet.es/es/elclima/datosclimatologicos/valoresclimatologicos?l=2867&k=cle. Retrieved 2009-10-20.  ^ a b c "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". http://www.cajaespana.es/pubweb/decyle.nsf/PorMunicipios/1A918D0B2EB94DAEC1256BB5003CC495/$File/37274.PDF?OpenElement.  ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". http://www.mirat.net/.  ^ Presentan un estudio de viabilidad para la implantación del tranvía en Salamanca External links Media related to Salamanca at Wikimedia Commons Official Tourist Information Office Wiki of the city of Salamanca General information on Salamanca Salamanca travel guide Salamanca: Spain's answer to Oxford by The Guardian Museums (among many other without a webpage): Art Nouveau and Art Decó Museum Casa Lis Car History Museum Cathedral Museum v · d · eWorld Heritage Sites in Spain For official site names, see each article or the List of World Heritage Sites in Spain. North West Caves of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain1 · Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias · Roman Walls of Lugo · Route of Santiago de Compostela1 · Santiago de Compostela · Tower of Hercules North East Caves of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain1 · Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon · Pyrénées - Mont Perdu2 · Rock-Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula1 · Route of Santiago de Compostela1 · San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries · Vizcaya Bridge Community of Madrid Aranjuez Cultural Landscape · El Escorial · University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares Centre Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida · Archaeological Site of Atapuerca · Ávila with its Extra-mural Churches · Burgos Cathedral · Cáceres · Cuenca · Las Médulas · Rock-Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula1 · Route of Santiago de Compostela1 · Salamanca · Santa María de Guadalupe · Segovia and its Aqueduct · Toledo · Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde East Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco, Tarragona · Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí · Ibiza (Biodiversity and Culture) · Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona · Palmeral of Elche · Poblet Monastery · Rock-Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula1 · Silk Exchange in Valencia · Works of Antoni Gaudí South Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzín, Granada · Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias, Seville · Córdoba · Doñana · Renaissance Monuments of Úbeda and Baeza · Rock-Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula1 Canary Islands Garajonay · San Cristóbal de La Laguna · Teide National Park 1 Shared with other region/s · 2 Shared with France v · d · eEuropean Capitals of Culture 1985 Athens · 1986 Florence · 1987 Amsterdam · 1988 West Berlin · 1989 Paris · 1990 Glasgow · 1991 Dublin · 1992 Madrid · 1993 Antwerp · 1994 Lisbon · 1995 Luxembourg City · 1996 Copenhagen · 1997 Thessaloniki · 1998 Stockholm · 1999 Weimar · 2000 Reykjavík · Bergen · Helsinki · Brussels · Prague · Kraków · Santiago de Compostela · Avignon · Bologna · 2001 Rotterdam · Porto · 2002 Bruges · Salamanca · 2003 Graz · 2004 Genoa · Lille · 2005 Cork · 2006 Patras · 2007 Luxembourg City and Greater Region · Sibiu · 2008 Liverpool · Stavanger · 2009 Linz · Vilnius · 2010 Essen · Istanbul · Pécs · 2011 Turku · Tallinn · 2012 Maribor · Guimarães · 2013 Košice · Marseille · 2014 Umeå · Riga · 2015 Mons · Plzeň · 2016 San Sebastián · Wrocław v · d · eMunicipalities in the province of Salamanca Abusejo · Agallas · Ahigal de Villarino · Ahigal de los Aceiteros · Alaraz · Alba de Tormes · Alba de Yeltes · Alconada · Aldea del Obispo · Aldeacipreste · Aldeadávila de la Ribera · Aldealengua · Aldeanueva de Figueroa · Aldeanueva de la Sierra · Aldearrodrigo · Aldearrubia · Aldeaseca de Alba · Aldeaseca de la Frontera · Aldeatejada · Aldeavieja de Tormes · Aldehuela de Yeltes · Aldehuela de la Bóveda · Almenara de Tormes · Almendra · Anaya de Alba · Arabayona de Mógica · Arapiles · Arcediano · Armenteros · Añover de Tormes · Babilafuente · Barbadillo · Barbalos · Barceo · Barruecopardo · Bañobárez · Beleña · Bermellar · Berrocal de Huebra · Berrocal de Salvatierra · Boada · Bogajo · Brincones · Buenamadre · Buenavista · Béjar · Bóveda del Río Almar · Cabeza del Caballo · Cabezabellosa de la Calzada · Cabrerizos · Cabrillas · Calvarrasa de Abajo · Calvarrasa de Arriba · Calzada de Don Diego · Calzada de Valdunciel · Campillo de Azaba · Candelario · Canillas de Abajo · Cantagallo · Cantalapiedra · Cantalpino · Cantaracillo · Carbajosa de la Sagrada · Carpio de Azaba · Carrascal de Barregas · Carrascal del Obispo · Casafranca · Casillas de Flores · Castellanos de Moriscos · Castellanos de Villiquera · Castillejo de Martín Viejo · Castraz · Cepeda · Cereceda de la Sierra · Cerezal de Peñahorcada · Cerralbo · Cespedosa de Tormes · Chagarcía Medianero · Cilleros de la Bastida · Cipérez · Ciudad Rodrigo · Coca de Alba · Colmenar de Montemayor · Cordovilla · Cristóbal de la Sierra · Dios le Guarde · Doñinos de Ledesma · Doñinos de Salamanca · Ejeme · El Arco · El Bodón · El Cabaco · El Campo de Peñaranda · El Cerro · El Cubo de Don Sancho · El Manzano · El Maíllo · El Milano · El Payo · El Pedroso de la Armuña · El Pino de Tormes · El Sahugo · El Tejado · El Tornadizo · Encina de San Silvestre · Encinas de Abajo · Encinas de Arriba · Encinasola de los Comendadores · Endrinal · Escurial de la Sierra · Espadaña · Espeja · Espino de la Orbada · Florida de Liébana · Forfoleda · Frades de la Sierra · Fresnedoso · Fresno Alhándiga · Fuenteguinaldo · Fuenteliante · Fuenterroble de Salvatierra · Fuentes de Béjar · Fuentes de Oñoro · Gajates · Galindo y Perahuy · Galinduste · Galisancho · Gallegos de Argañán · Gallegos de Solmirón · Garcibuey · Garcihernández · Garcirrey · Gejuelo del Barro · Golpejas · Gomecello · Guadramiro · Guijo de Ávila · Guijuelo · Herguijuela de Ciudad Rodrigo · Herguijuela de la Sierra · Herguijuela del Campo · Hinojosa de Duero · Horcajo Medianero · Horcajo de Montemayor · Huerta · Iruelos · Ituero de Azaba · Juzbado · La Alameda de Gardón · La Alamedilla · La Alberca · La Alberguería de Argañán · La Atalaya · La Bastida · La Bouza · La Cabeza de Béjar · La Calzada de Béjar · La Encina · La Fregeneda · La Fuente de San Esteban · La Hoya · La Mata de Ledesma · La Maya · La Orbada · La Peña · La Redonda · La Rinconada de la Sierra · La Sagrada · La Sierpe · La Tala · La Vellés · La Vídola · La Zarza de Pumareda · Lagunilla · Larrodrigo · Las Casas del Conde · Las Veguillas · Ledesma · Ledrada · Linares de Riofrío · Los Santos · Lumbrales · Machacón · Macotera · Madroñal · Malpartida · Mancera de Abajo · Martiago · Martinamor · Martín de Yeltes · Masueco · Matilla de los Caños del Río · Membribe de la Sierra · Mieza · Miranda de Azán · Miranda del Castañar · Mogarraz · Molinillo · Monforte de la Sierra · Monleras · Monleón · Monsagro · Montejo · Montemayor del Río · Monterrubio de Armuña · Monterrubio de la Sierra · Morasverdes · Morille · Moriscos · Moronta · Moríñigo · Mozárbez · Narros de Matalayegua · Nava de Béjar · Nava de Francia · Nava de Sotrobal · Navacarros · Navales · Navalmoral de Béjar · Navamorales · Navarredonda de la Rinconada · Navasfrías · Negrilla de Palencia · Olmedo de Camaces · Pajares de la Laguna · Palacios del Arzobispo · Palaciosrubios · Palencia de Negrilla · Parada de Arriba · Parada de Rubiales · Paradinas de San Juan · Pastores · Pedraza de Alba · Pedrosillo de Alba · Pedrosillo de los Aires · Pedrosillo el Ralo · Pelabravo · Pelarrodríguez · Pelayos · Peralejos de Abajo · Peralejos de Arriba · Pereña de la Ribera · Peromingo · Peñacaballera · Peñaparda · Peñaranda de Bracamonte · Peñarandilla · Pinedas · Pitiegua · Pizarral · Poveda de las Cintas · Pozos de Hinojo · Puebla de Azaba · Puebla de San Medel · Puebla de Yeltes · Puente del Congosto · Puertas · Puerto Seguro · Puerto de Béjar · Retortillo · Robleda · Robliza de Cojos · Rollán · Rágama · Saelices el Chico · Salamanca · Saldeana · Salmoral · Salvatierra de Tormes · San Cristóbal de la Cuesta · San Esteban de la Sierra · San Felices de los Gallegos · San Martín del Castañar · San Miguel de Valero · San Miguel del Robledo · San Morales · San Muñoz · San Pedro de Rozados · San Pedro del Valle · San Pelayo de Guareña · Sanchotello · Sanchón de la Ribera · Sanchón de la Sagrada · Sancti-Spíritus · Sando · Santa Marta de Tormes · Santa María de Sando · Santiago de la Puebla · Santibáñez de Béjar · Santibáñez de la Sierra · Santiz · Sardón de los Frailes · Saucelle · Sepulcro-Hilario · Sequeros · Serradilla del Arroyo · Serradilla del Llano · Sieteiglesias de Tormes · Sobradillo · Sorihuela · Sotoserrano · Tabera de Abajo · Tamames · Tarazona de Guareña · Tardáguila · Tejeda y Segoyuela · Tenebrón · Terradillos · Topas · Tordillos · Torresmenudas · Trabanca · Tremedal de Tormes · Valdecarros · Valdefuentes de Sangusín · Valdehijaderos · Valdelacasa · Valdelageve · Valdelosa · Valdemierque · Valderrodrigo · Valdunciel · Valero · Vallejera de Riofrío · Valsalabroso · Valverde de Valdelacasa · Valverdón · Vecinos · Vega de Tirados · Ventosa del Río Almar · Villaflores · Villagonzalo de Tormes · Villalba de los Llanos · Villamayor · Villanueva del Conde · Villar de Argañán · Villar de Ciervo · Villar de Gallimazo · Villar de Peralonso · Villar de Samaniego · Villar de la Yegua · Villares de Yeltes · Villares de la Reina · Villarino de los Aires · Villarmayor · Villarmuerto · Villasbuenas · Villasdardo · Villaseco de los Gamitos · Villaseco de los Reyes · Villasrubias · Villaverde de Guareña · Villavieja de Yeltes · Villoria · Villoruela · Vilvestre · Vitigudino · Yecla de Yeltes · Zamarra · Zamayón · Zarapicos · Zorita de la Frontera v · d · eCapitals of Provinces of Spain A Coruña · Albacete · Alicante · Almería · Ávila · Badajoz · Barcelona · Bilbao · Burgos · Cáceres · Cadiz · Castellón de la Plana · Ciudad Real · Córdoba · Cuenca · Donostia-San Sebastián · Girona · Granada · Guadalajara · Huelva · Huesca · Jaén · Logroño · Las Palmas de Gran Canaria · León · Lleida · Lugo · Madrid · Málaga · Murcia · Ourense · Oviedo · Palencia · Palma, Majorca · Pamplona · Pontevedra · Salamanca · Santander · Santa Cruz · Segovia · Seville · Soria · Tarragona · Teruel · Toledo · Valencia · Valladolid · Vitoria-Gasteiz · Zamora · Zaragoza Coordinates: 40°57′42″N 5°40′03″W / 40.961612°N 5.667607°W / 40.961612; -5.667607